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Finding the Muse

由专筑网雷君,杨帆编译

景观建筑师苏珊科恩在她的新书《环境启发》中探讨了21个国际领先的景观建筑师的创作过程。在这里我们呈现了书中的摘录,以及项目中的一些两点。

首先,世界建筑编辑问了苏珊几个问题,关于书中所写的:康涅狄格州的景观设计师和纽约植物园的景观设计方案之间的协调之处。


世界建筑:你的灵感来自哪里,你是否会写一本关于景观设计师灵感的书籍?

苏珊:当我接到来自出版社的电话,向我提议出一本关于景观建筑的书,我刚和一组设计师们谈论了他们最喜欢的花园的话题。这引起了他们对于工作灵感的讨论,反过来也引起了我写书的想法。

你为何选择21位设计师来作为你书中的主角?

在写书之前,我就听了许多关于景观建筑的讲座。在这些设计师身上,我看到了激情,还有各种各样国际化的景观建筑类型和规模。有些趣事就成了我写书的灵感。

你怎样选择能代表你灵感的建筑作品?

我和设计师们一起选择合适的建筑项目。比如Kongjian Yu,我选择了两组截然不同的作品,但却都受到了他童年农作经历的启发。

你在写书过程中学到了什么,或者说哪种类型的景观建筑更为潮流?

我认为在设计的过程中,灵感能带来无限的可能性,出乎意料的,甚至是很神秘的。

In her new book, The Inspired Lansdcape, landscape architect Susan Cohen explores the creative process of 21 leading international landscape architects. Here we present an excerpt from the book and highlight just a few of the projects found in its pages.
First, World-Architects asked a few questions to Susan Cohen, the Connecticut-based landscape architect and coordinator of the Landscape Design Program at the New York Botanical Garden, about The Inspired Landscape.

World-Architects: What was your inspiration, if you will, in deciding to write a book about the inspirations of landscape architects?
Susan Cohen: When I received a call from Timber Press suggesting I might propose a book about landscape architecture for publication, I had just had a conversation with a group of designers about their favorite gardens. That led to a discussion about inspirations in their work, and that, in turn, led to the idea for my book.

How did you select the 21 designers to feature in the book?
Before the book was in my mind, I had heard many lectures in which landscape architects discussed their work. For the book I looked for passionate designers, a variety of landscape types and scales and a range of international locations. Of course, I especially listened for stories where there was a clear spark of inspiration.

In turn, how did you select the projects that are the focus of your exploration of inspiration?
The designers and I looked at their projects, and we decided together which one would be most appropriate. For Kongjian Yu, I could not resist using two projects that were very different from each other but both inspired by his farming childhood.

What did you learn from writing the book, perhaps in terms of what direction(s) landscape architecture is heading?
What I learned most from writing this book is that landscape architects, by training and inclination, are able to draw design ideas from an inexhaustible well of inspiration, in a process that can be unexpected, and even mysterious.

寻找灵感的缪斯第2张图片
Cover image courtesy of Timber Press

通过各种项目的实践经验,景观建筑师能够辨别既定选址的可能性。他们知道太阳如何在天空中移动,影子在哪里降落,风吹向哪里,哪些植物生长良好,还有人们最有可能聚集的地方。他们懂得分析现有的土壤,以及如何适应自然环境和周围环境的塑造。最重要的是,他们懂得如何满足人们的需求。

然而就像音乐家、画家、诗人和雕塑家一样,最好的景观建筑师也是艺术家。他们通过自己的技术、想象力和手中的材料来设计出新颖的东西,并且经过岁月的考验。就像所有的艺术家一样,他们从灵感出发,绞尽脑汁创造出独一无二的景观建筑,就像完成一件艺术品。

本书探讨和说明了他们那些想法的来源-----在美国、加拿大,英国、苏格兰、德国、法国、意大利、以色列、中国和日本的二十一个杰出的景观设计师的成功项目。虽然他们的一些想法和方法有共同性,但每一个创造的景观是独一无二的,所有的景观建筑师都有着他们自己的灵感故事。

景观建筑师的灵感和现场场地给项目带来的影响是不同的,这一点都不出奇。他们彼此之间也都产生了共鸣。

The following is taken from The Inspired Landscape © Copyright 2015 by Susan Cohen. Published by Timber Press, Portland, OR. Used by permission of the publisher. All rights reserved.
"Finding the Muse," Introduction from The Inspired Landscape by Susan Cohen
Through training and experience, landscape architects have the ability to recognize the possibilities of a given site as well as its constraints. They know how the sun will move across the sky and where the shadows will fall, how the wind will blow, which plants will grow well, where the best views might be, and where people are most likely to walk or gather. They know how to analyze the existing soil and how to accommodate both natural conditions and the surrounding built environment. Most importantly, they understand how to meet the needs of people who will use the space.
However, like musicians, painters, poets, and sculptors, the best landscape architects are also artists. They use their skills, their imaginations, and the materials of their craft to create something new, works that move and change through time. And like all artists, they must begin with an idea; they must invoke their muses to create a singular landscape that is also a work of art.
This book explores and illustrates the sources of these ideas in the work of twenty-one outstanding landscape architects in their successful projects in the United States, Canada, England, Scotland, Germany, France, Italy, Israel, China, and Japan. Although there are threads that link some of their thoughts and methods, each created landscape is unique, and all the landscape architects have a story to tell about how the spark of a design idea—inspiration—came to them.
It is no surprise that the inspirations and influences for their projects are as varied as the landscape architects who made them and the sites on which they worked. And yet many projects here resonate with each other.

寻找灵感的缪斯第3张图片
L: Signe Nielsen: Fulton Landing, Brooklyn, NY, USA (Photo courtesy of MNLA). R: Gary Hilderbrand: Old Quarry Residence, Guilford, CT, USA (Photo: Charles Mayer)

例如,尼尔森的纽约布鲁克林的一个小城市公园,与加里希尔德布兰德在康涅狄格州吉尔福德的住宅物业就非常不同。

但这两种景观建筑师都重视滨水空间的历史用途,从几个世纪以来的海岸线活动中汲取灵感。尼尔森的灵感包括美国土著人曾经住在这里的装饰图案,以及沃尔特怀特曼的著名诗句“穿越布鲁克林渡口“,主要讲述的是富尔顿渡轮离开了雄伟的布鲁克林大桥附近的场地。希尔德布兰德惊叹于壮观的石头碎片的景观,大片的旧花岗岩采石场为第十九世纪的自由女神像基地提供了基石。没有像其他人所做的那样带走这些数以吨记的被遗弃的石头,希尔德布兰德用自己的方式使它成为既实用又巧妙的财产。这样做时,他为这积聚着有经验的数百石匠人的作品感到骄傲,他们中的大多数来自欧洲的移民。

巧合的是,两个景观设计师同样受天然荒漠现象的启发:建立防止间歇性洪水暴雨次数的河床。什洛莫阿伦森在以色列的内盖夫沙漠本古里安大学设计了一个聚会的地点。他设计的Kreitman广场,有蜿蜒的溪水花园,收集雨水系统和卡普里岛休闲花园。

For instance, Signe Nielsen’s Fulton Landing, a small urban park in Brooklyn, New York, is very different from Gary Hilderbrand’s residential property in Guilford, Connecticut. But both landscape architects turned to the historical uses of their waterfront sites, drawing inspiration from the shoreline activities of centuries past. Nielsen’s influences include the decorative patterns of Native Americans who once lived here, Walt Whitman’s famous poem “Crossing Brooklyn Ferry,” about the Fulton Ferry that departed from this location, and the magnificent Brooklyn Bridge adjacent to the site. Hilderbrand was struck by the extensive stone debris that littered his clients’ property, remnants of the extensive old granite quarry that had provided the stone for the base of the Statue of Liberty in the nineteenth century. Instead of carting away tons of this abandoned stone, as many of the neighbors had done, Hilderbrand used it throughout the property in ways both practical and artful. In doing so, he felt he honored the work of the hundreds of experienced stonemasons, most of them immigrants from Europe, who had toiled here a hundred years earlier.
By coincidence, two landscape architects were similarly inspired by a natural desert phenomenon: the streambeds that carry intermittent floodwaters in times of heavy rain. Desert wadis, as they are called in the Middle East, sparked Shlomo Aronson’s design for a gathering place at Ben-Gurion University in Israel’s Negev Desert. His evocative stone wadi at Kreitman Plaza, which runs continuously with burbling water, shares kinship with a winding garden creek that collects rainwater in Christine Ten Eyck’s Capri Lounge garden in Marfa, Texas, where such desert washes are called arroyos.

寻找灵感的缪斯第4张图片
L: Shlomo Aronson: Kreitman Plaza, Beersheba, Israel (Photo courtesy of TCLF). R: Christine Ten Eyck: Capri Lounge, Marfa, TX, USA (Photo courtesy of Ten Eyck Landscape Architects)

对其他人来说,一个单一的艺术作品为发明创造了灵感。纽约植物园的草图设计概念,灵感就来源于希拉布雷迪去参观一个博物馆时的发现,在参观马丁普里尔的木雕时,她被一个大池塘的抽象形状启发灵感,想出新的花园的中央特征。科妮莉亚奥伯伦德尔曾称赞19世纪的摄影师卡尔布洛斯菲尔特,在其开创工作以来,发现他的照片中有温哥华的一个绿色屋顶中轻轻起伏的兰叶这一视觉。关于Sunnylands中心和花园的设计,杰姆斯伯内特由梵高画的麦田与柏树启发出灵感,鼓励使用耐旱植物,在南加利福尼亚沙漠创造出一个出乎意料的郁郁葱葱的景观。

所有景观建筑师研究园林史来作为他们训练的一部分,大多数游客倾向于花园无论新旧。因此,他们产生回归到过去的想法也不足为奇。汤姆受英国乡村庄园的主人邀请,在距离庄园之家不远的一片倾斜的土地上,参照意大利著名的第十七世纪朗特别墅,设计一个梯田式的有围墙的花园。而在罗马的美国科学院,劳丽创造了借鉴古代和文艺复兴时期风格的意大利花园,研究、勾勒、拍照,他用几个法子和细节进行重新演绎。他在纽约现代艺术博物馆设计的屋顶,激发了Ken Smith的灵感,于1958年创造了两个花园:电影我的舅舅和巴黎联合国教科文组织总部的合成。对于Shunmyo Masuno,景观设计师和禅宗和尚的设计,是几百年来日本造园传统的一部分。

For others, a single work of art provided the spark of invention. While sketching design concepts for the Native Plant Garden at the New York Botanical Garden, Sheila Brady took time out to visit a museum and found, in a wood sculpture by Martin Puryear, her inspiration for the abstract shape of a large pond, the new garden’s central feature. Similarly, Cornelia Oberlander, who has admired the pioneering work of the nineteenth-century photographer Karl Blossfeldt since her childhood days in Germany, found the vision for the form of a green roof in Vancouver in his photograph of a gently undulating orchid leaf. For the Sunnylands Center and Gardens, James Burnett was encouraged by Vincent Van Gogh’s painting A Wheatfield with Cypresses to use drought-tolerant plants in large sweeps, creating an unexpectedly lush landscape in the southern California desert.
All landscape architects study garden history as part of their training, and most are inveterate visitors to gardens old and new. So it is not surprising that they reach back to gardens of the past for ideas. Tom Stuart-Smith, invited by the owner of an English country estate to make a walled garden on a sloping piece of land not far from the manor house, created an imaginative terraced composition that references the famous seventeenth-century Villa Lante in Italy. While in Rome at the American Academy, Laurie Olin made countless visits to both ancient and Renaissance-period Italian gardens, which he studied, sketched, and photographed. He used several ideas and details from these gardens in his landscape redesign at the academy. For his roof at the Museum of Modern Art in New York, Ken Smith cited as inspiration two gardens created in 1958: the patently synthetic garden in the film Mon Oncle and Isamu Noguchi’s rooftop Peace Garden at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris. For Shunmyo Masuno, a landscape architect and Zen Buddhist priest, remembered landscapes are part of a centuries-old tradition of garden making in Japan.

寻找灵感的缪斯第5张图片
L: Ryoko Ueyama: Kitamachi Shimashima Park, Saitama, Japan (Photo courtesy of Ryoko Ueyama Landscape Design Studio). R: Park Duisburg Nord, Duisburg, Germany (Photo courtesy of Latz + Partners)

一些景观建筑师从选址本身找到自己的灵感。在寻找“土地的记忆”概念时,景观设计师良子被位于直接两山之间的东京北部公园的4英亩选址所振奋,其中一个是富士山。她把这巧合称作“神圣的声明,”她强调了斜条纹贯穿公园的长模式设计。在德国的杜伊斯堡,拉兹被在工业现场的巨大的废弃混凝土和铁的结构所震撼,发现了实用又巧妙的方法,将其纳入他的设计当中,建设出新的公共公园。

其他人会从童年记忆中闪现灵感。Kongjian Yu,他记住的是中国农村的稻田和所经过的路径,作为一个男孩,他经常要带领村里的水牛去吃草。史蒂芬史汀生成长于马萨诸塞州的一个农场。果园种植的树木和凳子一样,被沉重的金属扣住,他在麻州大学的项目中运用了这点。基姆威尔基童年时痴迷于对伊拉克、马来西亚神庙和古代美索不达米亚的研究,以及迷恋于一切神圣和神秘的魅力。这些早期的兴趣激发了他在英格兰北安普敦的奥菲斯地貌的设计项目的灵感。

伟大的景观建筑师,与其他艺术家一样,能够从不同地方获得灵感:一个地方,一首诗,一幅画,一个记忆花园,一个路径,童年时期或是一片叶子的形状。从这些展示的作品来看,古代的建筑仍然能为今天的景观设计师提供灵感。

Some landscape architects find their muse in the site itself. In looking for the “memories of the land,” landscape architect Ryoko Ueyama was thrilled to discover that her 4-acre site for a park north of Tokyo was located directly on the axis between two mountains, one of which is the iconic Mount Fuji. Calling this coincidence a “divine pronouncement,” she emphasized this line in her design with a diagonal pattern of stripes that runs the length of the park. In Duisburg, Germany, Peter Latz was struck by the huge abandoned concrete and iron structures on his post-industrial site and found imaginative and useful ways to incorporate them into his plan for a new public park.
Others find flashes of inspiration from childhood memories. For Kongjian Yu, the remembered landscape is his family’s rice fields in rural China and the paths through which, as a boy, he led the village water buffalo to graze. Across the world, Stephen Stimson grew up on a dairy farm in Massachusetts. His strong bond with a five-generation agricultural past led him to use stone walls, orchard-like plantings of trees, and benches bracketed by heavy metal fastenings that recall farm implements in his project at the University of Massachusetts. Kim Wilkie’s childhood in Iraq and Malaysia gave him an obsession with ziggurats and old Mesopotamian sites, as well as a fascination with all things sacred and mystical. These early interests inspired his Orpheus landform at Boughton House in Northamptonshire, England.
Great landscape architects, like their counterparts in other arts, seem able to draw inspiration from diverse sources: a place, a poem, a painting, a remembered garden, a path taken in childhood, or the shape of a leaf. Judging from the work presented here, the ancient muses of invention are still among us, providing spirited inspiration to landscape architects practicing today.

出处:本文译自www.world-architects.com/,转载请注明出处。

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