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假如,你将失去三天重力……第1张图片
© NASA via Flickr licensed under Public Domain Mark 1.0

如果没有了重力,设计师们会怎样进行设计?
How to Design When There is No Gravity

由专筑网李韧,曹逸希编译

并非所有的建筑师都能接触到外太空的建筑项目,但是谁又会知道在未来的行星与太空光电生物反应器会如何发展呢?《都市杂志》(《Metropolis Magazine》)近期发表了一篇文章,其中分析了国际空间站的设计,同时分析了在零重力的状况下,人们的传统设计方式是否还适用。墙体、天花板、地板可以漂浮在空中,“形式追随功能”的誓言被发挥到了极致。

2018年是国际空间站建造20周年。这个卫星由34个独立的部件组成,其中每个部件要么通过航天飞机进行运输,要么直接发射至太空。在空间站13年的建设过程中,没有出现过任何的失误,这也许是数千年来最为成功的建造案例,在过去的20年里,共有230名宇航员和太空游客来到这里。

到目前为止,所有人都已习惯了地球生活,那么如果来到无重力的环境中,肯定会有一个适应过程。正如《都市杂志》(《Metropolis Magazine》)的文章中所说的那样,由于建筑部件之间缺乏稳定性,因此在失重的情况下,建筑中的各项设备、物件也许会混杂在一起。也因为如此,许多人会产生失去方向感、头昏、恶心等心理症状。国际空间站的建筑都非常简陋,因此建筑师尽量在设计中参考标准水平线、照明路线、视觉引导、标识等让人容易产生方向感的要素。

Not many architects will come across the challenge of building in outer space, but who knows what the future will hold... asteroid mining and space photobioreactors? In a recent article, Metropolis Magazine looks into the design of the International Space Station, examining how our conventional rules of architecture become obsolete in zero gravity. Walls, ceilings, and floors can be interchangeable, and "form follows function" is taken to the extreme.
2018 marks 20 years since construction first began on the International Space Station. The satellite is made up of 34 separate pieces, each of which was either delivered by space shuttle or self-propelled into space. With absolutely no room for error, the 13-year construction of the space station was perhaps one of the big success stories of the millennium, seeing 230 astronauts, cosmonauts and space-tourists visit over the past two decades.
For anyone that is used to living on Earth (ie everyone), it can be a struggle accommodating to life without gravity. As the Metropolis article explains, there is a lack of architectural contrast between surfaces as they are concealed by the tangle of equipment and experiments. Due to this, many people suffer from disorientation, confusion, and nausea caused by the psychological illusion of no ground. Although the architecture is austere in the International Space Station, efforts have been put in place to enforce a floor reference plane; lines of lighting, visual cues, signs, and labeling all help to define "up" and "down."

假如,你将失去三天重力……第2张图片
© NASA via Metropolis Magazine

宇航员在这里可以使用一张小型折叠餐桌,这张桌子来源于俄罗斯太空站,但在使用时,每位宇航员都需要将自己与桌子固定在一起。同样地,私人休息室也需要固定使用,否则也许在宇航员睡着时,身体会不知不觉地飘向太空。当宇航员需要放松时,太空站也没有起居室,建筑师而是在空间站的下部设置有开有多个窗口的小空间,这里几乎成为了宇航员们最喜欢的地方,因为在其中可以俯瞰地球。

如果想要了解更多关于外太空的设计居住以及工作的信息,可以直接访问《都市杂志》(《Metropolis Magazine》)。

What little home comfort the astronauts do have is provided by a fold-down dining table, taken from the late Russian space station, that each of the crew members need to be strapped to. The private sleeping compartments, too, use restraints to ensure no one floats away in the night. When relaxation is required, there is no living room or lounge, but rather a refuge that features a multi-windowed cupola on the underside of the space station. This, understandably, has become a favorite spot for the crew as it offers panoramic views of the Earth.
Read more about how to design for living and working in outer space in Metropolis Magazine here.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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