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"They really studied the causes of the massive tree canopy mortality rate, creating a plan to renew the beautifully forested area that was devastated and retain the quality of the trees over time."- 2014 Awards Jury

“他们确实研究了大量树冠死亡的各种原因,并设计出一个能够更新曾被摧毁的美丽的树林和长久维持树木质量的计划。”
-2014颁奖辞

ASLA Award recipient Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center by  Design Workshop, Inc. Austin andReed|Hilderbrand, (images by Design Workshop, Inc.)”


在广受喜爱的纪念公园里的一个重要内容,是面积155英亩的休斯顿植物园和自然中心,它被干旱和飓风这些极端的天气毁坏了。指导植物园更新设计的基本点在于对基地丰富的自然和文化遗产,对气候变化影响分析,以及对利益相关者参与度的全面评估。这个设计为植物园描绘了一个更有韧性的演变,同时对于其它具有相似情况的地区也是一个设计范本。

A critical anchor within beloved Memorial Park, the 155-acre Houston Arboretum and Nature Center is devastated by weather extremes from drought to hurricanes. Fundamental to the plan that guides the Arboretum’s renewal is an exhaustive assessment of the site’s natural and cultural heritage, diagnosis of the impacts of climate change, and extensive stakeholder engagement. The plan outlines a more resilient evolution for the Arboretum and is a model for other regions facing similar threats.

Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第1张图片
↑ Photo Credit: Design Workshop, Inc.

挑战
休斯顿植物园和自然中心的位置靠着水牛河(Buffalo Bayou),是一个155英亩的地区性资源,用于为原生动植物提供庇护场所,同时也是城市的环境教育的一个聚点。这个1500英亩的纪念公园由景观建筑和规划公司Hare & Hare设计于1925,而植物园是这个纪念公园的一部分。自1950年代开发以来,植物园目前已经发展成一个展示各种植物以及理想化的生态栖息地的场地。然而,最近的飓风和干旱为这片景观带来了负面影响和损失,树冠死亡率高达百分之四十八,而且出现了显著的外来物种。总体设计的主要挑战是把基地的生态历史和文化历史,与现代化要求整合起来,让更新计划成为一个负责任的,具有自由度的设计。
主动聆听
做整体设计,具体而又相关联的关键在于从对价值和意向的理解。利益相关者的参与过程是很广泛的,多次会晤了公共或私人团体的各界人士,包括教师,访客,植物园员工和董事会,休斯顿市的工作人员,纪念公园保护协会成员,捐赠者等等。这个过程成功地为利益相关者之间的对话提供了一个互动的论坛,也为所有的参与者提供了宝贵的学习经验。在讨论会上,相关人士确定了两个重要目标——实现景观多样性,并且平衡添加功能的“野外”空间。由于民众对树冠的损失仍感到深深的失望,景观建筑师们必须在恢复空间原貌和基于现实生态系统的结果导向性设计之间小心地开展工作。设计团队围绕着这样一个景观设计的新轨迹凝聚了社会各界——一个面对生态变化具有长久高复原能力的系统。
生态取证
利用取证的方式,景观设计团队分析了导致这种高度而非绝对的树冠死亡率的场地具体情况。还进行了更多的分析来了解场地基本情况,包括土壤类型,排水方式,树冠,植物多样性以及一些其他因素。由科学家和设计师组成的跨学科团队用GIS和现场分析进行研究。这份分析报告发现树木死亡率最高(死亡率超过百分之七十)的地方都发生在粉质粘土,壤质土,和“隆起-凹陷”地质构造特点突出的草原性景观区域,这些都是为生态存在的区域。树冠树木生长在“凹陷”地区。这些区域水容易积聚,树木发展出较为浅和疏的根系。矛盾的是,生长于升高的“隆起”区的树冠树木发展出较为深和密的根系,并且在干旱中存活了下来。
这种由于最近的气候变化所显现的生态格局,提出了一种对应变化频繁的生态系统的新景观拼接。环境叠加的过程帮助现场不同的景观类型选择最佳条件。
功能平衡
总体规划在人们如何使用该场地方面改善了基础设施,让人们能够获得多样化的经验,更好的享受和理解当地的生态系统。植物园目前每年的游客接待量达到180000人次,是休斯顿地区一个重要的教育和开放空间资源。学校团体定期到访植物园进行自然教育,现场还经常安排成人学习班。总体规划尝试扩展现场提供的服务内容,但同时也意识到园区的访客承载能力,以达到无干扰自然区域和设计区域的平衡。具有自然韵律的基准和相对的设计空间是从相关的植物园和林园取材的。决策者采纳了总体设计的建议,让植物园最后会变得与这些先例的特点相类似。
主动复原
作为对生态环境危机的回应,总体设计集中于发展生态系统的复原能力,并且有潜力成为德克萨斯东南部以及其他持续干旱地区的一个范例。与这些系统的原创设计同等重要的是,管理机制将定期评估生态性能和对潜在威胁的应变能力。利用一个复杂的管理矩阵和一组专门的志愿者,总体设计确定了一些战略措施来启动新的有原动力的生态环境。树木的残枝碎屑被搅碎之后从新利用来帮助新发芽的植物保持湿润,并且为因为干旱而退化的土壤重新提供重要的有机物质。入侵物种的灌木丛将被移除,强化了树冠树木的据点和其他的本地植物。志愿者将在波浪中种植漂浮的新芽植物。将会种植大片的草原和热带草地,并且每年会进行切割或者控制性焚烧来进行再生。管理战略的朝着一个有复原能力的,不断动态进化的系统发展,满足了植物园的使命,也就是把土地理解为自然栖息地和相关系统的集合,而不是树木的简单集合。

Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第2张图片

↑ Located along Buffalo Bayou in Houston, the Arboretum lies within the Gulf Coastal Plains ecoregion, supporting vast flat prairies that abut wooded ravines associated with bayous and depressions.

沿着休斯顿水牛河的植物园位于墨西哥湾沿海平原生态区范围内,支持着抵靠着峡谷的广袤平坦的大草原,峡谷里树木繁茂并且充满了沼泽和洼地。

Photo Credit: Design Workshop, Inc.

Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第3张图片
↑ Impacted by the natural disaster of Hurricane Ike and a recent historical drought, the Arboretum represents a landscape in crisis. The proposed design is a more ecologically diverse and resilient landscape, designed to better handle future disturbance.

受自然灾害飓风Ike和近期的历史性干旱影响,植物园代表了这场危机中的一道风景。所提出的设计是一个更具生态多样性和复原性的景观,旨在更好地应对未来的灾害影响。

Photo Credit: 214-02 Art Work of Houston, Texas: Published in Twelve Parts: 03-Page3.1904

Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第4张图片
↑ Forensic analysis of the site explained significant canopy loss. Poorly drained areas with silty clay loam soils – conditions more representative of prairie environments – were widespread on the site.

对现场的取样分析解释了显著的树冠损失的原因。排水不良地区的粉质粘土壤土和具有代表性的草原环境条件都在现场广为散播。
Photo Credit: Design Workshop, Inc.

Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第5张图片
↑ Using baseline inventory data, ecological suitability was determined for each potential landscape type. The result is a diverse and resilient mosaic that is an authentic representation of the Arboretum’s regional ecological context.

采用基准库存数据和生态适应性确定了每个潜在的景观类型。其结果是一个植物园区域生态肌理的多元化的和弹性的马赛克式的真实展现。
Photo Credit: Design Workshop, Inc.

Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第6张图片
↑ The new plan sets forth an evolutionary implementation strategy, recycling nutrients and employing volunteers in order to restore the site and educate the community on long-term management of native landscapes.

新设计提出了一个改革性的实施策略通过循环利用营养物和采用志愿者来重建场地和教育市民对乡土景观的长期管理。
Photo Credit: Design Workshop, Inc.


Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第7张图片
↑ Restoration of the Arboretum will be a process that begins with selective clearing of the disturbed landscape. Over the next 40 years, the landscape will be regenerated to become a more sustainable ecosystem.

植物园的恢复将是一个长期的并以选择性的清理被破坏的景观。在接下去的40年中,景观将会被重新塑造成一个更可持续性的生态系统。

Photo Credit: Design Workshop, Inc.

Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第8张图片
↑ Enhanced woodland habitat and restored native ecologies, such as prairie and savannah, create a series of landscape character zones that educate users and enrich visitor experience.

强化的林地栖息地和重建的本土生态例如草原和热带草原创造出一系列的景观特色区域教育参与者和丰富游客体验。

Photo Credit: Design Workshop, Inc.

Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第9张图片
↑ 1. Establish Plantings based upon specifics of micro—topography, hydrology & soil requirements.

基于微地形,水文和土壤要求的具体要求上播种
2. Increase wildlife habitat through a diversity of flora.
通过增加植物的多样性来增加野生动物栖息地
3. Manage invasive species at ecotone edges.
在生态交错带边缘管理外来物种入侵。
Photo Credit: Design Workshop, Inc.

Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第10张图片
↑ 1. Protect sensitive habitats and drainage patterns with elevated boardwalks.
2. 保护敏感的栖息地并用架高木栈道的方式排水。
3. Retain snag trees and promote plantings for wildlife habitat.
保留枯树并为野生动物栖息地加强种植。
4. Develop vegetative layers of woodland understory.
发展下层林地植被的层次。
Photo Credit: Design Workshop, Inc.

Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第11张图片
↑ 1. Restore and stabilize riparian corridors. 恢复和稳定河岸走廊。
2.Provide moments of intensified native plantings for distinctive and memorable experiences.
为独特而难忘的经历提供了强化的本土种植空间。
3.Improve water quality flowing to Buffalo Bayou.
沿着水牛河改善了水质。
Photo Credit: Design Workshop, Inc.


Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第12张图片
↑ The expanded trail network gives visitors multiple options to explore and learn about the ecologies of the Arboretum. A short educational loop allows even the youngest learners to engage in all the ecologies on-site.

展开的步行网络让游客有多种探索和了解植物园生态的选择。一个距离不长的教育性环形路让即使最小的学生都能参与到所有现场的生态环境中来。

Photo Credit: Design Workshop, Inc.

Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第13张图片
↑ The character of each trail typology responds to the habitat it traverses while displaying representative native plantings endemic of each ecology.

每条步行小径类型特点都反映着其穿越的栖息地,同时表现出该地段生态所特有的本地植物。
Photo Credit: Design Workshop, Inc.

Devastation to Resilience: The Houston Arboretum & Nature Center第14张图片
↑ The trail experience crescendos with an elevated boardwalk giving visitors a look out over one of Houston’s most cherished assets - the historic Buffalo Bayou.

步行小径的感受随着架高的木栈道逐渐增强,让参观者能够俯瞰休斯顿最宝贵的风景之一——历史悠久的水牛河。

Photo Credit: Design Workshop, Inc.

The Challenge
Located along Buffalo Bayou, the Houston Arboretum & Nature Center is a 155-acre regional resource that serves as a critical refuge for native plants and animals and a hub for environmental education in the city. The Arboretum is a discrete part of the 1,500-acre Memorial Park designed in 1925 by the landscape architecture and planning firm of Hare & Hare. Developed in the 1950s, the site had evolved to present plants and systems related to more idealize ecological habitats. However, recent hurricanes and drought have taken their toll on its landscape as evidenced by 48-percent tree canopy mortality and the significant presence of invasive species. The primary challenge of the Master Plan is to integrate the site’s ecological and cultural history with modern demands into a responsive, flexible plan of renewal.

Active Listening
Key to crafting a Master Plan that is specific and relevant is starting with an understanding of values and vision. The stakeholder engagement process was extensive, utilizing multiple meetings with a diverse range of public and private sector groups and individuals including teachers, users, Arboretum staff and board members, City of Houston staff, Memorial Park Conservancy board members, donors and others. The process successfully provided an interactive forum for dialogue amongst stakeholders and valuable learning experiences for all participants. At the workshops, stakeholders identified two primary goals – achieving landscape diversity and balancing programmed and “wild” spaces. With a populace so deeply affected by the canopy loss, the landscape architects had to carefully navigate between a desire to restore the previous character of the place and a results-oriented plan founded on the reality of ecological systems in flux. The design team rallied the community around a new trajectory for this landscape—one of a resilient system of varied ecologies changing over time.

Ecological Forensics
Using a forensic approach, the team of landscape architects analyzed the specific site conditions that led to drastic, but not total, canopy mortality. Extensive site analyses of soil-types, drainage patterns, tree canopy, plant diversity and other factors were conducted to understand baseline conditions. The interdisciplinary team of scientific experts and designers conducted research using GIS and field analysis. This analysis revealed that the areas with highest tree mortality rates (those with 70 percent tree mortality or greater) occurred in areas more characteristic of prairie landscapes such as silty clay loam soils and “pimple-dimple” geologic formations where micro-ecologies exist. Canopy trees growing in the “dimple” areas, where water collects, developed shallow andless extensive root systems and experienced the greatest canopy loss during the drought. Paradoxically, canopy trees growing on the raised “pimples” developed deeper and more extensive root systems and survived the drought.
This ecological pattern—revealed only by the recent change in climate—suggested a new landscape mosaic of more varied ecologies. A process of environmental overlays helped determine where optimum conditions existed on-site for varied landscape typologies.

Programmatic Balance
The Master Plan improves the infrastructure related to how people use the site in order to diversify their experience, leading to better enjoyment and understanding of the site’s ecology. The Arboretum currently hosts 180,000 visitors a year and is a valued educational and open space asset for the Houston region. School groups visit the site regularly for nature-based education, and there are frequent on-site adult classes. The Master Plan explored expanding the program services offered on-site, but was also very conscious of its carrying capacity to achieve a balance of unprescribed natural areas and programmed areas. Benchmarks with metrics of nature versus programmed space were drawn from relevant botanical gardens and arboreta. Decision makers endorsed the Master Plan’s recommendations that result in similar characteristics as these precedents.

Progressive Resilience
As a response to ecological crisis, the Master Plan focuses on developing ecosystem resilience and holds the potential to be a model for southeast Texas and other areas undergoing prolonged drought. As important as the original design of these systems is, the management regime planned to regularly assess ecological performance and brace for potential uncertainty. Utilizing a complex management matrix and an dedicated group of volunteers, the Master Plan defines strategic interventions to initiate new dynamic ecologies. The detritus of tree loss will be chipped and repurposed to help liner stock plantings retain moisture and provide vital organic matter back to a soil degraded by drought. Thickets of invasive species will be removed, fortifying canopy strongholds and other natives. Volunteers will plant drifts of liner stock in waves. Swaths of prairie and savannah will be seeded and regenerated by annual mowing or controlled burnings. The strategy manages toward a resilient set of dynamic and evolving systems, fulfilling the Arboretum’s mission to interpret the land as a collection of natural habitats and interrelated systems rather than as a collection of trees.

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