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野兽派——胸有猛虎,细嗅蔷薇第1张图片

波士顿市政厅,1962-68/Kallman, McKinnell and Knowles|Boston City Hall, 1962-68, by Kallman, McKinnell and Knowles. Photography: Chris Grimley Michael Kubo and Mark Pasnik

野兽派地图:带你走进波士顿最具争议的建筑
Brutalist Boston Map unfolds the story of the city’s most controversial buildings

由专筑网丁思源,李韧编译

野兽派建筑总是代表了城市历史进程中最具特色的一段时期。它们标志着改变、现代性和理想主义。对于波士顿而言,野兽派代表了二十世纪六十年代到七十年代的“新波士顿”转变时期。Blue Crow传媒最新的野兽派地图系列,通过研究探讨四十幢混凝土建筑,来揭开关于波士顿中最具争议的建筑的故事。

编辑Chris Grimley、Michael Kubo以及作者Mark Pasnik在名为《Concrete Architecture and the New Boston 1960-1976》中向我们描述了波士顿在经历大量工厂外迁到农村之后的复兴和崛起。而这也为建筑师能够在今天为波士顿通过规划基础设施并设计新建筑从而塑造公共生活提供了可能。

这三人的书中所记录的波士顿事件的时间为1960年至1976年, 1960年,Edward J Logue时任波士顿重建当局的领导,1976年,Quincy商场和Faneil Hall市场在建国两百周年的时候重新开张。这一时间段也被标志为一次野兽派风格之后的“思潮转向”。

Brutalist buildings often represent a distinct time period in the span of a city’s life – they are icons of change, modernity and idealism. For Boston, brutalism represents the period of transformation in the 1960s and 70s that was known as New Boston. The latest in Blue Crow Media’s brutalist maps series traces this period with over 40 concrete buildings, unfolding the story of Boston’s most controversial phase of building.
Telling the story are editors Chris Grimley, Michael Kubo, and Mark Pasnik, authors of Heroic: Concrete Architecture and the New Boston 1960-1976, who chart the revival and rise of Boston after a mass exodus of factory work to the, which allowed architects to plan infrastructure and design the buildings that still shape public life in Boston today.
The trio bookend the occurrence of New Boston between the arrival of Edward J Logue as a ‘powerful and visionary leader of the Boston redevelopment Authority in 1960’ and ‘the reopening of Quincy Market and Faneil Hall Marketplace at the nations Bicentennial in 1976’, which signalled a ‘shift in attitude’ away from the brutalist style.

野兽派——胸有猛虎,细嗅蔷薇第2张图片

波士顿政府中心车库,1970年/Kallmann和 McKinnell with Samuel Glaser Associates|Boston Government Center Garage, 1970, by Kallmann and McKinnell with Samuel Glaser Associates. Photography: Chris Grimley

在这份地图中,城市的核心部分有着野兽派建筑的代表作:波士顿市政中心综合体。它包含了由带肋混凝土建造的市政服务中心(Paul Rudolph),由夸张的悬臂建造而成波士顿城市大厅(Kallmann, McKinnell和 Knowles),以及拥有双塔的约翰·肯尼迪(John F Kennedy)办公楼(TAC/瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯)

虽然这些大胆的建筑曾经是美国先进建筑的典范,但它们同样极具争议。在同一个综合体中,由Kallman、 Mckinney以及 Samuel Glaser Associates共同设计的政府中心车库,于1970年完工,但并没有保留至今。这座建筑的部分体量被拆除重建,其中包括了一个由CBT Architects设计的居住塔楼,还有Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects设计的办公塔楼。这些建筑的一期工程将在今年破土动工。

与此同时,其他的野兽派建筑仍然在社区中具有核心作用。这份地图中同样也标识出了一些教育建筑与图书馆,其中包括哈佛科学中心(Sert、Jackson and Associates)、約賽亞昆士小學(The Architects Collaborative)、Madison Paul高中(Marcel Breuer 和Tician Papachristou)、Stratton学生中心(Eduarso Catalano),以及波士顿大学的法学与教育学学院(Sert, Jackson and Associates)、Charlestown Branch图书馆(Eduardo Catalano),还有Gutman图书馆(Benjamin Thompson and Associates)。

At the heart of the city, Boston’s Government Center complex was structured by the arrival of key brutalist buildings marked on the map: the ribbed concrete Government Service Center (Paul Rudolph), the powerfully cantilevering Boston City Hall (Kallmann, McKinnell and Knowles), and the dual-towered John F Kennedy Federal Office Building (The Architects Collaborative/Walter Gropius).
While these bold buildings have been held up as examples of progressive American architecture, they also have controversial reputations. On the same complex, the Government Center Garage, completed in 1970, designed by Kallman and Mckinney with Samuel Glaser Associates is unfortunately destined to a popular demise. It will be demolished in part to make way for a new mixed use development – including a residential tower by CBT Architects and office tower by Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects – phase one of which broke ground this year.
Meanwhile other brutalist buildings continue to function as pillars in the community. The map pinpoints a number of education buildings and libraries including the Harvard Science Center (Sert, Jackson and Associates); the Josiah Quincy School (The Architects Collaborative); Madison Paul High School (Marcel Breuer and Tician Papachristou); and the Stratton Student Center (Eduarso Catalano), as well as the Boston University School of Law and Education (Sert, Jackson and Associates); the Charlestown Branch Library (Eduardo Catalano); and the Gutman Library (Benjamin Thompson and Associates).

野兽派——胸有猛虎,细嗅蔷薇第3张图片

Madison Park高中,1974-1978/Marcel Breuer 和Tician Papachristou|Madison Park High School, 1974-78, by Marcel Breuer and Tician Papachristou. Photography: Chris Grimley, Michael Kubo and Mark Pasnik

这些机构和在里面工作的人都为推动野兽派风格的发展发挥了显著的作用。教育家瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯(Walter Gropius)、马塞尔·布鲁尔(Marcel Breuer)和Josep Luis Sert)都为教育新一代建筑师打下了坚实的理论基础,第二代建筑师中包括保罗·鲁道夫(Paul Rudolph)、贝聿铭(IM Pei)、亨利·考伯(Henry Cobb)和Araldo Cossutt在内的建筑师们都认可了功能和社区对于建筑的价值。

It was the prominence of these institutions, and the people working at them, that drove the brutalist style forwards. Educators Walter Gropius, Marcel Breuer and Josep Luis Sert had laid down the conceptual foundations of Brutalism by teaching a new generation of architects – including Paul Rudolph, IM Pei, Henry Cobb and Araldo Cossutt – the value of function and community to architecture.

野兽派——胸有猛虎,细嗅蔷薇第4张图片

健康和服务大楼或者政府服务中心,1970年/Paul Rudolph|Health and Human Services building or Government Service Center, 1970, by Paul Rudolph

非常有意义的一件事情是,波士顿也拥有勒·柯布西耶在北美的唯一一件作品,卡朋特视觉艺术中心。它于1963年完成,建筑师通过清水混凝土和玻璃来表达现代主义核心思想。这所建筑的合作建筑师Guillermo Jullian de la Fuentes和Josep Lluis Sert都曾担任过哈佛大学设计研究生院的系主任。

为了对全世界范围内野兽派遗产进行持续的教育研究,Blue Crow传媒正向全世界的城市广泛传播自己的理念,在这本波士顿地图问世之前,他们还涉足了华盛顿特区、巴黎、悉尼和其他的一些城市。这一整个系列,都将帮助在未来重塑一个全世界范围内的标志性风格。

Boston is significantly the home of Le Corbusier’s only North American building, the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, completed in 1963, which expresses the architect’s central modernist theories in rough concrete and glass. The building was designed in collaboration with Guillermo Jullian de la Fuentes and Josep Lluis Sert, who was Dean of Harvard’s Graduate School of Design at the time.
Working towards a contining education of the brutalist legacy across the world, Blue Crow Media is spreading its wings to cities worldwide. The Boston map follows brutalist adventures in Washington DC, Paris, Sydney and others, with the whole series helping to cement the future existence of the iconic style across the world.

野兽派——胸有猛虎,细嗅蔷薇第5张图片

波士顿大学的法学与教育学学院,主图书馆,Sherman学生会,1963-66/Jackson and Associates|Boston University School of Law and Education, Mugar Library and Sherman Student Union, 1963-66, by Jackson and Associates. Photography: Chris Grimley

野兽派——胸有猛虎,细嗅蔷薇第6张图片

波士顿建筑中心,1963-66/Ashley, Myer and Associates|Boston Architectural Center, 1963-66, by Ashley, Myer and Associates. Photography: Chris Grimley Michael Kubo and Mark Pasnik

野兽派——胸有猛虎,细嗅蔷薇第7张图片

Charlestown图书馆,1970/Eduardo Catalano|Charlestown Library, 1970, by Eduardo Catalano

野兽派——胸有猛虎,细嗅蔷薇第8张图片

野兽派的波士顿地图/Blue Crow Media|The Brutalist Boston Map, published by Blue Crow Media



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