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拖延症患者的福音,你们有救了!第1张图片

如何使用结构式拖延策略让你从坏习惯中获益
How to Use “Structured Procrastination” to Get the Best Out of Your Bad Habits

由专筑网李韧,曹逸希编译

世界知名博主Tim Urban在TED的演讲中,用了三个词组来形容拖延症患者,即理智的决策者、满足当下的小人物,以及焦虑的怪物。对于大多数人来说,如果不停地拖延,当下会获得一种满足感,但此时的做法并不理智,因为到事件的最后期限来临前夕,此时的拖延症患者会陷入一种深深的焦虑之中,当几乎“拼尽全力”地完成所有任务之后,拖延症患者往往会在内心给自己立下Flag,暗自发誓再也不拖延,然而,誓言总是被用来打破的,当下次又遇到类似的情境时,这些人仍然会选择一时的安逸。

虽然网上有许多关于该如何消灭拖延症的方法,但对许多人来说这些方法毫无作用。Urban在演讲中说到,对于有的人来说任务迟早要完成,但是重度拖延症却十分影响人们曾经设下的目标,尤其对于企业家、博士生,抑或是自由职业者,这种影响将特别明显。那么该如何制止拖延症的发生呢?事实上,你没必要刻意去阻止它,John Perry提出了一个“结构式拖延策略”的概念,这种概念类似于Piers Steel曾经提出的“生产式拖延”,那么请让我们一起来了解一下这种拯救世界的方式。

In a hilarious TED talk by world-famous blogger Tim Urban, the procrastinating brain is explained using three squiggly characters: Rational Decision Maker, Instant Gratification Monkey, and Panic Monster. For most of us who procrastinate without fail, the Monkey dominates while the Decision Maker suffers. Panic Monster enters the moment a deadline looms dangerously close—and that’s when all the actual work is done, amid much grumbling, self-loathing and lofty promises of never procrastinating again. But of course, we fail to keep our promises and the wheel keeps turning!
While the internet is full of lists and guides on how to stop procrastinating, for quite a lot of people, those somehow just don’t help at all. And while deadlines, as Urban points out, work for some in terms of getting the work done sooner or later, “long-term procrastination” affects those who must set their own deadlines—think business owners, PhD students, or freelancers. So, how do you get yourself to stop? You don’t! What you need to master is John Perry’s concept of “structured procrastination”—the same concept that Piers Steel earlier explained as “productive procrastination.” Read on for some advice gleaned from pro-procrastination literature.

拖延症患者的福音,你们有救了!第2张图片
© Andrea Vasquez

1、首先,应当接受

拖延症的说法最初来源于“自我完善”,事实上,我们可以让自己接受这种习惯,因为并不是时间不够,而是有太多的琐事分散了我们的时间,习惯导致我们把事情一推再推。因此我们没必要把它当做一种恶习,甚至产生对自己的否定意识,我们应该告诉自己,世界上有许多知名成功人士也有拖延的习惯,这不是在让你相信拖延症能够造就天才,只是个人习惯如此而已。


2、列下工作清单

列下各项工作的清单能够让拖延症患者们感觉良好,阅读到此你很有可能已经成为了制作列表的专家。这种方法可以用于你感到时间紧迫、任务繁重的时刻,其关键在于你不仅要列出的是那些紧急的、重要的关键事务,其他的琐碎事务也应当记录下来。

1. A Is for Acceptance
Most “self-improvement” guides start with this big word, don’t they? Simply begin by accepting that it’s never about not having enough time, or about other people and things distracting you, it’s about your own habit of putting things off until later. But instead of identifying it as some moral dilemma, hellish curse, or brain disease, tell yourself that it is anything but. Let’s not forget that some of the most famous people in history were chronic procrastinators—that's not to say that procrastination is some telltale mark of genius, just that it’s something quite human!

2. Make a List
Making lists is, in itself, one the guilty pleasures that procrastinators indulge in to feel good about themselves. And if you’re reading this, chances are that you’re probably already a pro at making lists (and not following them). That usually happens when you begin and end with urgent, daunting tasks only. The key is to mix the Tasks-That-Must-Not-Be-Named with those that are less urgent and equally important, but also easier, quicker or more fun to accomplish.

拖延症患者的福音,你们有救了!第3张图片
© Andrea Vasquez

3、将一个大任务分解成无数个小事件

通常来说,每个大事件都由无数个小事件组成,每个小事件也许都要耗费你的许多时间与精力。打个比方,假设你现在需要完成模型的制作,那么你就可以把这项工作分成几个部分,即准备激光切割、模型的组装,亦或是后期处理。

这样的话,你不仅能够有效率地一点一滴地完成每项任务,而且这种方式能够让你思路清晰。另外,你把事情分得越细致,那么你的选择余地也就更多。


4、热爱工作

这类似于Urban的说法“热爱工作”,意思是尽可能地让任务清单看起来清晰一些。以“现场调研”为例,在你对某项任务一无所知的时候,你该怎么进行现场调研?你是否还没有做过研究来确定你的目标?这就好像当你漫无目的地在城市里晃荡时,查看地图也许能够更快地去往目的地。

3. Break That One, Fat, Giant Task Into Smaller Ones
More often than not, a big task is made up of numerous smaller ones, and sometimes, all of these require varying amounts of time and energy. For instance, a task like making a scaled model of the latest project you’re working on can be broken down into sub-tasks like “prepare files for laser cutting,” “arrange and assemble,” and “add final touches.”
Not only would you accomplish things bit by bit, but you’d also be able to tick lots of things off quickly—hello instant gratification! And not to forget, the longer your list, the more “choices” you’ve got in terms of what to tackle first.

4. “Un-Icky the Item”
Similar to breaking down a task is what Urban refers to as “un-ickying the task”—that is, making sure that any tasks listed aren’t “vague and murky.” Take for example the task “site-hunting for thesis”: how would you go site hunting if you don’t even know what you’re looking for, haven’t already done some research, identified your requirements, and shortlisted some possible options? Driving aimlessly all over the city is not an option, and neither is flying over Google maps!

拖延症患者的福音,你们有救了!第4张图片
© Andrea Vasquez

5、不要忽视琐事、社会工作,以及日常练习

日常生活没必要为你的工作让步,在你有工作要完成时,你同样可以抽出时间给家人打电话,亦或是与朋友见面。Perry博士认为,放下一切日常生活实际上并不有利于工作的完成,因为当你所处理的事情变少时,这些少量事务会给你带来巨大的压力,此时的你需要一些休息的时间。如果最终你既完成了任务,平时又不受影响地与朋友会面,那这不是一个双赢的局面吗?

同样,你的日常事务也是你工作的一部分,例如遛狗、休息、整理房间、打扫卫生,这些微不足道的小事能够大大舒缓你在工作中的压力。

5. Don’t Ignore Errands, Social Commitments, Exercise Routines
Who says preparing meals, calling your family, or meeting friends has to be ignored when you have work to do? According to Dr. Perry, canceling on social commitments is actually detrimental for a procrastinator because that’s when the list becomes smaller, stress builds up, and nothing acts as a “breather” during the day. Apart from being the usual procrastinator and not accomplishing tasks you were supposed to accomplish, you also end up not meeting people you were supposed to have been otherwise meeting, so it’s a lose-lose situation.
Similarly, you should keep everyday errands as part of your list of things to do—spending half an hour walking your dog, meditating, organizing your cupboard, or cleaning might just act as de-stressors instead of the opposite.

拖延症患者的福音,你们有救了!第5张图片
© Andrea Vasquez

6、倾听大脑的语言

你要时刻倾听大脑发出的指令,了解它是处于无聊的时期还是它已经精疲力竭,从而来判断你是应该继续工作还是稍事休息。虽然带着兴趣工作会让你只要进入工作状态就会一发不可收拾,但这并不意味着你可以在不同的工作之间来回切换,因为只要你开始某一项任务,你就应该确保能够完成它。

如果你只是热衷那些你喜欢的事情,那么剩下的工作怎么办?你迟早需要将它们一一完成,因此,你要牢记,只要是清单上的事,你都应该认真完成。

6. Listen to Your Brain
Listen to your brain when it says it’s bored, or exhausted. Maybe you’d want to move on to another more interesting task, or just take a quick break. But while it’s better to tackle the stuff you find fun or interesting when you feel like it, it obviously doesn’t mean that you flit from one to the other without completing anything. Once you start something, just make sure you finish it.
And what if you end up checking off all the relatively exciting things first and are left with actual work? Well, so be it. You had to get down to it sooner or later. Just remember, as long as you stick to the list, you're safe!


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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