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建筑师为什么这么痴迷于久经不衰的蒙德里安三原色?第1张图片


为什么建筑师如此痴迷皮特•蒙德里安(Piet Mondrian)?
Why Are Architects So Obsessed With Piet Mondrian?

由专筑网缕夕,李韧编译

在20世纪20年代,荷兰艺术家蒙德里安开始使用填充原色的平面和他标志性的黑色网格。通过他对周围世界的观察引用总结,他简化的线条和长方形被称为是“新造型主义”,并通过颜色和形式探索了运动的动态过程。在20世纪初,他的红、黄、蓝构成平面组合是风格派(De Stij)的代表,但几乎一个世纪之后,蒙德里安的抽象语言仍然让全球的建筑师为之着迷。

但是,这些空间探索为何能够经久不衰地吸引着艺术家和设计师?

In the 1920s, Dutch-born artist Piet Mondrian began painting his iconic black grids populated with shifting planes of primary colors. By moving beyond references to the world around him, his simplified language of lines and rectangles known as Neo Plasticism explored the dynamics of movement through color and form alone. Though his red, yellow and blue color-blocked canvases were important elements of the De Stijl movement in the early 1900s, almost a century later Mondrian’s abstractions still inspire architects across the globe.
But, what is it about these spatial explorations that have captivated artists and designers for so long?

建筑师为什么这么痴迷于久经不衰的蒙德里安三原色?第2张图片

© Flickr user IK’s World Trip licensed under CC BY 2.0

建筑界里第一个采用蒙德里安元素的实例,是一座低调的二层建筑,这也是建筑师Gerrit Rietveld的第一座建筑,为单亲妈妈Truus Schröder和她的三个孩子而设计,项目位于荷兰乌得勒支。1923年至1924年间,施罗德住宅(Schröder House)建成,蒙德里安生动的平面和网格转变成金属条,木材和管道也通过红色、黄色和蓝色进行表达,立面上的框架屋顶、窗户和墙壁都带有动态感受。家中的内墙不再仅是结构作用,使得内部空间可以依据平面功能灵活组合。

Arguably the first instance of the architectural adoption of Mondrian’s explorations came in the form of a modest two-story home—architect Gerrit Rietveld’s first building—for the recently widowed Truus Schröder and her three children in Utrecht, Netherlands. Constructed between 1923 and 1924 the Schröder House saw the painter’s vivid planes and grids transformed into metal strips, expanses of wood, and lengths of tubular steel painted red, blue and yellow that frame the shifting planes of the roof, windows, and walls. The home’s inner walls were freed of their structural responsibility allowing the internal space to function as a flexible composition of floating planes.

建筑师为什么这么痴迷于久经不衰的蒙德里安三原色?第3张图片

© Flickr user Jean-Pierre Dalbéra licensed under CC BY 2.0

1926年,画家兼建筑师Theo van Doesburg(与蒙德里安和里特维尔德同时代的艺术家)受到邀请进行L'Aubette咖啡馆的设计。他通过风格派(De Stijl)的标志性网格进行了室内设计构思,在室内的大厅墙面、天花板,甚至地面上,建筑师都结合使用了红、黄、蓝这些充满活力的色彩,让空间呈现不规则的动态感。仅仅两年后,密斯•凡•德•罗(Mies van der Rohe )似乎将蒙德里安的这套经典配色通过玻璃、大理石、石灰华和钢铁表达出来,那便是著名的巴塞罗那馆。

在第二次世界大战前的几年里,建筑领域里的蒙德里安影子似乎逐渐消退,而战后的消费主义文化推动了George Nelson的原色家具StorageWall的发展,这将艺术家的作品推向家居领域。同时Charlotte Perriand、JeanProuvé的活力铝制面板和Sonia Delaunay的书柜,这一系列的作品都将新造型主义与家居装置联系起来。

In 1926, painter and architect Theo van Doesburg—a contemporary of both Mondrian and Rietveld—was commissioned to design the Café L’Aubette. He conceived the interior renovations as an inhabitable De Stijl Painting—grids tilted at 45 degrees envelop the walls and ceiling of the “Ciné-Dancing” hall with vibrant hues of red, yellow, blue, and green occupying the irregular spaces between. Only two years later, Mies van der Rohe would seemingly transform Mondrian’s 1917 Composition in Colour A into the broad expanses of glass, marble, travertine, and steel defining the Barcelona Pavilion.
Architectural interest in Mondrian’s work would wane in the years leading up to the second World War until post-war consumerism drove the development of George Nelson’s primary color-blocked StorageWall of 1945—bringing the artist’s work to the scale of home storage—while the vibrant aluminium panels in Charlotte Perriand, Jean Prouvé and Sonia Delaunay’s Bookcase linked Neo Plasticism with domestic display.

建筑师为什么这么痴迷于久经不衰的蒙德里安三原色?第4张图片

© Flickr user Lauren Manning licensed under CC BY 2.0

随着艺术与建筑的住宅案例研究,设计二人组Charles 和Ray Eames 将黑色网格变成大胆的体量,这体现在他们1949年设计的两座预制钢框架案例8号住宅。为了应对住房市场的需求,蒙德里安的抽象平面和网格形式通过各项技术运用在工业设计与大众产品之中, 1952年,勒•柯布西耶在粗野主义建筑Unite d’Habitiation中运用了类似的大胆原色,并且在其设计的展厅陶瓷面板中也出现了此类配色。时装设计师Yves Saint Laurent在1965年将蒙德里安的图形网格运用于麻布衣服的设计中。

With the inauguration of Arts & Architecture’s Case Study House Program, design duo Charles and Ray Eames modified the artist’s black grids into prefabricated steel frames for the bold cladding wrapping the two volumes of their 1949 Case Study House #8. In designing a prototypical, prefabricated structure in response to the housing boom, Mondrian’s abstracted planes and grids naturally complimented industrial production and war-born techniques to bring domestic architecture to the masses. Similar bold primary colors accented the balconies of Le Corbusier’s brutalist utopia Unite d’Habitiation in 1952 and would eventually appear on the Pavilion Le Corbusier as color-blocked enamel paneling. Even fashion designer Yves Saint Laurent adapted Mondrian's graphic grid into a sack dress in 1965.

建筑师为什么这么痴迷于久经不衰的蒙德里安三原色?第5张图片

via City of Hague

蒙德里安对建筑的持久影响至今仍然存在,从洛杉矶的蒙德里安酒店(Mondrian Hotel)  、菲律宾蒙廷卢帕的蒙德里安住宅(Mondrian Residences),到理查德迈耶(Richard Meier)1955年的荷兰海牙市政厅墙壁,该城市于2017年初重新粉刷来庆祝风格派的百年纪念日。

无论是采用新技术还是新结构,蒙德里安抽象的语言都让建筑师对空间类型的探索着迷。艺术家对建筑世界的可塑性理念使得他能够将自身剥离出来以客观的物质角度进行思考,而不是在构思的过程中过分地添加人类世界的各项因素。

Mondrian’s lasting influence on architecture is still present today—from the Mondrian Hotel in LA and the Mondrian Residences in Muntinlupa, Philippines to the cladding of Richard Meier’s 1955 City Hall of the Hague Netherlands, which was repainted in early 2017 to celebrate De Stijl's centennial.
Whether employed alongside new manufacturing techniques or structural capacities, the language of Mondrian’s abstraction has fascinated architects in their exploration of new spatial types. The artist’s vision for the plasticity of the built world allowed him to interrogate the reductive idea of architecture as mass, instead considering it as a dynamic framework connected to the essential shapes and rhythms of human life.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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