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  万科建筑研究中心,其研究重点在于住宅产业化研究,将成为主要进行建筑材料、低能耗,以及生态景观相关方面的研究基地。在景观方面将重点研发生态材料,例如如何将预制混凝土模块应用在将来的地产项目中、探索不同类型的透水材料、植物配植等。
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  为了实现低维护的景观,本项目要解决两个主要问题:a)雨洪管理;B)低维护材料和植物的使用。
  Vanke Architecture Research Center (VARC) focuses on housing industry related studies. It will become the research base of special architectural material, low-energy consumption methodology and eco-landscape study. Environmental friendly material development is the focus of eco-landscape study, such as the application of precast concrete modules in future real-estate projects, the exploration of different types of pervious materials and plant selection and arrangement etc..
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  In order to achieve the goal of low maintenance overall in the campus, two major issues need to be addressed: a) stormwater management; b) low maintenance construction and planting material.
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  设计策略
  1、雨水流失量的控制:两个小三角形的场地被设计成“波纹花园”。在一处三角形的地块中,我们采取了植物实验,与低矮的灌木和草坪相比较,乔木因为可以延长雨水落地的时间,是雨洪管理中最有效的元素。因此,在这个地块中我们将乔木种植在三角形坡地的高点,与低矮植被形成对比和参照;由于坡地草坪会使雨水迅速流走,因此我们采用了波浪形的草坪,不仅从形式上提供了不一样的空间感受,在功能上也增加雨水下渗的时间。草坪的坡度及波浪的坡度可以调整,从而实现最佳的渗透效果,而不会引起积水亦或流速过快。在半环形的地块中,我们对不同硬质材料进行了考察。半环形的波浪之间使用了不同的渗水材料(树皮、陶粒、碎石、细沙等),波浪的边界采用溢水设计,可供观察、比较不同材料的溢水量大小。
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  2、雨水质量的控制:在“风车花园”,32m高的风车提供了动力,将最初收集的雨水提升到建筑屋顶上,通过屋顶的雨水花园进行曝氧处理,直至跌落到地面的水池,实现初级净化;然后,雨水将流经地面上的植物净化系列水池,组织了参观、维护的通道和功能;得到再次净化的水,将通过一个检测阀,达到净化标准的水可以进入一个镜面水池,成为儿童嬉戏活动的场所,未达到标准的水,将会重新回到水循环系统,再次进行净化。以风能为动力,让雨季储存的雨水流动循环,不断净化,直至下一个雨季的到来。这样的雨水花园,尊重地域特点,以节能为根本,同时提供了教育、欣赏、娱乐的可能。
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  3、低维护材料:预制混凝土(precast concrete)技术在欧美国家已非常成熟,应用普遍。从外观上,预制混凝土模块的尺寸、颜色、质感,与花岗岩相差无几。同时,它有着显著的低能耗意义:首先可以避免大面积矿石的开采。其次,在中国,由于施工技术相对落后,所有硬质景观铺装几乎都需要采用混凝土垫层。因此,只要采用硬质铺装——无论是用于车行还是人行——都无法实现雨水渗透。而PC的厚度很大,可以省去混凝土的垫层,从而加强了雨水向地面的渗透。同时,PC还可以进行异形加工,使得嵌草铺装成为可能。停车场、消防车道这些规范所要求的大面积硬质铺装,其视觉效果和生态意义都能得到提升。除此之外,我们还设计了多样的PC户外构件,比如坐凳、自行车架等。借助模具,其形式可以更加多样,同时具有更强的耐久性,可在中国未来的居住区中普及。
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  Strategy
  1. Run off Quantity Controlling: Two small triangular sites are designed as "Ripple Gardens". We conduct planting designexperiment in a triangular parcel to compare short bushes with lawns. The canopy tree is the most efficient element in storm water management because of prolonged rainwater dripping period. The slope of the lawn and the wave can be adjusted to realize best infiltration effect without triggering water-logging or speedy flow. We examine different hardscape materials in a semi-circular parcel. The spacebetween the waves adopts different pervious material (the bark, the ceramics, the gravel and sand etc.). The edge of the waves is designed to observe and compare the overflow amount of different materials.
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  2. Stormwater Quality Controlling: In the "Windmill Garden", a 32m-tall windmill provides power for pumping the collected stormwater to the building roof for oxygen-exposure. The primary purification is not finished until the water falls down to the retention pool. Then, the stormwater passes a series of phytoremediation pools, incorporating the passage forsight-seeing and maintenance. The re-purified stormwater flows through an examination valve. The standardized purified water enters a reflection pool, serving as a child-playing space. The unqualified water returns to the cycling system for another round of purification.
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  3. Low maintenance construction & planting materials: Precast concrete (PC ) technique is well developed and widely used in US and EU countries. In terms of appearance, the size, color and texture of PC modules are hardly different from those of granite. Meanwhile, it has significant meaning of low-energy consumption. First, the replacement of PC over granite avoids extrememining. Secondly, most paving areas employ concrete sub support slabin China. Therefore, the penetration of rain water cannot be realized anywhere there is pavement---both for vehicle or pedestrian passage. PC is so thick that the concrete slab can be defaulted, and the rain water penetration can be strengthened. Meanwhile, PC can be customized to enable grass-embedded pavement. It can improve the visual effects and eco-significance of large pavement area stipulated by regulations, such as the parking lot and the fire lane. Besides, we also design various outdoor PC structures, such as benches and bike racks etc.. With the help of mould, the appearancecan be customized and the endurance can be improved to be used widely in future housing projects in China.
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  透水环种植
  Photograph: Hai Zhang
  Lead Designers:
  Dong Zhang
  Ziying Tang
  Civil Engineer Consultant:
  Qinhui Shen
  General Contractor: Dong-Guan Boya Landscape Construction Co., Ltd.
  Client Coordinator:
  Liang Zhao
  Shan Sun
  Meng Wang
  Peng Zhao
  Lei Liu
  Changhan Li
  Landscape Architects:
  Qiang Du
  Hua Zhao
  Wanrong Dong
  Meifang Zhang
  Shuhan Qin
  Xiaojue Zhang
  Structure Consultant: Haihui Chen
  Corridor Garden Contractor: Dong-Guan Boya Landscape
  Windmill Garden and Ripple Garden Contractor:
  Shenzhen Four Season Gardening and Flowers Co., Ltd.
  Project Manager: Yana Li
  Technique Manager: Zhipenq Sun
  Windmill Contractor: Iron Man Windmill (Wuhan) Co., Ltd. – Thomas Coulon
  Feature Products:
  Precast Concrete Manufacture by Dongguan Vanke Building Technique Research Co., Ltd
  Solar Panel Manufacture by Hengshui Zhongye Light Technology Co., Ltd.
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