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House in the Mountains / Wolff Architects第1张图片

  基地 The site
  房子的基地位于Cederberg深山里的一片农场上,该地区的景观充满了弗洛勒尔角地区(Cape Floristic Region)的生物多样性。
  The site for this house is on a farm deep in the Cederbergmountains in South Africa, a landscape dense with biodiversity of the Cape Floristic Region.
  住宅的设计是由三个因素决定的,首先,通过咨询植物学家,基地选择了一个没有植被生长的地点来尽量降低房屋对周围植物的影响。
  The setting for the house was determined by three factors, firstly a ‘bald’spot in the vegetation was selected (in consultation with botanists) to minimise the impact of the house on the flora.
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  其次,由于房子的主人喜欢尽可能多地呆在室外,因此所有能够进行户外烹饪和饮食以及能够生活和睡觉的“房间”都设置在自然景观当中。房子的建造部分实际上在为房子的非建造部分提供设施和服务。
  Secondly, since the clients prefer to live outdoors as far as possible, “rooms”were found in the natural landscape which could accommodate outdoor cooking and eating, living and sleeping. The built part of the house facilitates living in the unbuilt part of the house.
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  第三,基地的设置也是由其特殊地段带来的景观视野所决定的;建筑师认为只有一个远景是不够丰富的,需要人为地在前景和中景里增加一些景观特色。比如所选的基地有一些凸起的岩石,而这些岩石的位置正好就在北部主要景观的面前,因此不需要建造任何实体,这些岩石就在空间上界定了边界。鉴于该地区的灌木林会不定期的发生火灾,而且时常受到狒狒的困扰(成群的狒狒会为了食物袭击附近的房子,并且会带走或破坏所有不牢靠的东西),这个房子应该具备防火和防狒狒的功能。然而,这个项目最大的挑战其实是需要在离基地250公里以外的办公室里观察建筑用地。这个基地没有任何人类生活的迹象(比如栅栏,电线杆,建筑等等),因此其景观的尺度变得非常难把握。更糟糕的是,传统的土地测量方法制作的等高线平面只能描述大概的地形而无法描述该地区大量的岩石和灌木丛。要在这里设计房屋,我们必须创造出一种方法来同时掌握该区域的植被,岩石以及地形。解决的方案是用一台3D扫描仪来扫描当地景观,产生一张云点图(Point Cloud)。与对云点图的传统使用方法不同的是,我们设计的时候发展出一种使用云点图原始状态的办法,来把整个自然世界当下的尺度和特点都呈现出来。剖面图和立面图上的景观都是基地的真实状态。
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  Thirdly, the setting was determined by its ability to compose a view from that specific location; the architects believe that a distant view is not rich enough a view and should be supplemented by articulate landscape features in the foreground and the middleground. For instance, the selected site has rocky ridges right in front of the primary view to the north that creates a defined edge to the space of the house without needing any built means to achieve such a boundary.The house should be fireproof and baboonproof, as the area is prone to periodical bush fires and troops of baboons which raid houses for food and will tamper with anything unsturdy which can be grabbed. However, the greatest challenge of the project is to see the site back in our office, 250km away. With no marks of human life on site, (fences, electricity poles, building, etc.) it became very difficult to judge the scale of landscape features. To make matters worse, conventional land surveying produces contour plans that describe the topography only with no ability to describe the plethora of rocks and bush. To design the building we had to develop a way to see the vegetation, rocks and topography simultaneously. The solution was to have the landscape scanned with a 3D scanner, producing a Point Cloud. Instead of following the conventional route of using these scans to produce solid surfaces, we developed ways of using the Point Cloud in its raw state to have the scale and character of the entire natural world present, while we design. The landscape indicated on the section and elevation drawings is the exact site.
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  气候和环境
  农场位于南非的冬季降雨区,因此冬天寒冷而夏天非常炎热。持续从西面山谷吹过来的风有时会相当凛冽。为了避免寒风直吹,住宅选择了一块西面有岩石遮挡的位置。建筑西面边缘的设计也是为了屏蔽吹向阳台的寒风。北边大面积的悬挂是为了遮挡夏天的太阳,同样,北面的双层砖墙起着相同的作用。所有房间的窗户设都内部百叶以更好地在房屋开口处进行隔热。客厅和饭厅都选用了低辐射玻璃。这个住宅建筑和外部设施没有任何连接;通过太阳能发电,建筑全年都能使用储蓄在电池里的电力,通过钻井取水,并在基地内进行污水处理以避免附近的植被受到过剩营养的生活用水污染。用来实现这些效果的技术信息刻意没有被披露,因为我们认为“可持续”建筑与“可持续性”的美学表达是两个独立的问题。为了最大限度地降低房子的视觉冲击,项目被分解为三个独立的区块,包括卧室,浴室和厨房。客厅和饭厅被设想为这三个区块中间围合出的内部“庭院”。分散的建筑体量模仿了周围裂开的岩石。
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  Climate and environment
  The farm is within the winter rainfall area of South Africa, with cold winters and very hot summers. A constant Westerly wind comes down the valley and can sometimes be quite harsh. To protect the house against this wind the house was sited next to a rocky cliff to the West. The Western edge of the house was designed to screen the wind from the balcony.A large overhang on the Northern side provides protection from the summer sun. The double brick walls to the North do the same job. All the rooms have shutters on the inside of the windows to insulate the openings. Low E glass was used in the living and dining room.The house has no connection to any outside services; electricity is generated by solar power and stored in batteries for all year round use, water is supplied from a borehole and sewerage is contained on site to protect the vegetation from nutrient rich effluent. The technology used to achieve this was purposefully concealed as we believe that “sustainable” architecture and the aesthetic expressions of “sustainability” are separate matters.To minimise the visual impact of the house, the program was split into three separate blocks,containing bedrooms, bathrooms and the kitchen. The living and dining room is conceived of as an enclosed ‘courtyard’between the blocks. The fragmentation of the building mass mimics the broken up rock cliffs around it.

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  材料
  为了进一步减少视觉上的影响,房子会由一种与周围岩石颜色完全相同的次材料建成。所有的外墙都是由70%回收水泥制造的清水混凝土砖块建成。房屋外部的砖块对于保护房屋免受丛林火灾的破坏是必要的。房间的内部都进行了抹灰或者油成白色。所有的楼板都不留混凝土表面而是采用了抛光地砖。天花板用的是南非松木做成的梁板,让室内获得了一种黄色的主色调。
House in the Mountains / Wolff Architects第10张图片

  Materials
  To further minimise the visual impact, the house will be built of a material which is identical in colour to the rocks around it; all exterior walls of the blocks are built of fairface cement brick, made with 70% recycled concrete. The brick exterior is necessary to protect the house from bush fires.The interiors of rooms are plastered and painted white. All floors are made with polished paving brickwith no concrete surface beds. The ceilings are made with South African Pine beams and floorboards,which gives a dominant yellow colour to the interior.

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  形式设计
  在没有人工痕迹的景观是很难判断任何事务的尺度的。因而建筑把“无尺度”当作其主要特征;所有能够被观察者利用来判断尺度的房屋外部元素(屋顶,落水管,开窗等等)都被隐藏了起来。这是通过在每个建筑体块的短边各建造一个双层墙体来实现的,因为这样就可以在外层墙面的砖上切割各种开口。所有外表面上的开口尺寸都有所夸张,使建筑从远处看似尺度很小。
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  Formal strategy
  In a landscape where there are no marks of human intervention, it is hard to judge the scale of anything. Scalelessness was therefore used as a primary characteristic of the architecture; all conventional external building elements (roofs, downpipes, windows, etc.) were concealed to deprive the observer of anything to judge the scale by. This was achieved by making a double wall on each of the short sides of the blocks which allows openings to be cut into the exterior in the massive brick alone. All openings in the exterior envelope were exaggerated in size to diminish the apparent scale of the building from a distance.english text by Heinrich Wolff photo © Heinrich Wolff & James Puttick

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  本文转载:http://www.wolffarchitects.co.za/
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