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百岁贝聿铭的100:10,经典需要时间的洗礼第1张图片

Photograph by Flickr user Chris Marra

10个在贝聿铭100年人生中的最重要建筑物
IM Pei at 100: 10 of the architect's most significant buildings

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百岁贝聿铭的100:10,经典需要时间的洗礼

为了庆祝美籍华人建筑师贝聿铭今天100岁了!我们从他七十年的职业生涯中选出了10个最具代表性的建筑。

贝聿铭于1917年4月26日出生在中国广州。后来他移居美国在宾夕法尼亚大学学习建筑学,然后就读马萨诸塞理工学院(MIT),最后到哈佛大学设计研究生院学习,他曾在包豪斯大师沃尔特•格罗皮乌斯(Walter Gropius)和Marcel Breuer手下工作学习。

贝聿铭在第二次世界大战结束后为美国国防研究委员会工作,于1948年开始从事建筑业,并为从事美国房地产业巨头威廉•泽肯多夫(William Zeckendorf)工作。

他于1955年开设了自己位于纽约的建筑公司,有几次名字变动直到1989年成为贝•科布自由合伙人。贝老在这之后从全职的建筑师工作休憩一年,但直到现在都仍然继续咨询项目。

屡获殊荣的贝氏获得了AIA金牌,一九八三年获得普利茨克奖,一九八九年获得第一届建筑帝国皇家建筑奖,以及RIBA 皇家建筑奖牌。

他的建筑风格可以通过其严格的几何形状来识别——圆形,正方形和三角形的组合,剖面和立面在二维或三维的体现。

该公司的作品覆盖及弯曲的砖教堂到高耸的玻璃围墙摩天大楼,并在全球各地设有博物馆,图书馆和公民中心。这里有我们认为是他最重要的10个项目:

Chinese-American architect IM Pei turns 100 today. To celebrate, we've selected 10 of his most iconic buildings from a career that spans seven decades.
Ieoh Ming Pei was born on 26 April 1917 in Guangzhou, China. He moved to the US to study architecture at the University of Pennsylvania, then engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and finally Harvard's Graduate School of Design – where he studied under former Bauhaus masters Walter Gropius and Marcel Breuer.
After a stint working for the US National Defense Research Committee towards the end of the second world war, Pei began his architectural career, and worked for American real-estate magnate William Zeckendorf from 1948.
He went on to open his own New York-based architecture firm in 1955, which had several name changes before becoming Pei Cobb Freed & Partners in 1989. The architect retired from full-time practice a year later, but even now continues to consult on projects.
Accolades Pei has received over the years include the AIA Gold Medal in 1979, the Pritzker Prize in 1983, first Praemium Imperiale for Architecture in 1989, and the RIBA's Royal Gold Medal for architecture in 2010.
His architecture is identifiable through its strict geometries – combinations of circles, squares and triangles that manifest in both two and three dimensions in plan, section and elevation.
The firm's oeuvre ranges from a curving brick chapel to soaring glass-sheathed skyscrapers, and includes museums, libraries and civic centres in locations across the globe. Here are 10 projects we believe are among his most important:

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法国巴黎卢浮宫,1989年

也许是世界上最知名的建筑之一,贝聿铭首次在巴黎的卢浮宫博物馆提出的时候,引起了博物馆的领导和公众很大的争议。

玻璃钢和金字塔是作为对历史悠久的已有宫殿进行对比反衬的一部分,是为复合体的中央庭院设计的,可以将光线引入新的地下大厅。

Le Grand Louvre, Paris, France, 1989
Perhaps one of the most recognisable structures in the world, Pei's addition to the Musée du Louvre in Paris was highly controversial with both the museum's leadership and the public when it was first proposed.
The glass and steel pyramids were created as part of an extensive overhaul of the historic former palace, and were designed for the complex's central courtyard to allow light into a new subterranean concourse.

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Photograph by Flickr user Simon

中国香港中国银行大厦1990年

这座367.5米的摩天大楼是香港天际线最引人注目的一景。

它看似复杂的几何形状由建筑物的正方形的平面图的内向三角形形成,随着高度的增加,它们被一个接一个地移除。每个四分之一角度都有一个三角形,同样的形状在塔的玻璃幕墙上形成一个镶嵌的图案。

Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China, 1990
This 367.5-metre skyscraper is arguably the most striking on the Hong Kong skyline.
Its seemingly complex geometry is formed by the inward-facing triangular quadrants of the building's square plan, which are removed one by one as its height increases. An angled triangle caps each quarter, and the same shape forms a tessellated pattern up the tower's glass curtain walls.

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Photograph by Paulo dos Sousa

中国苏州苏州博物馆,2006

贝氏中国艺术博物馆新建筑受到古城本地建筑结构的影响。

从传统房屋借鉴黑色和白色,一同使用在玻璃屋顶的部分,都反映在其围绕的花园的大池塘中。

Suzhou Museum, Suzhou, China, 2006
Pei's new building for the museum of Chinese art and craft was influenced by the vernacular structures in the ancient city.
Black-outlined white volumes that borrow from the traditional houses are juxtaposed against sections of angular glass roof, all reflected in the large pond of the garden they surround.

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Photograph by Yueqi Jazzy Li

伊斯兰艺术博物馆,多哈,卡塔尔,2008年

贝聿铭采用传统伊斯兰模式中的严格的几何形状,创造了这座博物馆的形式,这座博物馆在中央中庭上拔地升起五层高的建筑。

该建筑位于阿拉伯海湾的一个人造岛上,由轻质的石灰石块构成,轻轻反映沙漠的阳光。北侧的玻璃幕墙可从画廊空间的五层楼全景欣赏多哈海湾和西湾地区的全景。

Museum of Islamic Art, Doha, Qatar, 2008
Pei used rigorous geometries found in traditional Islamic patterns to create the form of this museum, which staggers to rise around a five-storey tower above a central atrium.
Located on an artificial island in the Arabian Gulf, the building is constructed from light limestone blocks that softly reflect the desert sun. A glass curtain wall on the north side offers panoramic views of the Gulf and West Bay area of Doha from all five floors of gallery space.

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Photograph by Flickr user Bryan

美国达拉斯市政厅,1978年

为达拉斯市政厅选择了一个倒三角形的建筑形式分,因为较低的公民空间比上层的政府办公室所需面积少。

混凝土建筑物的侧面由巨大的垂直翼片隔断,达到了七层高的高度,有助于支撑其重量。

Dallas City Hall, Dallas, USA, 1978
An inverted triangular section was chosen for Dallas City Hall because the lower civic spaces needed less floor area than the government offices above.
The concrete building's angled sides are interrupted by monumental vertical fins, which reach the full seven-storey height and help to support their weight.

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Photograph by Flickr user Duke Lin

台湾台中,卢思纪念堂,1963年

这个基督教小教堂是贝氏比较温和的建筑之一,坐落在东海大学校园,也是建筑师的规划设计。

每侧曲折的砖墙与玻璃支架沿着结构的顶部延伸,延伸向下。在里面,墙壁上覆盖着十字交叉的混凝土格子,在木材上选择,有为更好地对抗湿度和地震活动的考量。

Luce Memorial Chapel, Taichung, Taiwan, 1963
One of Pei's more modest buildings in scale, this Christian chapel sits on the campus of Tunghai University – which the architect also masterplanned.
On each side, curving brick walls rise meet at a slither of glass that runs along the top of the structure and continues down behind the alter. Inside, the walls are covered in a lattice of criss-crossing concrete, chosen over wood to better combat humidity and seismic activity.

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Photograph by Flickr user 廖硯硯

日本京都,美秀博物馆,1997年

京都以外的山上的这座博物馆沿着一条管状的隧道,一条走道桥梁,逐步登上斜坡——将于今年晚些时候举办路易威登时装表演。

设计用于唤起传统日本建筑风格的半透明三角形的屋顶,复合体整体的折叠,并将柔和的光线引入石灰石内衬的画廊。

Miho Museum, Kyoto, Japan, 1997
This museum in the mountains outside Kyoto is reached along a tube-shaped tunnel, a walkway bridge and steps up its sloping site – set to host a Louis Vuitton catwalk show later this year.
A roof of faceted translucent triangles, designed to evoke traditional Japanese architecture, folds over the complex and allow tempered light into its limestone-lined galleries.

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美国克利夫兰,摇滚名人堂,1995年

在伊利湖畔的博物馆,记录了最著名的音乐艺术家和有影响力的人物塑造了摇滚音乐的历史。贝的目标是捕捉其运动的“能量”,并在建筑上有所展现。

两座巨大的三角形玻璃表面由一座长530英尺(162米)的塔楼组成,占地55,000平方英尺的展览空间,包括行政办公室、商店和咖啡厅。

Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Cleveland, USA, 1995
The best-known musical artists and influential figures that shaped the history of rock music are celebrated at this museum on the shore of Lake Erie. Pei's aim was to capture the "energy" of the movement in the architecture.
Two huge triangular glass surfaces are propped up by a 530-foot-tall (162-metre) tower, creating more than 55,000 square feet of exhibition space, as well as administrative offices, a shop and a cafe.

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Image courtesy of Pei Cobb Freed & Partners

美国波士顿,肯尼迪图书馆,1979年

为纪念美国第35任总统肯尼迪,建造了收藏他上任的文件和相关材料图书馆和博物馆,并展示他的人生。

1996年,肯尼迪被暗杀后,贝当选该项目建筑师,但该项目在16年后完成,其中面临着多年的挫折和位置的改变。

成果建筑坐落在波士顿海滨的一个由玻璃中庭以一定角度相交的朴素街区,周围建筑体块较小。

Kennedy Library, Boston, USA, 1979
Built to commemorate the 35th president of the United States, John F Kennedy, the library and museum contains papers and materials from his time in office, and exhibits about his life.
Pei was chosen as the architect by the family after Kennedy was assassinated in 1963, but the project faced years of setbacks and a change of location before completing 16 years later.
The resulting building sits on the Boston waterfront – an austere block intersected at an angle by a glass atrium, with lower portions surrounding the main volumes.

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Photograph by Flickr user art around

美国华盛顿特区国家美术馆东馆,1978年

除了美国国家美术馆之外,这座艺术馆坐落在该机构原有的新古典主义家园旁边,但在形式上却有明显的不同。其平面图包含较大的等腰三角形和较小的直角三角形,建筑里面也有相应的三角形和菱形空间。

石砌主楼的角落高于其中心,产生了抽象炮塔的效果。也由三角形板形成的玻璃屋顶覆盖中央中庭,也连接了建筑物的两侧。

National Gallery of Art East Building, Washington DC, USA, 1978
This addition to the American National Gallery of Art sits beside the institution's original neoclassical home, but is markedly different in form. Its plan comprises a larger isosceles and smaller right-angled triangle, subsequently creating triangular and diamond-shaped spaces inside.
The corners of the stone-clad main building rise higher than its centre, producing the effect of abstract turrets. A glass roof, also formed from triangular panels, covers the central atrium that also connects the building's two sides.


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