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建筑学生对这个世界的第一印象
A Glimpse Into the Weird World of Architecture Students' First Assignments

由专筑网李韧,韩平编译

你认为建筑是你的使命吗?你是否有激情和动力去探索这个充满创意的领域?每年,许多年轻人都决定接受高等建筑教育,但你们是否知道在工作室的第一天他们都干了些什么?事实上,老师们通过练习让这些学生们开启对建筑世界的认知。

我曾经接触过数百位教授、教授助理、客座教授,并且也了解过他们给新生布置的第一个任务。各种任务既有抽象的,也有具体的,从简单绘图到复杂项目。大多数项目为个人作品,然而也有的项目需要团队合作。以下是来自世界各地的各大院校的新生们对于建筑世界的第一印象。


具体的项目

这些小练习很简单,只是需要让学生把所学知识结合运用。在一个陌生的环境中投入建筑学习生涯的勇气值得嘉奖,教授们是希望学生从自己最熟悉的事务开始进入思考。

“我通常会给出一个由专业团队完成的设计任务,工作室成员们将开始他们自己的设计工作。在他们完成项目之后,我会为他们做个方案解析。这样做的目的并不是指明对错,而是让大家了解到,我们可以从不同的角度来解决问题。这便是设计美学。”
—波多黎各大学Melissa Vitteri Sieg

“我要求每个学生选择一个普通的形状,例如花生等生活常见物品,然后让他们开始研究其线条、曲率,目的是让学生们对物件有个快速熟悉的过程,然后利用这些信息来设计对生活有用的物体,例如扶手、座椅,甚至空间,在设计过程中,学生们可以通过制图或是手工模型的形式将作品呈现出来。这项任务通过将对象抽象表达来提升学生们的形体视觉敏感度,我比较希望他们能够以自然的方式呈现设计构思。”
—瓜达拉哈拉大学Edgar Caleb Gonzalez

“在设计工作室,我运用了能够促进创意思维的策略,帮助学生跳出常规思维方式,例如头脑风暴、类比、形态矩阵以及逆向思维等方式。然而,类比在其中具有很大的作用,让学生们能够从一个设计思路举一反三。尤其是在商业项目中,有的学生喜欢运用公司的LOGO作为设计出发点。我记得最有趣的设计概念是一个学生运用奔驰汽车公司的圆形LOGO的概念来设计其展厅,但这样设计容易导致使用空间的不足。”
—埃及开罗大学Mohammed Ghonim

“我最喜欢让新生完成的任务便是所谓的‘概念的建立’,这实际上是我学生生涯中的早期项目,后来我发现将其运用到教学中仍然益处良多。这项任务的内容是让学生设计一座诸如博物馆的公共建筑,首先,我会要求学生们建立一个设计概念,并通过统一材质的手工模型将其表达出来。同时,学生们也必须进行细部绘制,例如门窗等建筑部件。在这个练习过程中,他们会不断地寻求不同尺度、不同想法之间的平衡点,从而来确保逻辑的通畅。我的理想状况是,在完成这个项目之后,学生们能够对建筑学建立一个大致的概念范围,这将对他们的未来作品都产生一定的影响。”
—哥伦比亚大学Ben Brady

“每周我都会对学生们做一次建筑介绍,并让他们对这次的介绍讲座进行一定的构思反馈,他们通常只有几天的思考时间(这样的任务一周四次)。讲座包含了大部分建筑术语,例如建构、形式、风格、装饰、类型等等。一个星期之内他们必须了解诸如建筑师洛斯所提出的‘装饰即罪恶’的口号,而下一个星期,他们则必须开始分析常见建筑的模型。以下便是一个例子。”
—加州州立理工大学波莫那校区Sarah Lorenzen

Do you think architecture is your calling? Do you have the passion and drive to explore this creative field and learn from the best? Every year, many young people decide to take on the challenge of an architecture education, but how many have any idea what is in store for them on that first day in the design studio? In truth, the exercises given to new students by their professors reveal a lot about the architecture world.
I reached out to hundreds of professors, assistant professors, and adjunct and visiting professors to find out their favorite first-year studio design prompt. The responses varied from the abstract to the concrete, as well as from simple drawing exercises to complex steps to end at a completed work. Most projects were designed for individuals, however some required a team effort. The following is a peek into that world from a variety of educators from schools around the globe.

The Concrete Exercise
These exercises are very straightforward and allow the student to take something they know and expand upon it. Coming into a foreign environment and being thrown into the study of architecture can be very intimidating; these prompts seem to ease a student into the process of thinking through a problem by starting with the familiar:

"I typically give a real design problem, something that was designed by a professional team. The studio class would develop their own design solutions. After they had completed the project, I would show them what it was actually built. The purpose is not to say what’s right or what’s wrong. We can address the same problem from different angles. That’s the beauty of design."
– Melissa Vitteri Sieg, Universidad de Puerto Rico

"I asked each student to select an ordinary shape, like a peanut or something similar. They were required to study its lines, curvatures, and so on until they were very familiar with it and then use the information they gathered to design anything useful to humans, such as a handle, a seat, a space, etc. The students could present in drawing or model form. This helped mold their vision of everyday shapes by abstracting them into utilitarian objects. I loved exposing them to shapes in nature."
– Edgar Caleb Gonzalez, Universidad Cuauhtemoc de Guadalajara

"In the design studio, I actually use a number of techniques that facilitate creative thinking and help students to think outside the box such as brainstorming, analogy, morphological matrix and reversal thinking. However, analogy is the most repetitively used technique, where students choose a design prompt that is analogous to the design problem at hand. In some projects, especially commercial ones, some students tend to use the logo of the company as a prompt. One of the funniest ideas that I remember was a student’s concept to create a showroom for Mercedes Benz inside their tri-star logo, which was far too slim to adequately accommodate the required spaces!"
– Mohammed Ghonim, Cairo University

"My favorite exercise for the first year studio is what I call establishing spectrum. This was actually one of my early assignments as a student and I find it relevant to teaching still. The basics of the assignment would be to assign the students to design a building (say a museum for example). First, the students are asked to develop a conceptual massing of the building on site working on the scale of the building in its context. The deliverable is very conceptual and often a material-less model. At the same time, the students have to draw, in detail, a window or door for the same building. In this exercise, they align a large scale idea with a small, tactile idea and make sure they are trying to tell the same story. Ideally, after this exercise, the students have established both ends of a spectrum that they can qualify their future ideas against."
– Ben Brady, Columbia University

"Every week I make my 1st-year intro to architecture students create visual responses to the lectures--they only have a few days to respond (they do 4 per week). Lectures cover where many of the terms architects use come from - what is tectonic, form, style, ornament, typology, etc. Assignments are often tongue-in-cheek. One week they had to "ornament" a "functionalist" building in response to Loos. Another week they had to make diagrammatic "models" of buildings with food or household objects. Below is an example!"
– Sarah Lorenzen, Cal Poly Pomona

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团队项目

当你深入了解未知的设计世界时,团队合作往往能够激发你的各种创造性思维,亦或是当你逐步了解这个抽象的领域,团队之间有着相互学习的好机会。下面便是一些让学生们经过团队合作而完成的设计项目。

“该任务需要让学生们绘制一张自己居住的城市地图,在绘制过程中没有任何的谷歌参考和其他定位系统的帮助。每个学生都需要创建这样一张地图来表达出他们从家来到学校的路线。他们唯一的经历便是他们的集体记忆和他们来到城市不同地区的方式。学生们可以在功能混合的平面和空中鸟瞰图中寻求灵感,当每个作品完成后,下一个任务便是绘制一张包含所有功能单元的地图,下面这张照片是最后的成果。”
—印度艾哈迈达巴德大学Manuel M. de las Heras

The Group Exercise
Power in numbers! As you delve into the unknown world of design it is comforting to have a peer to bounce your ideas off of, or to learn from each other as you tiptoe into this special world. The following design problems give the student comfort as they work together in creating the end result:
"This exercise consisted of making a group map of the city concentrating on the city that each student lived, with no reference to Google or any other global positioning system. Each student needed to create a map showing the route they took to get to school from home. The only thing they had was their collective navigational memories and the way they negotiate between them to locate different sides of the city. The students were instructed to mix plan and aerial perspective and play with hatches and line types. Once each individual map was completed the next task was to create one map with all the units. The photo below is the final result."
– Manuel M. de las Heras, IDEA Department of INDUS University Ahmedabad, India

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“我通常让新生们一开始就学着团队合作,我会将他们分成5到6个小组,在一张约6英尺见方的纸上画出一些列同心圆,一个学生首先用碳素笔画一个约拳头大小的圆圈,然后下一个学生同样运用碳素笔在其周围再画一个圆来纠正其中的错误。这种方式的工作将会持续几天,直到最终画出一个直径在4至5英寸之间的完美圆形。然后我们便开始讨论这个圆形的构思,以及它的构成,讨论其中的相对和绝对理论,甚至其中所包含的对于物质世界的反作用。这个项目很简单,因为每个人都知道圆形是什么,但是大多数人并没有花太多的时间去分析考虑其中的各项规律与原则。因此在短短的几天内,我们通过讨论,学生们会逐渐了解其中的工具、制图、构思、几何、历史,甚至文脉,这些要素在未来的设计生涯中至关重要。”
—弗吉尼亚理工大学James Bassett

“一个大型冰屋展示于明尼苏达大学西校区,展出时间为期两周,教授要求学生分为三个小组,并合作设计一座临时庇护场所,这主要为冬季在明尼苏达湖上进行冰面捕鱼的人们休憩储藏所用。这些临时作品色彩各异,种类繁多,但它们的功能相同,都是保护渔民免受当地刺骨寒风之苦。而教授们对于这座建筑的要求是它们必须轻便易于携带,而且必须由当地传统材质冰块制成。另一个限制便是建筑策略,教授们要求学生们运用一种类似纺织的当地传统方法。那么,这项工作总结起来便是通过冰块喷雾将一个又一个的纺织结构固定起来,通过这种方法,这些单体构件可以不需要其他外力的支撑,每个构件都能承担自身的重量。另外,这些部件也具有夜光的特点,在夜晚它们如同灯笼般闪闪发光,而在白天也能形成不易察觉的自然反射。冬去春来,冰块逐渐融化,这些冰屋的使用者甚至还可以带走满满一盒子冰块。我特别喜欢这个项目是因为它让学生们了解到什么是团队合作和团队精神,我还希望他们能够了解到每个项目都具有不同的规模和寿命周期。对他们来说,让他们亲手设计建造这样一个真实的建筑具有无与伦比的价值。”
—明尼苏达大学设计学院Ali Heshmati

"The first project that I usually introduce is a group project. Students get into small groups of 5-6, and on a large piece of paper (6 feet square) draw a series of concentric, freehand circles. One student begins by drawing a circle in graphite, about the size of a fist. The next student attempts to correct the imperfections in that circle by drawing one around it, also in graphite (using a 1-inch bar of soft graphite). They continue on this way for a few days until the circle is about 4-5 feet in diameter. We discuss the idea of circle, of what makes a circle, and the tension between the relative and absolute, between the idea of a thing and the forces acting on something coming into the physical world. The project is simple in that everyone knows a circle, but most haven’t spent much time thinking about them. In just a few days, large questions about the role of media, tools, drawing, ideas, geometry, history, and context have been introduced, and these are returned to throughout the year."
– James Bassett, Virginia Tech

"Ice House was described as a full-scale installation on the grounds of the University of Minnesota's west bank campus to be on public display for two weeks. Students in groups of three were asked to design a temporal shelter programmatically similar to ice-fishing shelters that occupy the surface of Minnesota’s lakes every winter. These temporary villages are colorful and varied but they all have one purpose: to shelter the fishermen from the bitter cold winter winds in the area. Our architectural bent to this was that they had to be both portable and temporary! Furthermore, they had to be made of a widely available regional material, ice. That is to say, the main component of these shelters had to be ice but not in the traditional sense of ice blocks used as masonry. Another limitation they had was the building method which we had defined as a textile/tensile method of construction. As you can imagine, they produced their work mainly by spray-freezing a fabric structure to a point that they could remove all supports and let the ice structure stand under its own weight. These structures became luminous light structures that glow like lanterns at night and allow the natural light in during the day. At the end of the season, the ice would melt and the owners would have a box of wet fabric to take home. I like the project because it gives them the sense of collaboration and teamwork that dominates the profession. I also want them to know that architectural projects can be of all scales and duration. For them, I think the hands-on design and construction of a real scale project that would sit in a public space was a source of great frustration and ultimately value."
– Ali Heshmati, College of Design, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

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手绘练习

这些手绘练习清晰易懂,通过铅笔、目测,结合思考的方式来完成最终的项目出图。这是一项与电脑出图无法比拟的工作,因为手绘练习每个细节都必须通过一笔一划来完成,而在电脑上则可以任意地复制粘贴。一支铅笔应当成为建筑师最犀利的武器。

“我让新生们完成的第一个任务是自然绘图练习,例如画一棵树,或描绘树叶的细节。这样做有两个目的,其一是减轻并且舒缓学生们对于建筑设计的恐惧,因为相比起整座建筑,一棵树或是树叶绘制起来相对容易得多,另外,通过对于自然结构的绘制,可以帮助学生们提升建立起后期的建筑理念。”
—罗彻斯特理工学院Nana Andoh

“我个人最喜欢的是简单的拓补结构的练习,我们把约50张椅子放在学校的门厅里,然后并不是要求学生们去画椅子,而是除了椅子之外的任何物体。通过观察,也许学生能够看到明暗的光影变化,也许能够看到正反的对比轮廓,抑或是物体形态的边缘。其中的意思便是,学生们应该学会画真正看到的东西,而不是想象中的物体。”
—夏威夷大学马诺阿分校建筑学院Simon M.

“我们总是以简短的说明直接开始一项任务。今年学期刚过半,在学生们完成几何构成的探索之后,我们希望通过一个简单的图形表达来加深学生们对于几何概念的理解。正如著名电影评论家Roger Ebert说的那样:‘这不是关乎电影内容,而是关乎电影的操作。’我们让学生们通过短短几分钟画出他们的思考过程,亦或是表达出你的住所地点,以及如何准备你最喜欢的食谱、如何进行你最喜欢的体育运动,还可以通过一副二十分钟完成的作品来描述他们设计的组成部分及其关联。然后在午后的讨论中相互展示与探讨,这样大家不仅能够学到不同的表达方式,还能够更加了解彼此之间的思维模式。”
—夏威夷大学马诺阿分校建筑学院Karla Sierralta

The Drawing Exercise
These drawing exercises are clear and easy to understand. Holding that pencil creates a connection between your eyes, mind, and hand as you create the final product. It is an exercise you cannot compare to drawing on the computer where many will cut, copy, and paste. To actually hold a pencil in your hand offers a freedom that should not be neglected:

"The first assignment I give to my first-year design students in architecture is a nature drawing exercise, and specifically drawing a tree and a detail of a leaf from that tree. I do this for two reasons: It’s a way to disarm anxious students and alleviate any immediate nerves about getting in to architecture as trees and leaves can be less intimidating (and I pick the tree) than buildings in some respect; and Nature has often served as inspiration for architecture so this exercise helps establish a foundational appreciation for the innate structure and architecture in nature."
– Nana Andoh, Rochester Institute of Technology

"My personal favorite was a simple positive/negative drawing exercise. We stacked chairs in the school lobby, maybe 50 of them, then asked students not to draw the chairs, but everything that isn't the chairs, through the chairs. Blur your eyes; maybe go cross-eyed to see just the light and dark, just contrast, just the shapes, just the edges and boundaries of a figure-ground. You learn to draw what you actually see, not what you "think" you see; no symbols, only contours and form."
– Simon M. Bussiere, HIDESIGN, the School of Architecture, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa

"We always begin an assignment with a short provocation as a preamble to the notions being introduced. This year, halfway through the semester, after the students had explored geometry, composition basics and fundamentals of systems thinking, we wanted to present the importance of diagramming as a simple way of explaining something graphically. As Roger Ebert, the renowned film critic once said, “It’s not what a movie is about, its how it is about it.” We tasked the students with drawing how their designs were “about their ideas.” A series of timed prompts guided the workshop. A one-minute drawing, a series of five-minute drawings (diagram where you live, how to prepare your favorite recipe, how to play your favorite team sport or game) and a final twenty-minute drawing explaining the components, relationships, and operations that explained their designs. The one-afternoon charrette resulted in a memorable, dynamic series of pencils-up, pencils-down exercises and show-and-tell sessions, where we surprisingly learned not only about diagramming but about each other."
– Karla Sierralta, HIDESIGN, the School of Architecture, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa

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抽象的练习

这些练习最受学生的欢迎,可以让学生们通过完全不同的思考方式来表达思维,并且创造出全新的空间环境。这样的练习要求学生们跳出原有的固定思维,从而去探索生命中的未知领域。

“我的第一个项目‘气球动物’由两个个体组成,一个是人类躯体,另一个是无生命意识的气球。该项目将没有生命的物体拟人化,这两个对象就如同建筑原型一般,第一个模拟了人体,同时也是我们自己的象征,这让我们对人体的不同形态与尺度进行了研究,这是我们第一个项目中的主要部分,并且这种研究对于之后的建筑设计大有益处。而该项目的第二个元素则是一个无生命的躯体,虽然它没有生命体征,但它仍有属于自己的构造,通过独特的结构,每个物件都有特别的形态与表现。这个物体让我们了解到,物质也能具有代表性。在对每个物体进行简单地检查之后,我们将它们组合在一起,从而形成第三个形体。它们的组合让我们了解到,设计师可以自由地表达构思,同时各个部分的组合是不同物体维度与空间上的妥协,也是某个物体融入整个环境的过程,这些也许就是建筑的最初概念。”
—加州大学伯克利分校Kyle Steinfeld

“我会要求学生们带一副普通的扑克牌,然后用它们来组合成一个形体模块。首先,学生们要自行选择设计类型,例如一维、二维,或三维空间,也可以自行选择操作方式,例如弯曲、重组、编织等,然后结合不同的类型与方式来设计一个形体组合。在这个过程中,学生们不可以使用多余的粘合材料。我把这个过程称为‘模拟参数’,因为学生们可以按照需求自行调整‘参数’,并学着适应各种不同的约束条件。你可以在他们最终的绘图作品中了解到整个过程。”
—内布拉斯加大学林肯分校Brian Kelly

The Abstract Exercise
These chimerical exercises are a favorite that combine all of your senses and turn them upside down! They make you think in a totally different way that creates a completely new way of looking at your surroundings. They require the student to leave their comfort zone and jump into the unknown:

"My first project, “balloon animals,” consists of two bodies, one human and the other inanimate (a balloon). This inanimate object is still able to be anthropomorphic or possibly even zoomorphic. These two objects will be the generator of a proto-architecture. The first is a simulation of a human body, perhaps one similar to our own, which is examined in motion and in terms of dimension, proportion, and expressive gesture. This first body is a proxy for architectural occupation in our first project, and the accommodation of the particular gesture being studied is a proxy for architectural program. The second is an inanimate body which, while lifeless, possesses its own anatomy nonetheless, and is able to receive the imprint of the expressive forces that give it form. This second body shows us that material, too, is capable of gesture. After examining each of these bodies on their own, we subject them to an operation designed to bring them together to form a third. Their integration offers the first moment of this project at which we are, from one point of view, free to express ourselves as designers, as the negotiation of the dimensional and gestural requirements of these forms, one the embodiment of interior forces and the other shaped by environmental ones, may be seen to fulfill the very definition of architecture."
– Kyle Steinfeld, UC Berkley

"My favorite design prompt is when I asked students to bring in an ordinary deck of playing cards and develop a module which could adjust to create an aggregate form. The student is asked to choose an arrangement (linear, planar, or volumetric) and an operation (bend, overlap, pinch, weave, nest, flock, or warp) and design a composition from their personal exploration of the arrangement and operation. The playing cards are manipulated into models without using any adhesive materials and become a composition foreign from their original state. I often referred to this as “analog parametric” where students identify the range of parameters which they could adjust, and work from that constraint. You can see that in the algorithmic drawing process where it becomes an instruction set."
– Brian Kelly, University of Nebraska – Lincoln

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还记得你交的第一份建筑学作业么?第8张图片
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“该项目名为‘定义空间’。在24小时之后,便直接开始演示过程。我几乎每天都在思考类似的问题。从教育者的角度来说,这些任务能够颠覆新生们的原有思路,但这至关重要,因为很多人往往缺乏批判性思维。对于设计师来说,最大的挑战便是打破固化思维去创造一个新东西,这些技能一旦掌握,便将受益终身。”
—弗吉尼亚理工大学Jack Davis

“我们的新生任务是完成一个所谓的‘清空口袋’的任务。我们为学生们提供一张纸,让他们通过自己口袋里的东西来完成一个自画像。整个过程只有3分钟,但学生们往往会交出让人惊讶的作品。”
—路易斯安那大学拉法叶分校Hector LaSala

"The prompt was: “define space.” Twenty-four hours later, presentations were made. I have struggled with questions like that every day since. From the educator's side, these challenges are critical to “upending” the mindset of high school graduates, who often lack in critical thinking skills. The challenges of any designer are to create anew by asking the challenging questions. Once learned, these skills last a lifetime."
– Jack Davis, Virginia Tech

"The one we do and one that astonishes us and them is what I called “Empty Your Pockets.” We give a paper page and asked them to do a self-portrait just using the objects in their pockets, purses, and bags. In addition, you only have three minutes to do so. It freaks them out but the results are amazing."
– Hector LaSala, University of Louisiana Lafayette

还记得你交的第一份建筑学作业么?第9张图片
via Aric Gitomer

建筑教育并没有、也不应该遵循过于传统的规则与指导方式。然而,仍然有许多类似Association of Architectural Educators (AAE)和National Conference of the Beginning Design Student这样的组织在探索钻研建筑学的教育体系。这条道路永远没有终点,因为每个人所适合的方式都有所不同,这取决于个人的成长环境、思想方式,以及过往经验。以上列出的是一些对于新生教育初始策略的经典案例。

Architecture education does not follow a set of rules and guidelines in terms of how to create the future architect. However, there are organizations that explore and delve into the idea of teaching architecture such as the Association of Architectural Educators (AAE) and the National Conference of the Beginning Design Student. It is a journey that each individual takes and the road varies depending upon many factors such as your previous experiences, your future experiences and the initial year of design studio. The varied assignments above are a small sampling of the foundation of what students build upon to become their future selves.

还记得你交的第一份建筑学作业么?第10张图片
via Aric Gitomer

作者介绍:

Aric Gitomer是一位建筑师,其私人公司LLC是一家小型建筑事务所,主要业务是与客户一对一进行建筑咨询与设计。Aric Gitomer是美国注册建筑师,已有30多年的从业经验。他的主要项目是住宅翻新、新建筑设计,以及扩建、改建等。

Aric Gitomer Architect, LLC is a small, boutique architectural practice giving one on one attention to each individual client. Aric Gitomer, AIA principal has been creating solutions for over 30 years. He specializes in home renovation, new construction, additions and alterations.

还记得你交的第一份建筑学作业么?第11张图片
via Aric Gitomer

还记得你交的第一份建筑学作业么?第12张图片
via Aric Gitomer


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。
        
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