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Weaving the Waterfront

由专筑网胡婧宜,李韧编译

“这是一个极具前瞻性的设计方案。通过针对海岸的三种策略,提出了可以持续百年的方案。”——2017学生奖评审团评语

“A really smart project. It clearly explored three strategies and proposed a design that will work for 100 years.”
- 2017 Awards Jury


项目背景:

在将近四个世纪的时间里,Kingston Point 海岸经历了自然和人文的兴衰变迁,呈现了壮阔而丰富的历史文化和生态资源。然而如今,这些美好的东西受到了气候变化的威胁,并可能最终消逝。所以我们最重要的设计任务就是让它富于生机和活力,并让这一态势保持下去。

“编织海岸”设计方案包含了三条策略:适应、加固和恢复,用于复兴Kingston Point 沿岸38.3英亩(约15.5公顷)的场地。项目的着眼点在于关于气候变化的弹性适应策略以及公共空间和湿地生态修复,最终通过动态的措施和轻微的人工干预适应自然、人文和气候变化。

For over four century, waterfront of Kingston Point have experienced vicissitude of both nature and culture providing spectacular beauty, rich history, and ecological resources. Today, however, these values are threatened by changing climate and will end up in decrement and fragmentation. It is the major task to make the waterfront vibrant and active through the next hundred years and beyond for generations.
The Weaving the Waterfront proposal revitalizes a 38.3-acre site along the Kingston Point by introducing original ideas of ADAPT, REINFORCE and RETURN. Focusing on the issues of climate resilient strategies, public spaces, and wetland restoration, this proposal coordinate nature, human and climate change with dynamic process and minimized earthwork.

编织海岸,生态与人文的融合,未来与过去的交织第1张图片

▲项目总平/Master Plan

项目介绍:

1. 介绍:

Kingston海岸是Hudson山谷的一个重要节点,这片海岸在20世纪上半叶有着丰富的工业、交通、商业和航运业。在50年代前后,繁荣逐渐消退,很多海岸逐渐被人遗忘和污染。过去的几十年里,由于人们对环境保护的重新重视,Kingston海岸又恢复了一定的生态和景观价值。

Introduction:
Being an important node of Hudson valley, Kingston’s waterfront was a nexus of river-based industry, transportation, commerce and maritime activity during the early 1900s. The prosperity shifted away and declined in the 1950s leaving many waterfronts neglected and polluted. In the last couple of decades, however, the Kingston waterfront has regained its ecologic and scenic value with constant efforts of environmental regulations.

编织海岸,生态与人文的融合,未来与过去的交织第2张图片

▲Kingston 海岸的自然和文化价值经历了四百年的变迁,并面对着由于气候变化带来的新挑战/Chronological Development of Kingston Point,The vicissitude of Kingston waterfront's nature and culture values in the past four hundred years and new challenge brought by climate change

2. 气候变化带来的挑战和机遇:

Kingston海岸正面临着一些重要挑战,例如飓风和热带风暴带来的频繁洪水,尤其当海水涨潮时,仅仅几英寸的降水量就可能引发洪水。

从长远看,海平面的上升可能会淹没大部分海岸地区,并且使海岸线变得模糊,这同时这会对湿地生态系统多样性和结构产生不良影响,因此也会影响Kingston Point 地区的生物多样性。作为陆地和海洋之间的缓冲区,海岸的自适应能力应该得到大大提升。

除了生态价值之外,海岸的景观价值以及提供亲水娱乐活动的价值同样不可替代。如果将气候变化的呼应策略与公共功能空间相互交融,那么海岸的生态价值和景观价值都可以得到很好的体现。

Challenges and Chances Brought by Climate Change:
It is now at an important stage for Kingston’s waterfront to adapt to several new challenges. Today, Kingston’s waterfront is experiencing more and more frequent flooding caused by hurricane and tropical storms, especially when high tide period coincide with a few inches of rain.
In the long term, sea level rise will take away a large part of the waterfront and weaken the shoreline, which will also impact the types and structures of wetland habitats and thus influence the diversity of Kingston Point area. Serving as the only buffer zone between land and water, it is essential to ensure waterfront’s capability of coping with these changes.
Except for ecologic values, the scenic values and water-related recreational activities of Kingston’s waterfront are also irreplaceable. By weaving the climate-resilient programs and public spaces together properly, both ecological and scenic values are honored.

编织海岸,生态与人文的融合,未来与过去的交织第3张图片

▲2050年总平:针对气候的弹性策略以及亲水的活动空间将与滨水区域“编织”在一起,增加区域的功能性和生物多样性,即使在极端天气或者气候灾害条件下也能保证区域的景观和生态价值/Master Plan 2050,Climate-resilient strategies and water-dependent activity spaces and added and weaved in the waterfront area, making the place accessible and diversified even in extreme weather and anticipated climate-threatened future.

编织海岸,生态与人文的融合,未来与过去的交织第4张图片

▲海平面上升的挑战和策略:利用提出的动态设计策略,海滨区域将会在数世纪内保持稳定、充满活力的可持续发展/Sea Level Rise Challenge and Strategies,With the dynmaic design of the proposal, the waterfront would stay strengthened, vibrant and continous through the next century and beyond.

编织海岸,生态与人文的融合,未来与过去的交织第5张图片

▲三种主要的“编织”策略:适应、加固和恢复/ADAPT,Three main weaving programs: ADAPT, REINFORCE and RETURN.

编织海岸,生态与人文的融合,未来与过去的交织第6张图片

▲这三种策略的阶段性方案保证了场地在建设和生长期间的安全性和吸引力/Phases,Phasing strategies of the three programs ensure that the site remains safe and attractive during its construction and developing.


3. 适应,加固和恢复:

我们提出了三种主要的策略:适应、加固和恢复。

“适应”策略主要应用于场地的北部。通过“自然堤岸”(living shoreline: 由如植物、沙或石头等自然材料保护和加固的海岸,并不像混凝土或者其它硬质材料形成的堤岸,自然堤岸会随时间生长而变化)保护海岸免受海浪的侵蚀,并且营造出更多的湿地栖息地,尤其是为那些受到威胁的传统物种。为了增加沙滩和历史文化景点Smorgasburg之间的连通性和可到达性,方案中设计了一座伸向水中的景观桥。

Adapt, Reinforce and Return:
There are three main weaving programs: ADAPT, REINFORCE and RETURN.
The program ADAPT happens in the north area of the site. A living shoreline is adopted to protect the waterfront from wave erosion and create more wetland habitats, especially for those threatened local species. To increase the connectivity and accessibility of the waterfront area between the beach and the historical attraction Smorgasburg, an overlook bridge reaching out into water will be built.

编织海岸,生态与人文的融合,未来与过去的交织第7张图片

▲“适应”策略:自然堤岸和景观桥将用于保护海岸免受海浪侵蚀,营造更多的生态场所,并增加海滩和历史景点之间的连通性和可到达性/ADAPT,A living shoreline and an overlook bridge are adopted to protect the waterfront from wave force, create more habitats and increase the connectivity and accessibility between the beach and the historical attraction.

“加固”策略用在场地的中段,用于保护和加固现有海岸,这段海岸深受当地居民和游客喜爱。梯田海岸在施工中并不耗费大量的土方工程,但能有效解决海平面上升以及潮汐变化等问题。通过建设三道混凝土墙,并且对沙滩海平面做少许抬升,就能使沙滩的寿命延长到2080年。同时在梯田海岸后方,湿地将会逐渐取代草地,并在2100年成为主要地貌,届时最高最宽的墙体也会形成一条功能性道路。

REINFORCE locates in the middle of the site to keep and strengthen the existing beach that widely loved by locals and visitors. An idea of terraced beach is introduced to cope with rising sea level and tidal erosion with minimal change. With construction of three concrete walls and a tiny bit of elevation of the sand level, functions of the sand beach will be prolonged to 2080 until it’s finally inundated, while wetland will gradually take over the lawn behind the terraced beach and become dominant in 2100, turning the highest and widest wall into a elevated path to a functional pathway.

编织海岸,生态与人文的融合,未来与过去的交织第8张图片

▲“加固”策略:梯田状的海岸可以保护沙滩直到2080年,到2100年草地会逐渐被湿地取代,并且将最高最宽的墙转化为功能性道路/Reinforce,A terraced beach strategy will protect sand beach to 2080, while wetland will gradually take over the lawn and become dominant in 2100, turning the highest and widest wall into a elevated path to a functional pathway.

在场地的南段,“恢复”策略通过建设航海文化公园来编织过去与未来、自然与文化。这片区域现在遗留了几只储油罐,我们将选择其中的几个,保留其形式和元素,从而构成文化公园的细部特征与历史气息。公园内道路系统将结合现状地貌,为人们带来更好的行走体验。在公园内还会放置一些新型装置,例如雕塑等艺术作品,通过这种方式,Kingston Point海岸能够重现维多利亚时期的盛况。

On the south area of the site, the program RETURN is aiming to weave the past and future, nature and culture by building a Maritime Cultural Park at the highland area currently occupied by oil storage tanks. Forms, elements and several individuals of the tanks will be kept and transformed to details and structures of the proposed cultural park. A pathway system is designed according to landform to provide better walking experience. New installations such as sculptures and land art works are also provided. As a result, the tiptop area with best view in Kingston Point will be returned back to public and prosperity of Victorian ages.

编织海岸,生态与人文的融合,未来与过去的交织第9张图片

▲“恢复”策略:一个航海文化公园将会在现有的几只储油罐的基础上建造,公园将再现Kingston Point维多利亚时期的盛况/Return,A Maritime Cultural Park will be built with forms, elements and several individuals of the current oil tanks, returning the tiptop area with best view in Kingston Point back to public and prosperity of Victorian ages.

4. 总结:

通过对适应、加强和恢复这三个基本策略的应用,我们将Kingston海滨空间整合改造成了一个无关乎时间的活力空间,以此来适应全球气候变化,并且满足人们对安全稳定的海滨空间的需求。

Conclusion:
By introducing original ideas of ADAPT, REINFORCE and RETURE, the proposal integrate Kingston’s waterfront to a vibrant and active place both in short and long time span to adapt to the anticipated effects of global climate change and people’s need for safe and stable waterfront space.

编织海岸,生态与人文的融合,未来与过去的交织第10张图片

▲项目建成将提供更多的亲水活动;维持道路的通畅,保护湿地环境/Metrics,As the metrics shows, more water-dependent activities will be provided; walking accessibility will be maintained; different types of wetland will be protected.

编织海岸,生态与人文的融合,未来与过去的交织第11张图片

▲2050年和2080年的平面图及剖面图/The plans and sections show the anticipated site situation after design in 2050 and 2080


2017ASLA学生通用设计奖
团队:Hong Gao, Luyao Kong, Qianli Feng
指导老师:Joshua Cerra
学校:康奈尔大学
图片:History photo of Kingston Point Amusement Park is archive from Hudson River Maritime Museum; 
Google Earth Pro

2017 ASLA STUDENT AWARDS
Team: Hong Gao, Student ASLA; Luyao Kong, Student ASLA; Qianli Feng, Student ASLA
Faculty Advisor: Joshua Cerra, ASLA
Cornell University
Photo Credit: History photo of Kingston Point Amusement Park is archive from Hudson River Maritime Museum; 
Google Earth Pro
                                            

出处:本文译自www.asla.org/,转载请注明出处。

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