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欧洲建筑简史告诉你关于公共空间的演变第1张图片

法国马赛老港亭总体规划 /Masterplan for Marseille’s Vieux Port. Foster+Parners. Image Courtesy of CCCB

欧洲建筑历史快速指南,公共空间发生了什么?
What Happened to Public Space? A Quick Guide Through Europe’s History

由专筑网缕夕,李韧编译

公共空间构成城市。它们是视觉与社交场所,这些区域无形之中将各个功能区域分隔开。优质的公共空间能够表达城市特征,同时也能为居民带来社区感与场所性,这也是城市结构演变的结果。为什么公共空间是城市的重要领域,它如何表达平等和民主?

Public spaces make cities. They are the spaces of visibility and sociability, the areas where the invisible boundaries that separate us socio-economically are temporarily contested. The availability of quality public space is one of the varied characteristics that define the city. Citizens recognize themselves as members of a community only when they can equally access and use the public “place”, which also presents the result of evolution and growing up of the urban fabric. Why is public space such an essential area of cities and how it is translated in terms of equality and democracy?

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古希腊集会重建/Reconstruction of the Ancient Greek Agora in Athens

起源:希腊集市

Agora是古希腊的中心,是希腊城邦政治、经济和社会生活的焦点。Agora解释为“聚会地点”或“集会”,是西方民主思想的诞生地,也是民主自治的基本场所。最初,Agora通过私人住宅围合而成,成为家庭住宅的延伸。后来,由于寺庙和避难所邻近其柱廊而建,Agora则逐渐演变成有盖顶的人行道和门廊。

The Beginning: The Greek Agora
The Agora was the central spot in ancient Greek states, the focal point of the political, economic, and social life in the Greek polis. Its literal meaning is “gathering place” or “assembly”. It is where the idea of Western democracy was born, the arena of political deliberation and participation which are the fundamentals of democratic governance. At first, the Agora was surrounded by private houses being the extension of the home. Later, temples and sanctuaries were build bordering it with stoas, covered walkways, and porticoes.

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罗马广场重建/Reconstruction of The Roman Forum

罗马广场

罗马广场与希腊集市是同时期的产物,并且罗马广场的形式可能受希腊集市的影响,因为早期的伊特鲁里亚城市中没有类似的公共空间。广场布局通常呈几何形状,主要为矩形,比例为2:3,整个空间由柱廊围合。在这个大空间里不仅布置了寺庙、大教堂、商店和市场,它还融合了宗教和公民活动。在广场里,可以看到剧场、公共澡堂,甚至用于市议会议和政治会议的聚集场所。罗马广场在往后的发展中,变得更加封闭,形成了一系列独立的空间。

The Roman Forum
It is the parallel of the Greek Agora and probably influenced by it, as there is no trace of a similar public space in the earlier Etruscan cities. Forums usually have a geometric, basically rectangular shape, in a proportion of 2 to 3, surrounded by porticoes. They blended both religious and civic activities as they housed temples, basilicas, shops and markets. It was also common to find a theater and a public bath, as well as the curia (used for city council meetings) and comitium (political meeting). In later stages the Forums became more defined and enclosed, forming a series of separate spaces.

欧洲建筑简史告诉你关于公共空间的演变第4张图片


中世纪的集市广场

中世纪城市的商业发展突出,市场成为城市的主要公共空间,主要用于交易。大教堂是中世纪城市的主要建筑,在各种活动的周边地区,总会存在着市场。然而,从此时开始,公共和私人空间之间的界限变得较为明晰。为了防御侵略者,城市空间逐渐封闭,城墙内的空间可用性有限,因此人们对于私人空间的需求一直无法得到满足。

The Medieval Market Square
The medieval city was a place of trade. One or more marketplaces were devoted to trading, as the main public spaces of the city. The cathedral was the main institution of the growing city of the Middle Ages, and the marketplace could often be found in an adjacent space, to take advantage of the constant activity. However, this is a time when the tension between public and private space started to emerge. Cities were walled for protection against invaders and the availability of space within the walls was limited, so there was a continuous pressure for claiming space for private use.

欧洲建筑简史告诉你关于公共空间的演变第5张图片

意大利威尼斯圣马可广场/The San Marco Square in Venice, Italy

文艺复兴广场

文艺复兴时期和巴洛克风格的广场经过精心设计,整体呈规整和对称的形态。在这些广场周围的建筑立面比例严谨。这个时期出现了全新的设计形式,那便是广场周围的住宅小区,这些住宅主要为上层阶级服务,具有半公开性质。那么,这就限制了大众对于广场的使用,同时促进了这些住宅区的发展。

The Renaissance Plaza
The Renaissance and the Baroque square was carefully planned, formally and symmetrically designed. The importance of proportion and harmony was visible in the uniform facades of the buildings surrounding these squares. This is when a new designing tradition begins: residential quarters around squares – primarily for the upper class – forming a semi-public character. Apparently, this ability to restrict public access to the use of these squares made them more popular among developers of new residential districts.

欧洲建筑简史告诉你关于公共空间的演变第6张图片

勒·柯布西耶的巴黎瓦赞规划/Le Corbusier’s Plan Voisin for Paris

现代主义的公共空间

现代主义者遵循这样的名言,即“形式追随功能”。 因此,现代主义者的功能主义优先考虑汽车和城市空间的关系,这种观念打破了开放空间与周围建筑之间的密切关系。这座城市及其公共空间成为有组织的系统,根据功能主义规则进行发展。尽管人们不断强调城市公共利益为首要目标,但现代主义者很少关注公共空间的历史意义。高楼林立的城市中,开放空间也逐渐增多,但这些空间与城市其他场所的联系甚少,这样的空间其实并不存在社交功能。

The Public Space in Modernism
The era of the modernism is stigmatized with the motto: “Form Follows Function”. The functionalism of modernists, therefore, gave priority to cars and fast movement urban space, a notion that undermined the close relationship between open spaces and the building surrounding them. The city and its public space were designed as an organized system, where development ensued according to functionalist rules. Despite their emphasis on the primary of public interests in the city, the modernists paid little attention to the historically created public spaces. The new vision of the city was expanded open spaces where high buildings were erected, but with no other connection to the rest of the city. A “lost space” where sociability was impossible.

欧洲建筑简史告诉你关于公共空间的演变第7张图片

1968年法国五月风暴/Students protesting in Paris, May ’68. Photograph: Serge Hambourg. Courtesy of Hood Museum of Art

公共空间和社会行动主义

在政治动荡的时期,公共空间几乎是社会事件的起源地。在二十世纪六十年代,社会和政治事件在这些空间频频发生,人们常常在这里通过横幅、壁画、涂鸦的形式进行抗议活动。示威者经常占据公共场所,有时甚至是私人场所,来表达他们对当下政策的不满。公民对于城市开放空间使用的理念,促进了各种“维权”运动的产生。

Public Space and Social Activism
During times of political instability, the public space is charged as a vortex of social discontent. In the 1960’s social and political turmoils were frequently played out in public spaces, which were decorated with the language of protest (banners, murals, graffiti). Protestors frequently appropriated public spaces, and sometimes private ones, to voice their dissent. The notion that citizens can and should take control of open spaces was very vivid in these times, establishing the “right to the city” movement.

欧洲建筑简史告诉你关于公共空间的演变第8张图片

伯明翰购物中心/The Grand Central Shopping Mall in Birmingham

当代公共空间

当代城市的公共空间受到资本和私有化的压力,这正在逐渐改变其社会和物质形式,导致公共领域的显著减少。绿色公园、露天广场和河滨小道逐渐演变成私人“领域”,那么人们的“小圈子”也应运而生。当前的场所并没有明确的使用界限,是一个“灰色地带”。这些灰空间不具有任何象征性的表达,它们缺乏特征,只是普通的消费场所,如咖啡店和购物中心。

城市公共空间的形成反映了民主自治的重要作用。经过几个世纪的转变之后,此时的城市公共空间正处在转型时期。公共空间成功发展的重任不仅仅存在于建筑师、城市设计师或城市规划师之中,它也依赖于人们对于这些空间的使用方式。世上本无路,走的人多了,便形成了路,同理,人类的活动促进场所的形成,而非场所引发人类活动。

Contemporary Public Spaces
Public spaces in contemporary cities are under the pressure of capital and privatization. This is gradually transforming their social and physical form, leading to a significant reduction of the public realm and the loss of public space. Green parks, open-air squares, and riverside paths become victims of private ownership. A place of a hybrid character starts to emerge. It’s a place where there’s no clear distinction between public and private, a “gray area”. These non-places don’t bear any symbolic expression, they are devoid of identity and usually places of consumption, such as coffee shops and shopping malls.
The proper shaping of an urban public space reflects the proper functioning of a democratic governance. After so many transformations over the centuries, we are now at a point where we need to deal with these leftovers of public space. They are the key focus in the transformation of the cities. The success of a particular public space is not solely in the hands of the architect, urban designer or town planner; it relies also on people adopting, using and managing the space – people make places, more than places make people.


参考书目

Bugari B.,(2006),《公共空间的转型,从现代主义到消费主义(Transformation of public space, from modernism to consumerism)》,Urbani Izziv,17卷,第1-2 / 06号,第173-176页
Carr S.,(1992),《公共场所(Public Space)》,剑桥大学出版社,第52-60页,68-70页
Madanipour A.,(2003),《城市的公共和私人空间(Public and Private Spaces of The City)》,Routledge,第193-220页
Nissen S.,(2008),《城市转型,从公私空间到杂交空间(Urban Transformation. From Public and Private Space to Spaces of Hybrid Character)》,Urban People/Lidé města, The University of Karlovy,第1129-1149页
Stanilov K.,(2007),《中欧和东欧过渡社会的民主、市场和公共空间(Democracy, markets, and public space in the transitional societies of Central and Eastern Europe)》,The Post-Socialist City,Springer,第269-283页

References
Bugari B., (2006). Transformation of public space, from modernism to consumerism. Urbani Izziv. Vol. 17, No. 1–2/06. pp. 173-176
Carr S., (1992). Public Space. Cambridge University Press. pp. 52-60, 68-70
Madanipour A., (20o3). Public and Private Spaces of The City. Routledge. pp. 193-220
Nissen S., (2008). Urban Transformation. From Public and Private Space to Spaces of Hybrid Character. Urban People/Lidé města. The University of Karlovy. pp. 1129-1149
Stanilov K., (2007). Democracy, markets, and public space in the transitional societies of Central and Eastern Europe. The Post-Socialist City. Springer. pp. 269–283

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