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大师出品,必属佳品吗?第1张图片

Port offices of Antwerp, Zaha Hadid Architects, 2016. Image © Helene Binet

建筑师名气对一个项目的重要性
How Important is the Name of a Renowned Architect to a Project?

由专筑网李韧,蒋晖编译

从Fundación Arquia的博客中,建筑师José Ramón Hernandez为我们带来了一篇文章,其中描述了那些只有建筑师自己能够欣赏的建筑项目,如果不是因为建筑师自身的知名度,这些建筑很有可能会沦为路人。

法国作家Claude Simon是新派小说的代表作家,其小说作品《在对人类生存状况的描写中,把诗人、画家的丰富想像和对时间作用的深刻认识融为一体》在1985年获得了诺贝尔文学奖。他的一名粉丝Serge Volle将其五十多页的小说内容发送给了二十多位出版商,并且没有告知这是这些诺贝尔奖获得者的作品,结果连续遭到了二十多次的拒绝,甚至没有出版商愿意将这些作品进行发行,有些出版方拒绝的方式十分无厘头,有的则认为其中的语句不通,还有人认为人物得设置过于随意。

但是,如果Volle在和出版商沟通时,能够带上Simon的名义,那么也许所有的出版商都会很感兴趣,这时候,那些语句不通的句子就会成为自己知识浅薄的体现,而随意的人物设置则会带有作者深层次的含义。但是,如果匿名发表,那么这部缺乏名人加持的小说,则会显得不那么完美。

事实上,任何事都一样,建筑也是如此。

From the Fundación Arquia Blog, architect José Ramón Hernandez brings us an article that reflects on projects that can only be appreciated because of who they were created by. If it weren't for the fact that they bear the signature of their illustrious creator, they most likely would have gone completely unnoticed or even despised.
The French writer Claude Simon, one of the fathers of the nouveau roman, received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1985 for his novels "that combine the creativity of the poet and the painter in giving profound testimony to the complexity of the human condition". As a bet, a great admirer of his, Serge Volle, sent fifty pages of a novel written by Simon—Le Palace (1962)—to twenty publishers without telling them that the text was actually from the Nobel laureate. He received twenty rejections; no one wanted to publish the work. Some of these rejections were without justification, whereas others said that the sentences ran on or that the characters were not well designed.
If Volle had presented that same text as an unpublished one by Simon, it would have aroused the interest of all (or almost all) of the publishers. They would have valued those endless sentences as belonging to that vision of human complexity, and the characters would not have been viewed as badly designed, but rather labyrinthine, abundant and profound. However, when presented anonymously— naked, without a well-known author, without a history, and without prestige—they thought it was bad.
This happens with everything, architecture included.

大师出品,必属佳品吗?第2张图片

Le Corbusier. Cabannon. Cap Martin, Francia, 1951-52. Image © Tangopaso [Wikipedia] Public Domain

如果不是柯布西耶(Le Corbusier),你被Cabanon休闲小屋所吸引吗?

Would the Cabanon be worthy of a distracted glance of more than thirty seconds if we did not know it designed by Le Corbusier?

大师出品,必属佳品吗?第3张图片

Frank Lloyd Wright. Orthodox Church of the Annunciation. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.A, 1956. Image © Freekee at English Wikimedia Commons|1=wikipedia}} [Wikipedia] CC BY-NC 3.0

如果不是弗兰克•劳埃德•赖特(Frank Lloyd Wright)的明星效应,会有人认为其晚年的那些作品真的很棒吗?

人们的评论常常如此,当看到一座建筑时,人们会不知道该怎么评论,可是一旦了解了其设计者,那么赞美之词便油然而生,因此建筑师的强大背景便成为了使这座建筑稳定的根基,能够让其躲避和回应许多质疑。

因此,问题的关键在于有的作品其实只是因为其设计者是为大师而被众人所关注,那么,我们可不可以这样理解——如果其设计者是一个默默无闻的小将,那么这个项目是不是就会石沉大海了?

但是,这里仍然有两个方面,首先来自于Julio Cano Lasso,从其中我了解到,一位好的建筑师其实也能够做出差强人意的项目,但是,一位不够格的建筑师很少能够做出好项目。事实就是如此,因为就一个项目来说,想要出错简直太容易了,例如错误的设计策略、设计师的能力、细部的缺乏、不当的功能布局、甚至一些因为大意而出现的错误,以及一些与建筑师无关的因素。因此要完成一个好的项目,从来不只是运气那么简单,因为要考虑的东西实在太多了,所以我们应该对建筑项目予以宽容的态度,因为每位建筑师都有值得关注的地方。

另外则是人们也应当保持拥有独立与批判的精神,如果我们崇拜的建筑师所设计出的作品让你不满意,我们不应该保留自己的观点。相反,我们应该以客观的方式来看待它。

因此,我建议人们在表达对于建筑师的尊重与理解的同时,也应该对其作品进行一些批判思维上的判断,当然你们也可以反驳我,并且留下评论。另外,我们还可以对那些依靠建筑师名气而出名的作品进行排名。

Would we be interested (beyond some fun and even burlesque comments) in the work Frank Lloyd Wright's last era if they were not Frank Lloyd Wright projects? Would anyone have dared to publish them?
Often our ignorant criticism is such that when we see a building we do not know what to say about it until we find out who its creator is; then, the biography and the background provides us a foundation that complements the alleged qualities of the work in question.
So the question arises of whether or not certain works are only appreciated for their association with their creator. Can we surmise that if it weren't part of the oeuvre of an illustrious creator, the project would have gone completely unnoticed or unappreciated?
But first, we have two things to say: The first is from Julio Cano Lasso, from who I have read that a good architect can do some bad projects, but a bad architect will never do a good one. And that is true. A project can go wrong for many reasons: a bad approach, a drop in the architects productivity, a lack of attention to a detail, staying in a comfort zone, a bit of laziness or carelessness ... and also for some reasons not attributable to the architect. However, a good project is not a matter of luck. Never. It's all so difficult ... And therefore, we should always maintain our appreciation for the good consideration that each architect deserves for their best projects.
The second thing is that, on the other hand, we must try to always keep a critical and independent spirit, and if an architect that we admire produces something that we don't like, we should not deceive ourselves or try to hide. Instead, we should look at it inquisitively.
Therefore, now that I have declared my respect and admiration for the creators, as well as my criticism of some of their works, I propose that you do the same and that you contradict me in one of the examples that follow (or in all), that you lean on others (or none) and leave comments proposing more. In the end, we could even rank the projects that are not up to the standards of architects that we consider great.

大师出品,必属佳品吗?第4张图片

Adolf Loos para el concurso del Chicago Tribune. Image Cortesía de Chicago Architecture Biennal Blog (Consortia)

例如,阿道夫•路斯(Adolf Loos)在《芝加哥论坛报》上发表的项目,真的与阿道夫•路斯有关吗?无论该项目的优劣与否,人们却无法了解其项目的真正来源。

For example, I am thinking of Adolf Loos' project for the Chicago Tribune competition. Does it really have anything to do with Adolf Loos? It is no longer about it being bad (which it is), but about having no idea where it came from.

大师出品,必属佳品吗?第5张图片

Oscar Niemeyer. Image © [Wikipedia] CC BY-NC 3.0

在Avilés,奥斯卡•尼迈耶(Oscar Niemeyer)是一位很有趣的人,他能够不假思索、不进行测量、无关乎评价、不进行调整而绘制出一些草图,这些草图只是单纯为了寻找乐趣而已。然后他众多的设计助理会将其绘制成建筑项目,那么说来,这些项目的初衷应该归结为没有初衷。

In Avilés, Oscar Niemeyer was by then a very old man who had a bit of fun with a sketch that he made without thinking, without measuring, without evaluating, without proportions, without adjustments, without anything. A pre-sketch. Just fun. And so it was. Then a series of technicians made it viable, but the creative talent of the project remained a silly caricature.

大师出品,必属佳品吗?第6张图片

Casa Fabriciano, Sáenz de Oíza. Image

而Sáenz de Oíza也拥有一些类似的作品。这位建筑师富有激情,但有些极端,要么极好,要么极差,例如其作品Casa Fabriciano。

在当今世界,人们十分依赖建筑师的辉煌历史,这也成为了许多作品的重要背景。很多时候,如果不是这些信息的存在,人们也许都不会去关注这些项目。

有时候重要的是一位建筑师的名号,例如Aalto、Borges、Joyce、Picasso等等。其实这种做法并没有问题,但是应当是真正好的作品才应该受到关注,不是么?只有这些作品能够真正的提升建筑师的地位,这样二者才能起到相辅相成的作用。

即使是天才也会有失误的时候,就算是极具天赋的建筑师,也有一些小打小闹的游戏作品。但是,不可否认的是,优秀的知名建筑师的作品会更加有保障一些。

本篇最初由José Ramón Hernandez发表于Fundación Arquia博客,标题为“La firma' and 'la firma (II)”。

The great Sáenz de Oíza sadly left us with only a few projects. He was a man of extremes and so passionate that when he did it badly, he did it very badly. For example, this brings to mind the Casa Fabriciano.
We so rely on the history and past of architects that we use this background as a crutch to access their works. Many times if it were not for that reason, we would not pay the slightest attention to those projects.
What matters is the association of a renowned author. The author's signature. Is this work by Aalto, by Borges, by Joyce, by Picasso? Then it's good. It has to be because these authors have already produced very good works that have promoted them to the highest levels and made them sublime at everything. Let's see who dares contradict that.
Everyone, even the most revered, can have a bad project ("everyone can have a bad day"), or create a minor or inconsequential project. But, apparently, if you have a "good signature" you are safe from everything and you can only produce sublime things.
This article was originally published as 'La firma' and 'la firma (II)' on the Fundación Arquia blog and written by José Ramón Hernandez. Read more of his articles here.

        
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