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论建筑“剖面”的重要性第1张图片

Moreira Salles Institute © Nelson Kon

剖面在建筑表达与实践中的重要作用
The Importance of the Section in Architectural Representation and Practice

由专筑网王帅,李韧编译

建筑设计是思维、空间、技术的综合表达,通常以建筑的形式表达出来,那么,其构思过程也以这些部分为基础,因为这既是过程,也是建筑设计的产物。

从这个角度来说,在不同的时期,人们对于建筑的理解都可以通过绘画的形式来表达。绘画练习对于建筑师来说至关重要,它贯穿一位建筑师的整个建筑生涯。因此,除了审美、形式和设计理念,建筑的表达方式也是人们常常争论的话题。在一篇关于圣保罗当代设计策略的文章中,Mario Biselli和Ana Gabriela Godinho Lima指出:“建筑是知识和文化的产物,有很多内容可以表达;这也是一种呼吁和调动综合、融合和动态的智能活动。”[1]

楼层平面图、剖面图和立面图是建筑师在项目中常常使用的三种方式,人们也可由此推断,在整个发展进程中,绘画是表现建筑的最好方式。

而在剖面中,概念设计能够真实地表述,它能够说明图像的竖向尺寸,以及人物与空间的比例关系。在《Manual of Section》一书中, Paul Lewis、Marc Tsutumaki和David J. Lewis认为:“剖面是空间、形式、物质与人类经验的交汇点。”[2]此外,剖面也是建筑空间及其背景环境的关系表达,它受到一定的限制,就像一幅画一样,它可以同时合成项目的形式、规划、理念、构图、空间和组织等方面。

Architectural comprehension as a field deals with representation as a synthesis of varied efforts - constructive, compositional, spatial, and technical qualities - which are then articulated in the constructed building. For this purpose, it is essential to think about the graphic representation that presupposes all these efforts, since it is both a procedure and a product of architectural design.
In this sense, it can be understood that architectural debate throughout history, at different periods of time, was translated into drawings. The drawing exercise refers directly to the discourse behind the work of architects of all schools, movements, and periods. Therefore, in addition to the aesthetic, formal and constructive choices, representation options are also a topic of debate among professionals and theoreticians in the field. In a text on contemporary design strategies in São Paulo, Mario Biselli and Ana Gabriela Godinho Lima say that "as an intellectual and cultural product, architecture has much to say and contribute; it is an activity that calls for and mobilizes a kind of synthetic, syncretic and dynamic intelligence." [1]
Floor plans, sections, and elevations are a traditional representational triad that architects use in their projects. However, it is possible to infer that the section is, and historically has been, the most interesting drawing since it is understood as a representation of the architectural design itself.
It is in the section that the conceptual design becomes virtually real. It illustrates the vertical dimension of the drawing, that is, the dimension that relates to the user scale with proportional notions. In Manual of Section, Paul Lewis, Marc Tsutumaki and David J. Lewis state that "the section is the place where space, form, and material meet with human experience." [2] In addition, it is also the representative tool that places the project in dialogue with its context, and with the topography of the space that it occupies. It is even subject to the limitations of representation, like any drawing, it can simultaneously synthesize the formal, programmatic, constructive, compositional, spatial, and organizational issues of the project.

论建筑“剖面”的重要性第2张图片

Très Grande Bibliothèque, OMA

剖面在竞赛中也至关重要,它让当代建筑能够克服一些传统问题,根据勒•柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)提出的“新建筑五要点”,他认为“自由平面”是建筑设计的一大原则。雷姆•库哈斯(Rem Koolhaas)则在其1989年法国国家图书馆竞赛项目中,提出了“自由剖面”的概念。

The section is also critical in the debate that allows contemporary architecture on a path of overcoming modern precepts which, based on the 5 points of Le Corbusier, considered the "free plan" as the defining organizational principal of architecture. Rem Koolhaas launches from that, in his project for the 1989 National Library of France competition, with the idea of the "free section."

论建筑“剖面”的重要性第3张图片

Très Grande Bibliothèque, OMA

这一形式的显著例子是圣保罗Moreira Salles研究所,例如,其半透明双层玻璃表皮由垂直金属结构支撑,而自动扶梯成为了项目的主体。

A very notable and current example of this procedure is the Moreira Salles Institute in São Paulo. The metal structure that supports a translucent double-layer glass skin is organized vertically. For instance, with the escalators being a principal part of the project.

论建筑“剖面”的重要性第4张图片

Moreira Salles Institute, Andrade Morettin

以竖向设计为主要理念的设计策略在近几年的作品中很常见,但在历史上也不乏它的身影。

阿基格拉姆学派在上世纪60年代的概念设计方案将这一图形工具用在图表和图纸之中,从而让其方案脱颖而出,为全球项目提供创新基础设施。

Although common in recent works, the vertical or sectional approach to design has been used historically. Archigram's 1960s conceptual proposals use this graphical tool to create diagrams and drawings that express infrastructural innovations for global projects that oppose the proposals from Europe.

论建筑“剖面”的重要性第5张图片

Plug In City, Archigram

论建筑“剖面”的重要性第6张图片

Plug In City, Archigram


同样的事情也发生在拉丁美洲,阿根廷建筑师Clorindo Testa在布宜诺斯艾利斯的国家图书馆和伦敦银行项目,都展现了很强的表现力,它们都很好地表达了作品的设计理念。

This also occurred in Latin America, with Argentinean architect Clorindo Testa's National Library in Buenos Aires and the Bank of London. Both projects present sections of great expressiveness that reveal the rationale involved in his works.

论建筑“剖面”的重要性第7张图片

National Library, Clorindo Testa

论建筑“剖面”的重要性第8张图片

Bank of London, Clorindo Testa


在巴西,Angelo Bucci也许是最擅长将其作品体现在剖面之中的建筑师,他与Alvaro Puntoni合作设计的 Carapicuíba住宅展示了垂直关系,强调竖向设计的重要性。在涉及到倾斜地形时,住宅和办公区竖向组织在一起,建筑师同样运用剖面的形式将其表现出来。

In Brazil, Angelo Bucci is perhaps an architect whose work is most reflected in sections. The Carapicuíba House, designed in partnership with Alvaro Puntoni, reveals vertical relations that emphasize the importance of the section for the design. In dialogue with a terrain of great inclination, the house and office are organized in a distribution that goes with the verticality of the lot, an aspect reinforced by the representation in the drawings.

论建筑“剖面”的重要性第9张图片

Carapicuíba House, Angelo Bucci + Alvaro Puntoni

另一个例子是Bucci在乌巴图巴的住宅,同样由于地形的原因,建筑师进行了大量的竖向考量,建筑位于山坡上,由支柱支撑,这些支柱是环境的组织轴心,按垂直要素连接排列。

Another example is Bucci's House in Ubatuba, which uses a topographic determinant to use verticality as the starting point of the project. Located on a hillside, the house is supported by three large pillars that function as the organizational axes of the environments, arranged in volumes connected by elements of vertical circulation.

论建筑“剖面”的重要性第10张图片

House in Ubatuba, spbr

参考文献:
[1] Estratégias contemporaneas de projeto na cidade de São Paulo: Instituto Moreira Salles e Sesc 24 de Maio. Mario Biselli e Ana Gabriela Godinho Lima, 2018. Available in Vitruvius.
[2] Tradução livre retirada de Os limites do corte: ensaio sobre representação gráfica. Beatriz Hoyos, 2016

Refernces:
[1] Estratégias contemporaneas de projeto na cidade de São Paulo: Instituto Moreira Salles e Sesc 24 de Maio. Mario Biselli e Ana Gabriela Godinho Lima, 2018. Available in Vitruvius.
[2] Tradução livre retirada de Os limites do corte: ensaio sobre representação gráfica. Beatriz Hoyos, 2016

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