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趁着世界杯余热还在,新型体育场馆了解一下呀第1张图片

Image Courtesy of Rubner Holzbau

为什么木制体育场是体育建筑的一大创新
Why Stadiums Made of Wood Could Be the Next Big Innovation in Sports Architecture

由专筑网李韧,吴静雅编译

本文最初由Autodesk公司的Redshift发表,标题为“模块化木制体育场是否能成为竞赛改变者?”

一座体育场,能够容纳数万球迷,同时球队的成败也诞生于此,球员们在这片绿茵场地上肆意奔跑。

球队的球迷们十分疯狂,这让运动场缺乏了一些安全感,同时这一概念对于建筑技术来说似乎有着难以置信的突破。工程木材制造商Rubner Holzbau和预制体育场设计事务所Bear Stadiums构思了模块化和低碳木材,也许未来很快就能实现。

Bear Stadiums公司和 Rubner Holzbau事务所的专业人员将北欧云杉木材装配为胶合层木,然后运输到建筑现场并进行组装。这些体育场规模为中小型,能容纳1500至2000人,并且其建造模式都有迹可循。

这两个公司都位于意大利,他们的第一个此类项目便是足球运动场,同时其他诸如橄榄球、板球、棒球等比赛也能进行于此。Rubner Holzbau事务所曾在欧洲各地建造了许多大型木结构建筑,从农业建筑到基础设施,都有涵盖。

This article was originally published by Autodesk's Redshift publication as "Could Modular Wood Stadium Construction Be a Game Changer?"
Imagine a sports stadium that could expand and contract with its fan base and team’s fortunes, one that could pick up and move to greener (and more lucrative) pastures.
Given team owners’ history of playing fans against each other, making stadiums more mobile isn’t likely to give pennant-wavers a sense of security, but the concept is an incredible breakthrough for building technology. Endlessly modular and made of ultralow-impact mass timber, this vision of low-carbon construction, conceived by engineered-wood manufacturer Rubner Holzbau and prefabricated stadium designer Bear Stadiums, could soon materialize at a soccer pitch near you.
Bear Stadiums and Rubner Holzbau’s arenas are to be made of Nordic spruce fitted into glulam (or “glue-laminated wood”) mass timber, shipped to the location, and assembled on-site. These stadiums are small- to medium-size, 1,500 to 20,000 seats, with a full set of templates between these capacities.
Both companies are based in Italy and envision that their first arena projects will be soccer stadiums; however, they anticipate that many outdoor sports, such as rugby, cricket, and baseball, could be accommodated. Rubner Holzbau has already constructed numerous large-scale wood structures, ranging from agricultural buildings to infrastructure facilities, across Europe.

趁着世界杯余热还在,新型体育场馆了解一下呀第2张图片

Image Courtesy of Rubner Holzbau

制造这种胶合层木与大多数木材类似,几乎不会产生温室气体,其主要原料能够隔断二氧化碳。Bear Stadiums事务所的建筑师Jaime Manca di Villahermosa说:“一片森林的生长并不需要外部能量。”

Villahermosa认为,太阳能板和风力漩涡机能够让这些体育场馆保持碳中立,这种强调对建筑可持续性能实践的想法与联合国提出的气候中立倡议一致,国际足联组织已参与该倡议,承诺于在本世纪下半叶实现气候中立。

胶合层木是一种复合工程木材,由单个木条平行交合而成。相比起美国,这种材料在欧洲的运用更广泛,甚至能够比拟钢筋混凝土建筑,因为以这种材料建造而成的建筑对环境的影响也更低一些。例如,胶合层木结构的重量比钢筋更轻,但有着更好的强度。

Like all mass timber, fabricating this glulam system generates few greenhouse gases, and its primary material—wood—sequesters carbon. “The forest does not require any [external] form of energy to grow,” says architect Jaime Manca di Villahermosa of Bear Stadiums.
Villahermosa envisions solar panels and wind turbines making these stadiums nearly carbon-neutral when not in use (notwithstanding the intense lighting requirements of game days). This emphasis on sustainable building practices aligns with the UN Climate Neutral Now initiative, which the FIFA organization has joined, committing to becoming climate-neutral by the latter half of this century.
Glulam is a type of composite engineered mass timber comprising individual strips of wood glued together with grains running parallel. More established in Europe than in the United States, mass timber can offer shocking strength-to-weight efficiencies, even compared to steel and concrete, allowing for ever-larger and taller buildings that require less carbon to produce and build. Glulam structures, for example, can be pound-for-pound stronger than steel and two times lighter.

趁着世界杯余热还在,新型体育场馆了解一下呀第3张图片

Image Courtesy of Rubner Holzbau

Bear Stadiums事务所的模块化系统运用了胶合层木倾斜支撑桁架,从而支撑建筑的垂直及水平构件,这些部件通过金属连接系统相连,然后固定在轻质混凝土平台上。这种结构整体十分强大,却灵活异常,Villahermosa说:“这种结构整体很强大,而且非常灵活。Bear Stadiums与Autodesk 2D和3D设计工具合作,”他补充道,“无论是一般布局还是详细设计,都与罗马建筑工作室合作,该工作室还准备了BIM中的公用设施和固定装置布局。

胶合层木有着很好的抗弯能力,因此它有着一种独特的美感,或者说,这种柔韧性能够让其在地震或其他自然灾害来临时,可以吸收地震和其他灾害的破坏力,使结构弯曲而不会断裂,让建筑具有较强的稳定性。Villahermosa说:“胶合木层有着良好的弹性,多用于地震易发区,但是仍然还是需要通过倾斜桁架来进行加固。”

Bear Stadiums设计事务所和 Rubner Holzbau公司对于此类项目的兴趣来源于意大利意大利顶级的两大联赛:意甲和意乙,他们认为这些项目在全球范围内都很有市场,尤其适用于预算不高的发展中国家。该系统所建成的体育场的单座成本要低于传统体育场,并且大部分的工作都可以由非技术工人完成,其中只需要10%的工人们略微了解模块化木结构系统的专业知识。而这些小型体育场的建造时间大约为6至8个月,大型体育场的建造时间大约为1年。

The Bear Stadiums modular system uses glulam diagonal cross-bracing trusses to support the vertical and horizontal structural elements. They’re joined with a metal fastener–coupling system and anchored to a lightweight concrete platform. It’s strong, but “extremely flexible,” Villahermosa says. “The Bear Stadiums team works with Autodesk 2D and 3D design tools,” he adds, “both for the general layout and for the detailed design, in collaboration with a Roman architecture studio, which is also preparing a utilities and fixtures layout in BIM.”
Glulam is notable for its ability to bend and curve when stressed, which can be employed to create an aesthetic flourish—or, more practically, the extra flexibility can absorb the destructive forces of earthquakes and other disasters, allowing the structure to bend without breaking. “Since glulam is an extremely elastic material, which is excellent in earthquake-prone areas, you also have to make the structure rigid by using these diagonal trusses,” Villahermosa says.
Bear Stadiums and Rubner Holzbau are fielding interest from soccer clubs in Italy’s top two leagues, Serie A and Serie B. They also envision a global market for these buildings, especially applicable to modest budgets in the developing world. The per-seat costs of this system are projected to be lower than traditional stadiums, and much of the labor can be done by unskilled workers, though 10 percent of the workforce will require specialized knowledge in modular wood construction. Smaller stadiums can be put together in six to eight months; larger stadiums might take nearly a year.

趁着世界杯余热还在,新型体育场馆了解一下呀第4张图片

Image Courtesy of Rubner Holzbau

相比起传统体育场来说,这些场馆的建造时间较短,但它们仍然为团队和球迷提供全套设施。大型体育场一般由3层,其中地面层包括更衣室、团队办公室、医务室,而二层则有接待室,三层则主要为专用套间。因此,此类以木材为主建造而成的建筑外部看似新颖,但内部仍然较为传统。

这种模块系统也意味着这些体育场既可以永久建造,也能作为临时建筑,其保存时间至少长达50年,Villahermosa认为,这个数字已经非常客观,“但是它们同样易于拆除与建造,因此这些建筑既能满足永久需求,也能满足临时构造。”

建筑的这种耐久性与木材的独特性质密切相关,因为这种木材并不会像钢材一般热胀冷缩,并且还兼具防水与密封的功能。同时,它也不会如混凝土一般吸收与散发热量,亦或是像钢材那样在烈日炎炎的天气其温度也急剧升高。因此这些性能很能满足其功能需求,因为体育赛事常常在烈日下进行。

And while these stadiums offer a truncated construction timeline compared to traditional models, they still offer a full suite of amenities for teams and fans. The largest stadium designs spread these across three levels: locker rooms, team offices, and an infirmary on the ground level; hospitality spaces (concessions, bars, and restaurants) on the second level; and sky boxes and exclusive suites on the top level. Throughout, the interiors are conventional, shying away from the trendy “all-plywood everything” interior look popular with the Dwell crowd, despite its earthy emphasis on the wood-based construction.
This modular system means that these stadiums can occupy a middle ground between permanent and temporary. The structural elements are guaranteed for 50 years, Villahermosa says, longer than many stadiums of any sort last. But, “[They] can certainly be dismantled and rebuilt elsewhere, which means that they can serve as both permanent and temporary structures,” he says.
Much of this durability is related to wood’s unique properties. Because it doesn’t expand and contract in response to temperature changes as much as steel, it’s easier to waterproof and seal. And wood doesn’t absorb and radiate heat like structures made of concrete (a “roasting stone,” Villahermosa says) or steel (“roasting on a BBQ grill”), which is especially helpful for outdoor venues that invite patrons to sit in the sun for an entire afternoon of sport.

趁着世界杯余热还在,新型体育场馆了解一下呀第5张图片

Image Courtesy of Rubner Holzbau

体育场设计的基础单元是每6米包含36个座位。这种模块化单元的尺寸由其运输容器的而决定,两个部分组合成一个模块。体育场的大多数模块来源于木材主干,其中也包含了许多其他基础设施,而这些单独的模块也可以根据需求进行增减。

那么,模块化的灵活性也让这些体育场馆更加适应足球竞赛的节奏,因为诸如修缮等工作可以在竞赛的淡季进行。Villahermosa认为:“我们能够在短时间之内修复建筑,这完全得益于模块化系统的胶合层木技术。”

在体育馆项目中,许多开发商都曾抱怨,花费了大量的金钱,其使用率却非常低。而这种全新的模块化建筑却能用于多种不同功能,例如在竞赛淡季期间进行音乐会以及户外展览等功能,这些建筑并没有那么“专一”,它们只是灵活多变的社会资源而已。

The stadium design’s fundamental, indivisible unit is a six-meter (approximately 19.5-foot) section containing 36 seats. This modular unit size is determined by the constraints of shipping containers: Two sections fit into one container. Most sections of these stadiums, aside from the main “stem,” which houses much of the nonseating infrastructure, can be added and subtracted to with this individual modular unit.
And this modular flexibility makes these stadiums attuned to the natural rhythms of soccer, as repairs, additions, and subtractions can easily fit into the sport’s fourth-month off-season. “Thanks to the glulam technology and the modular system,” Villahermosa says, “we can provide infrastructure [within] a very quick time frame.”
A common complaint lobbed at sports stadiums is that they cost many millions and sit unused for vast swaths of the year. But this new kind of modular flexibility hints at multipurpose stadiums that can serve more events. Maybe the next generation of sports stadiums can double as a festival marketplace, concert venue, or outdoor exhibition space during the off-season; less a hallowed temple of sport and more a casual and mutable community resource.

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