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Bauhaus Dessau © Nate Robert via Flickr License Under CC BY-SA 2.0. Image

百年包豪斯:10大专业知识
100 Years of Bauhaus: 10 Facts That Will Make You Look Like an Expert

由专筑网李韧,蒋晖编译

德国包豪斯是誉满全球、充满活力的团体,明年包豪斯将迎来100周年庆典。为了让大家更加了解包豪斯,小编们收集了关于它的10个专业知识。

The Bauhaus in Germany was a dynamic think tank and its ideals were spread worldwide. Next year, all of Germany will be celebrating the centenary of the Bauhaus with a colorful festival program. To impress in conversations about next year’s big event, we have compiled 10 surprising facts.

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The Master Houses in Dessau (© Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau (SBD))

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New Objectivity at Am Horn (© Thüringen Tourismus GmbH (TTG))


1、在学校成立之后的8年,建筑学系才刚刚成立

Walter Gropius是一位知名建筑师,但是在学校1919年成立时并没有设立建筑学院,但是德国魏玛的“Haus am Horn”和德绍的“Master Houses”表明,从一开始建筑就是至关重要的。“Neues Bauen am Horn”项目是展示当代作品现代性的必由之路。

1. The Faculty of Architecture was not set up until eight years after the school opened.
Despite the fact that Walter Gropius was an architect, the school lacked a Faculty of Architecture when it opened its doors in 1919. Yet, the “Haus am Horn” in Weimar and the “Master Houses” in Dessau are evidence that construction was of great importance right from the start. The “Neues Bauen am Horn” project in Weimar is a must-see showcasing contemporary modernity.

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Bauhaus Festival Weimar Summer (© Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau (SBD))

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Weimar Art Festival (copyright is weimar GmbH)


2、包豪斯的派对不仅仅是开心

Oskar Schlemmer说:“表明你开派对的方式,那么我就会告诉你你究竟是谁。”包豪斯派对的目的是增强艺术家与社会大众之间的联系。一年一度的德绍包豪斯派对是对包豪斯传统文化的复兴,在2019年所开展的诸如魏玛夏令营和艺术节等活动也具有同样的目的。

2. There was more to Bauhaus parties than just having a good time.
“Tell me how you party and I’ll tell you who you are,” said Oskar Schlemmer. The Bauhaus parties were intended to ensure a strong affinity between the artists and the community at large. The annual Bauhaus Party in Dessau revives this Bauhaus tradition. Other events, such as the Weimar Summer and Arts Festival, will also incorporate Bauhaus in 2019.

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Kornhaus Restaurant on the Elbe, Dessau (© TourComm Germany GmbH (TC))

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Goethe’s Garden House, Weimar. (© Maik Schuck, weimar GmbH)


3、德国是“包豪斯之乡”

包豪斯文化多种多样,甚至有专为其命名的旅游场所。在德绍与魏玛,包豪斯艺术家们有着共同的联盟。从柏林到“包豪斯之乡”,大约是2小时的路程,在这里你会遇到许多有趣的人与场所,以及一些未知的城市。这也是包豪斯的探索之地。

3. There is a “BauhausLand” in Germany.
Bauhaus is so diverse that even a tourist region is named after it. Only here in Dessau and Weimar the Bauhaus artists were united. In BauhausLand, approximately 2 hours from Berlin, you will encounter stories of people and places. Discover major Bauhaus locations as well as unknown towns. This is where Bauhaus becomes perceptible.

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Bauhaus Museum, Weimar (© Thüringen Tourismus GmbH (TTG))

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Bauhaus Museum, Dessau (© Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau (SBD))


4、德国的两座博物馆将展示包豪斯的未知藏品

Erich Consemüller未曾公诸于世的照片将在德国魏玛展出,其中包含有来源于德绍基金会的49000件收藏品。在2019年,德国即将开放两座全新的博物馆,届时将展出包豪斯最为全面的艺术收藏品。

4. Two new museums in Germany will display unknown Bauhaus treasures.
Previously unknown photographs from Erich Consemüller’s first Bauhaus documentation will be exhibited in Weimar and a collection of around 49,000 works at the Bauhaus Dessau Foundation in Dessau. Two new Bauhaus museums, which will open their doors in 2019, will redefine the most comprehensive Bauhaus collections worldwide.

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Bauhaushotel Probstzella

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Bauhaushotel Probstzella


5、乡村包豪斯:一座遗忘的酒店

与德国许多的场所类似,包豪斯的酒店同样引人注意。正如上世纪20年代与30年代的许多具有现代氛围的空间那样,这里有着许多Franz Itting、Alfred以及Gertrud Arndt的互动性展览,这些艺术家在1927年设计了这座建筑。如果你提前预定,那么当前的建筑所有者会为你介绍图林根最为丰富的包豪斯历史。

5. Bauhaus in the countryside: A forgotten hotel rediscovered.
Like many places in Germany, the Bauhaushotel has a fascinating story to tell. Enjoy an ambiance of modernity just like in the 1920s and 1930s plus an interactive exhibition on Franz Itting, as well as Alfred and Gertrud Arndt, who built the house in 1927. If you book early, the current owner will guide you through the history of the largest Bauhaus ensemble in Thuringia.

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Ceramics workshop in Dornburg (© TourComm Germany (TC))

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Ceramics workshop in Dornburg (© TourComm Germany (TC))


6、格罗皮乌斯的灵感来源于美国和英国

格罗皮乌斯十分着迷诸如Frank Lloyd 、William Morris等国家知名艺术家的设计策略,因此,工作坊成为了其主要的工作内容。对游客而言,最佳的参观场所是Dornburg (Saale),这里距离魏玛大约半个小时路程,同时这也是包豪斯传统中沿用至现代的场所。

6. Gropius got his inspiration from the USA and GB.
Gropius was fascinated by the approaches of international artists like Frank Lloyd and William Morris. Accordingly, the training workshops were a major component of his program. The best place for visitors to see a ceramic workshop is in Dornburg (Saale), about half an hour away from Weimar. The only outpost in the Bauhaus tradition is still in use today.

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Bauhaus door handle as a design standard (© TourComm Germany TC))

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Apple Design (© pixabay)


7、史蒂芬•乔布斯的灵感来源于包豪斯哲学

苹果创始人史蒂芬•乔布斯说:“设计并不仅仅是作品看上去像什么,设计是一个完整的工作流程。”这听起来很“包豪斯”。在上世纪80年代的工业化风格的影响中,乔布斯也受到了“形式追随功能”的灵感启发,这代表了一种清晰而简约的设计风格。众多例子表明,包豪斯风格如往常一致,在数字化的作品中亦是如此。

7. Steve Jobs was inspired by the Bauhaus philosophy.
“Design is not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.” This sounds like Bauhaus. Yet, these are the words of Apple founder Steve Jobs. Deterred by the clunky industrial look of the 1980s, he was inspired by the Bauhaus philosophy “form follows function,” which still stands for a clear and unadorned design. One of many examples that demonstrate that Bauhaus is as hip as ever, even in a digital world.

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“Großgarage Süd”, Halle (Saale) (© Jan Laurig)

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“Großgarage Süd”, Halle (Saale) (© Jan Laurig)


8、工业遗产的建筑先驱

Halle (Saale)的“Großgarage Süd(南部汽车公园)”是工业遗产的典型代表,该项目于1929年由Walter Tutenberg设计建造,这座建筑在当时远远领先于时代,当时的电梯技术符合美国标准,这在当时独一无二。虽然建筑外观并不那么吸引眼球,但是这座停车场仍然沿用至今。

8. Architectural pioneers of industrial heritage.
A particularly good example of industrial heritage is the “Großgarage Süd” (Southern Car Park) in Halle (Saale). Built in 1929 by Walter Tutenberg, the architecture of the building was far ahead of its time. The elevator technology in accordance with the American standard was a unique solution at the time. Although replaced by somewhat less spectacular ramps, the car park remains the only one of its kind still in active use in Germany.

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Augustinian monastery, Erfurt (© Thüringen Tourismus GmbH (TTG))

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Studio Building (Prellerhaus), Dessau (© TourComm Germany (TC))


9、联合国教科文组织的9大文化遗产面积只有14.7平方米

很少会有这么多联合国教科文组织认证的文化遗产集中在某个区域,但是包豪斯之乡却做到了,在这里历史与现代紧密相连。500多年来,这片场所集结了许多历史场所,例如Augustinian修道院,亦或位于德绍的(Prellerhaus)办公大楼。

9. Nine UNESCO World Heritage sites in just 14.7 sq. mi.
Very few regions can boast so many UNESCO World Heritage sites. BauhausLand can. Here, history meets modernism. More than 500 years of history can be experienced in authentic places, be it a night at the Augustinian monastery where Luther had stayed in Erfurt, or in 24 sq. m of genuine Bauhaus design at the Studio Building (Prellerhaus) in Dessau.

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Bauhaus School, Dessau (© TourComm Germany (TC))

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Bauhaus School Workshop, Weimar (© Thüringen Tourismus GmbH (TTG))


10、这是否是嘲讽?包豪斯的终结促进了它的发展

包豪斯得以发展竟是由于其被迫关闭。包豪斯的艺术家们在全球各地传播着包豪斯理念。这里的思维方式很有远见,并且具有多样性。2019年的周年庆中,人们的注意力重新回到了魏玛和德绍。

10. Isn’t it ironic? The end of the Bauhaus ensured its continuity.
The Bauhaus survived because it was closed down. Driven into exile, Bauhaus artists propagated their ideas worldwide. The Bauhaus was always a visionary meeting place, cosmopolitan and diverse. The jubilee in 2019 will bring the attention back to Weimar and Dessau.

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100 years of Bauhaus

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