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芬兰Kuhmo木材学校
Timber School in Kuhmo / ALT Architects + Architecture Office Karsikas

由专筑网李韧,蒋晖编译

来自建筑事务所的描述:Tuupala小学和日托中心是芬兰的第一座CLT学校建筑。在设计的初始阶段,芬兰的第一座CLT工厂就开始了建筑材料的生产。这座工厂位于芬兰库赫莫,因此CLT便成为这座学校的首要选择。

Text description provided by the architects. Tuupala elementary school and daycare center is the first CLT school building in Finland. Right around the time the design process started, Finland's first CLT factory was kicking off it's production. The factory is located in Kuhmo, thus making CLT a natural choice for the school's construction material.

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这座建筑位于一座建造于上世纪50年代的大型高中和历史的木构小型博物馆建筑之间。全新的小学由三个木质的体量组成,建筑师运用了屋顶和室外储藏空间,因此建筑有着不同的尺度与规模,同时形成了小尺度的室外活动场所。

The building is located between a large junior high school built in the 50's, and a small-scale museum area with historical timber buildings. The new elementary school's program is divided into three blocks of timber. With canopies and outdoor storage rooms the building connects different scales surrounding the building and creates small scaled,  child-sized outdoor spaces.

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建筑外部清晰而直接,其整体风格较为低调,但是建筑的细部、材质、设计语言都让其看起来极具质感。

Exterior architecture is amicable, straightforward and mundane – in a good sense of the word. Even though the basic quality of the architecture is modest, the aim was to create high-end architecture by means of detailing, materiality and coherent language of architecture throughout the building.

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这座建筑的一大特点便是其CLT结构体系,这也反映在建筑的正立面之中,CLT面板立面的侧边有着云杉式的壁板。天然的铝板和窗户形成了立面木材之间的韵律感。材料面板十分单薄,直截了当地表达出了材质的内部与外部,建筑的入口则通过色彩而凸显。

The most notable feature of the building is the load-bearing CLT-structure that reflects to the facade of the building as well: where there is CLT-panel, there is solid spruce siding on the facade. Naturally anodised sheets of aluminium and windows create the rythm of the composition filling the spaces between solid wood. Material palette is scanty, natural and honest both inside and out. Entrances are highlighted with colors.

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学校的布局符合当地乡村的特征,同样的主题也表现在建筑的内部,但是在室内空间的表达上则略微不同。教室和其他空间环绕体块而布局,并在中间形成公共广场。广场的空间尺度较大,但是能够从屋顶获得自然采光。建筑的氛围较为严肃,这也是建筑师在学校设计中想要表达的成果,即教学环境需要安静,但是通过孩子们之间的互动让空间变得活跃起来,这样才不会太过混乱。

The school is arranged in a village-like composition, and this theme continues in the interior architecture as well, although the expression of this idea is a bit different inside. The classrooms and other strictly divided spaces are located at the perimeter of the blocks, forming a ”public plaza” between them. Plazas, though deep inside the building mass, get natural light from the roof lights. The ambiance is almost sacral. This is a result of our design philosophy in school buildings: the frame of the education needs to be quiet so that the kids and the activities of the school have room to bring it alive, without the excessive visual chaos it tends to become.

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虽然建筑整体分为三个体量,但是建筑的能源消耗并不多。建筑中没有走廊,每个空间都具有一定的功能性,例如一些轻松的交流场所。

Although divided into three parts, the building is not extravagant in terms of energy consumption. There are no actual corridors in the building – all the passages are functional, furnished spaces for informal studying.

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这座建筑最为突出的功能便是其运动大厅,它还能够改造成为音乐厅。芬兰库赫莫的Chamber音乐节远近闻名,而这座运动大厅却能够刚好能够用作音乐节。在声学方面,这些功能却略有矛盾,因为用作音乐厅时需要室内的混响,但是用作体育运动时却不需要,因此这个空间仍然拥有着声学系统,从而满足不同的功能需求。音乐厅的声学设计则通过倾斜的天花板和反射墙体来表达,在运动时,墙体则覆盖有纺织百叶。

The most exceptional functional feature of the building is the sports hall which transforms to a chamber music venue. Kuhmo is internationally famous for it's Chamber Music Festival, and the sports hall was designed to serve as one of the venues. In terms of acoustics, these functions are somewhat contradictory: chamber music needs the echo, but when used for sports, there should be very little. The hall was designed acoustically to serve both. The concert acoustics was achieved by tilted ceiling and walls with sound reflection. For sports, the walls are covered by dampening textile blinds.

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木材是建筑的主要材料。所有的CLT材料和外墙中所使用的木材都来源于当地,这让建筑具有当地的特征。优质的CLT材料未经过多的处理,使其保留了自然形态。使用者在大厅里也能看见楼板中的胶合梁。大厅的表面则由穿孔的胶合板制作而成,另外的一些天花板则由天然木制毛毡面板制作。同时,大部分的装置和家具也为木制作品。

Wood is the main material of the building both in construction and visible surfaces, often being the same. All of the wood used in CLT and facade panels are cut from the rapidly renewing forests nearby, making the building truly local. The fine, solid spruce CLT surfaces are left untreated and visible. The gluelam beams of the floors are visible in the lobbies. The slanted surfaces of the high lobbies are made of perforated birch plywood, and other ceilings of natural wood wool panels. Most of the fixtures and furniture is made of wood as well.

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这座木制建筑体量很大,但却能够从大气中吸收2700吨的碳元素,这就相当于一辆汽车行驶21公里的碳排放量。生态可持续以及地方特征是Tuupala小学的主要设计理念。

Being a massive wood construction, the building removes over 2700 tons of carbon off the athmosphere, equivalent to driving a car for 21 million kilometers. Ecology, sustainability and locality were key ideas in designing Tuupala Elementary School.

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建筑设计:ALT Architects + Architecture Office Karsikas
地点:芬兰,库赫莫
主创建筑师:Antti Karsikas, Martti Karsikas
设计团队:Antti Karsikas, Martti Karsikas, Ville-Pekka Ikola, Tuomas Niemelä, Kalle Vahtera
面积:6165.0 m2
项目时间:2018年
摄影:Ville-Pekka Ikola, Mikko Auerniitty
制造商:Icopal, Crosslam, Paroc
结构工程:Suunnittelu Laukka / Heikki Ainasoja
HVAC:Sitowise / Mikko Mäkelä
电力工程:Engineer office Varpiola / Sami Itkonen
声学设计:Helimäki Akustikot / Erno Huttunen
防火顾问:Markku Kauriala
AV设计:AV-Kolmio / Teemu Karsikas
施工公司:Rakennusliike Kuoma
施工负责人:Mauri Pulkkinen
客户协调:Markku Pääkkönen

Architects: ALT Architects + Architecture Office Karsikas
Location: Peuranpolku 3, Kuhmo, Finland
Lead Architects: Antti Karsikas, Martti Karsikas
Design Team: Antti Karsikas, Martti Karsikas, Ville-Pekka Ikola, Tuomas Niemelä, Kalle Vahtera
Area: 6165.0 m2
Project Year: 2018
Photographs: Ville-Pekka Ikola, Mikko Auerniitty
Manufacturers: Icopal, Crosslam, Paroc
Structural Engineer: Suunnittelu Laukka / Heikki Ainasoja
HVAC: Sitowise / Mikko Mäkelä
Electrical Engineer: Engineer office Varpiola / Sami Itkonen
Acoustics: Helimäki Akustikot / Erno Huttunen
Fire Consultant: Markku Kauriala
AV-design: AV-Kolmio / Teemu Karsikas
Construction Company: Rakennusliike Kuoma
Head of Construction: Mauri Pulkkinen
Client's Coordinator: Markku Pääkkönen

        
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