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Gumno,意为禾场,禾场是一个由低石墙环绕而成的圆形的平面高地,过去曾用于打谷。禾场是一个劳动、挥洒汗水和讲述照料故事的地方,也是人们在其中始终凝聚在一起,进行社会交往的一个框架。禾场是一个庆祝农作物丰收的空间,也是当地人聚集在一个决定影响他们社区的重大事务的集会场。
Risika是一座小村庄,位于克罗地亚克尔克岛的东北部。在村庄周围一个极小的面积内,有着大量的废弃的、杂草丛生的,因此而难以接近的禾场。在村庄古老的教堂附近,一排小型家庭住宅的末尾,人们发现了干砌石墙围绕着的一座小型地产和一个保存完好的古老禾场,40年来未曾有人用过。
居住在里耶卡的一对夫妇,以及他们的两个成年了的孩子,决定在这个特殊的位置建立起一座小型的避暑别墅。他们决定修复禾场以及那个圆形的干砌石墙,让栽培园、私家车道、果园和橄榄树小树林成为一个某种意义上的现代公园,一个供家人接待宾客、朋友和Risika当地人的休憩地。
Gumno (threshing floor) is a circular flattened plateau surrounded by a low stone wall, used for threshing the grains in the past. Gumno was a place of labor, endeavor, and care, and a framework for consistent and coherent social interaction. Gumno served as a space for celebrating a high crop yield, as well as a meeting place where the locals made decisions on important issues that affected their community.
Risika is a small village which lies in the northeastern part of the island of Krk in Croatia. In a rather small area surrounding the village, there is a large number of derelict, overgrown, and rather inaccessible gumnos. Near the old village church, at the end of a line of small family houses, surrounded by a dry stone wall, one finds a small estate and a well preserved old gumno, which has not been in use for the past 40 years.
A married couple residing in Rijeka, together with their two adult children, decided to build a little summer house in that special location. It was decided that gumno, together with the circular dry stone wall, should be restored, and that the cultivated garden, driveway, orchard, and olive grove should become a kind of a contemporary park, a reanimated place where the family would meet with their guests, friends, and the locals of Risika.

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出于这种考虑,这座房子逃离人世,藏在了一个隐蔽的地方、一个最高的部分,几乎接近了后退线。这与最初的城市规划背道而驰,曾经的规划提议把房屋建设在当地住宅的建筑界线内,并且拆除老旧的禾场。
在最初的建设阶段,有人向Risika的居民提议:组织开垦马基群落灌木地,以便使剩余的禾场相互连通,形成一个立体的环形物,另外,创造一条新的包含多个休息区和交汇点的步行道。
除了该地区前的那个禾场,以及位于房屋后面的一个菜园和一个果园,房屋和公园的建筑还允许业主自主为他们自身和客人创造一个独特的免下车高地。这个新型房屋在组织上呈现多样化的空间构成,展示出了过多的潜在用途,创造出了意想不到的场所,提供给人与众不同的体验,留给人深刻的印象。这些场所特性不同,使用条件也不同。
Because of this setting, the house is withdrawn into the background, to the highest part of the lot, and built on the very rear setback line. This was made contrary to the initial urban plan which had proposed construction of the house within the building line of the local houses, as well as demolition of the old gumno.
In the initial stage of construction, a proposal was put forward to the inhabitants of Risika: an organized reclamation of the macchia shrubland with the purpose of connecting the remaining gumnos into a spatial ring, and creation of a new walking path which would contain a number of rest areas and meeting points.
Besides the gumno in the front part of the lot, and a vegetable garden and an orchard located behind the house, the architecture of the house and the park allows for a spontaneous creation of a unique drive-in plateau for the cars of the owners and their guests. This heterogeneous spatial composition, seen within the context of organization of the new house and a plethora of possibilities of its use, creates unexpected places of strong impressions and different experiences. These places have different characters and conditions of use.

Gumno House / Turato Architects第3张图片

禾场房屋同时包含了所有家庭成员长期渴望的三个完全不同的分区。首先是一个巨大的包含地窖酒吧的乡村地窖,它可以作为葡萄酒和石油的储存室,也可作为聚会的场所。其次是一个专为家庭而准备的一个宽敞的、装有玻璃的起居室。最后是有着大海即视感的大水塘。房屋顶部的四个小单元都有各自的私人阳台,还有一个安静的区域,可供每个家庭成员闭目养神。
在这样的一个多样化和空间分区的方案下,建成了一所聚集、混合以及压缩了三种不同的氛围的房子。这三种不同的氛围在空间上、功能上和结构上是互相矛盾的。地窖沉重、巨大、被掩埋,挖掘的过程也是随意粗糙;第一层楼由钢筋和玻璃幕墙构筑,很是轻盈、透明、开放;几个小型的水泥单元,开着巨大的口,探出了四四方方的第一层楼的上部边缘,寻找自己的视野和方向。
The Gumno house accommodates three completely different contents, long wished for by all family members. The first is a massive, rustic cellar containing a konoba, which serves as a wine and oil storage space, as well as a place for gatherings. The second is a spacious glazed living room intended for the family.  Finally, the third is a big pool with an indispensable view of the sea. On top of the house there are four small units with intimate terraces and a quiet sleeping area for each member of the family.
Such a heterogeneous and spatially diverse program resulted in a house which assembles, blends, and compresses three different ambiances. These ambiances differ in their atmosphere, and are contradictory in regard to their space, functionality, and construction. The heavy, massive, buried, roughly hollowed out basement; the light and transparent, open plan, steel framed ground floor with glazed walls; and the small plastered units with large openings, protruding over the edge of the square ground floor, each in search of its own view and orientation.

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大型露天阳台是聚会的平台,由厚重的三角结构支撑,其下安静的阴影处形成了一个地窖酒吧(konoba)的平台,还隐藏着一个通往室内的入口、一条弯曲的阶梯和禾场房屋的入口长廊。在露天阳台上放入了一个大体积混凝土圆锥体,还有一个形状不规则的水池,深浅不一的大水池里可见水生景致,精确地映射出茨里克韦尼察 - 诺维Vinodol沙滩游憩胜地的风景。
The element of the large terrace-deck, a platform for gatherings, which is supported by a massive triangular structure, forms a quiet shadowy terrace for the cellar (konoba), but also a covered house entrance, and a curved staircase, the entrance promenade of the Gumno house. On the terrace, placed in a massive concrete cone, there is an irregularly shaped pool, a water cauldron of various depths, containing aquatic attractions, with a precise view onto the Crikvenica – Novi Vinodol Riviera.

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一方面,禾场房屋提供了度假屋的宁静祥和的私人用途,但另一方面,它也可以轻易地转变为一个丰富的结构,其中的一系列聚会地点可以接待这个愉快、善于社交的家庭的数量众多的朋友。
在禾场房屋竣工之时,所有人都惊奇地发现,这个家庭决定永久地搬入这个住宅,而在此之前,他们只是计划把它当作一座“避暑别墅”,或是只在偶尔出差来到Rijeka时,短暂停留一段时间罢了。
On the one hand, the Gumno house provides tranquility and calm private use of the vacation house, but, on the other hand, it is easily transformed into a rich structure containing a series of gathering spots for a large number of people, numerous friends of this cheerful and social family.
When the Gumno house was finished, everybody was surprised to learn that the family decided to move permanently to what had previously been planned as a ‘’summer house’’, and use their family apartment in Rijeka only occasionally, for short work-related stays.

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Project info/credits
Name of the project: Gumno House
Authors: Arhitektonski biro Turato / Turato Architecture
Project team: Idis Turato and Marko Liović
Type: Single Family House
Location:  Risika, island Krk, Croatia
Completion year: 2014
Site area: 930 m2
Gross floor area: 400 m2
Photographers:
Ivan Dorotić, Maja Bosnić, Sandro Lendler (interiors), Igor Crnković (aerial views)
Office info:
idisturato.tumblr.com(English)
idisturato.com

(Croatian)Video:
vimeo.com/113799777





via:archcollege.com  

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