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这个被治愈的人文研究中心会治愈你吗?第1张图片

蒙彼利埃人文研究中心
Humanities Research Center Building in Montpellier

由专筑网黎旭辰,李韧编译

Hellin-Sebbag工作室于2004年开始对蒙彼利埃的圣查尔斯医院开始改造。

2011年,综合医院的一期项目入驻大学校园,供人文学院的毕业生和研究人员使用。

The Hellin-Sebbag office began work in 2004 on the Saint-Charles Hospital site at Montpellier.
Delivered in 2011, the first phase converted the general hospital into university buildings for graduates and researchers in the Faculty of Humanities.

这个被治愈的人文研究中心会治愈你吗?第2张图片

翻新这片旧址需要很多耐心和毅力。

该项目的二期面积约为6377平方米,项目名称为“无法治愈的建筑”。建筑的首层为公共提供了开展国际会议和研讨会的空间,而其余的研究工作则在二层和三层进行。

Patience and perseverance were necessary to restore new life to a site at this scale.
The second phase redevelops 6,377 m2 within wing called the “Incurables”. The ground floor accommodates the public for international conferences and symposiums while the research work spaces are located on the first and second floors.

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因为会议需求,所以需要在首层设置研讨教室,但是值得注意的是,在这样一座没有合适的承重结构的十八世纪建筑物中,设计建造一个阶梯教室几乎不太可能。虽然困难重重,但建筑师仍然在一个狭小的拱形空间里(10.5米宽,5.3米高)加入了一个拥有一百个座位的阶梯教室。

These meetings require seminar rooms on the ground floor, but especially, an amphitheatre which seemed almost impossible within this 18th century building with an unsuited load-bearing structure. However, we succeeded in inserting a 100-seat amphitheatre that occupies the full width of the central wing of this very narrow (10.5m wide) and vaulted (5.3m high) building.

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这座古老的建筑可以追溯到十七世纪,当初为穷人而建造,所用的材料是染色的碎石,质感十分粗糙,而且出口数量很少。到了十八世纪,建筑的中心部分重新用琢石修造,并且添加了许多装饰(徽章、护栏、飞檐)和大窗户。尽管新旧建筑的功能相似,但它们具有本质的区别,从而导致建筑师使用了两种不同的设计手法。

While the first building, dating from the 17th century and originally intended for the poor, had been built crudely in rendered rubble stone with few façade openings, the 18th century wing of the Incurables was built in cut stone, with many decorative elements (medallions, parapets, cornices) and large windows. Despite their functional similarities, the two buildings have qualitative differences which led to two different architectural approaches.

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地中海花园:保留了已有的梧桐树,但是在建筑的院子和道路的上方增加了视觉上的联系。同时,混凝土的阶梯经改造可以种植多种当地植物。

The Mediterranean garden: existing plane trees have been preserved, but to create a visual continuity between the Incurables courtyard and the street slightly above, white concrete terraces were developed to accommodate a diversified native vegetation.

这个被治愈的人文研究中心会治愈你吗?第6张图片

冬日花园

为了改造首层的房间布局,建筑师设计了一个临时搭建的扩展空间——冬日花园,这个花园由一些轻质元素组成:金属结构、木地板和可移动的条形玻璃窗,人们通过透明的玻璃可以看到外面的景色和建筑美丽的生态外观。

Winter garden
To plan the room layout on the ground floor, we designed a contemporary extension, a winter garden, made up of lightweight elements: a metal structure, a wooden floor and movable glass strips that enable to see, in transparency from the outside, the beautiful rehabilitated facade of the building.

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这个被治愈的人文研究中心会治愈你吗?第8张图片

当下雨、强风或者冷空气来袭,电动玻璃条形窗会自动关闭。夏天的时候它们可以自动打开,从而为室内提供充足的自然通风,冬天则关闭上,让室内保持温暖。

Motorized Colt glass strips close quickly in case of rain, strong wind or a cold change. They enable to adequately ventilate the space in summer or, on the contrary, to create a greenhouse effect during winter.

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橘子树发出的淡淡清香和宜人的布局使得冬日花园成为这栋建筑中的中心部分,处于而在重建的石质建筑和地中海花园之间有一个过渡空间,这是一个既非室内也非室外的灰空间。具有反射性能的天花板与硬质的石头表面产生对比,在天空和大地之间形成独特的空间效果。

Perfumed by orange trees in pots, with its pleasant layout, the winter garden becomes the centrepiece of the building, a transitional space – neither interior nor exterior – between the restored stone building and the beautiful Mediterranean garden. In contrast with the rough surface of the stone, its reflective ceiling contributes to create an atypical space between sky and earth.

这个被治愈的人文研究中心会治愈你吗?第10张图片

用临时的手法表达过去

这个临时搭建的扩展区域是一个自动的盒子状空间,避免了与旧建筑的直接冲突。通过玻璃的运用,建筑屋顶从建筑的石材立面中能够分离出来,而地面植被也让地板形成独立的形体。

Articulating the old with the contemporary
The contemporary extension was designed as an autonomous box articulated with the old building by “voids” to avoid direct contact. This way the roof, an external surface covered with glass slabs, is separated from the stone facade by a glass roof while the floor is detached from the ground by a planted bank.

这个被治愈的人文研究中心会治愈你吗?第11张图片

这个被治愈的人文研究中心会治愈你吗?第12张图片

阶梯教室和冬日花园展示了丰富的色彩和材质,而白色的拱顶和纯色混凝土地板像是故意装饰成修道院风格。但建筑师仍然运用了许多现代科技元素,例如灯光和标志,从而恢复了以往医院的体积感,提高了几何形体的纯粹感。

While the amphitheatre and the winter garden display a certain opulence of colours and materials, with their white vaults and poured concrete floor, the entrance hall and circulations are deliberately treated in a more monastic manner. Similarly, contemporary technical elements, such as lighting or signage, are judiciously integrated to reinstate the sobriety of the former hospital volumes, and reveal their geometric purity.

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由于金属结构的支撑,建筑外墙并没有影响到室内的阶梯教室,因此建筑师并没有刻意改变建筑原有的拱形体量,为了安全起见,建筑师仍然设置了玻璃栏杆,防止产生不必要的碰撞。

椅子下方安装了对流加热器,椅子的颜色如同一个调色盘(首层座椅为绿色,二层为蓝色),在白色拱体的衬托下给人一种平静的感觉。

Due to the “raked” metal structure which supports prefabricated concrete steps, the amphitheatre slips between the thick facades of the building without touching them so as not to alter the volume of the vaults under which it is inserted. Structural glass railings assist to avoid this contact.
Convection heating is located under the seats, whose colours takes up the palette in the building (green on 1st floor, blue on 2nd floor) to create a serene space within the volume of white arches.

这个被治愈的人文研究中心会治愈你吗?第14张图片

声学效果主要由TEXAA吸水性的织物内衬处理,另外,建筑师还运用了地毯和具有反射性、吸收性的板材,这些材料都起到了一定的效果。

Acoustics are treated by TEXAA absorbent fabric lining, carpeted floors and reflective or absorbent laminate panels, as required.

这个被治愈的人文研究中心会治愈你吗?第15张图片

地板和墙壁分别为深灰和浅灰色,通过人工灯光从而突显拱顶的曲线。礼堂两侧的抬高也为室内提供了充足的日光,电动百叶窗则可以在需要时为礼堂遮挡不必要的光线。

研讨室和会议室中,建筑师在新旧建筑的交界处运用了一些特殊的方式进行系统处理:浇筑的混凝土地板的周围设置有空心踢脚板,这样在一定程度上保护了墙体。隔音板和墙壁的交接处是一个巨大的空心节点,主要用于连接拱顶、吸音面板和悬浮的照明装置。

首层室内的几处装饰都运用到了黄色元素。

Floor and walls are respectively dark and light grey to highlight the curve of vaults underscored by artificial light.
The auditorium also benefits from good lateral daylight on its two elevations. Motorized blinds provide total occultation.
In seminar and meeting rooms, the articulation between old and new is systematically highlighted by specific finishes: hollow skirting boards finish the poured concrete floor which does not touch the existing walls. Acoustic panel wall linings are articulated by a wide hollow joint to meet the vaults, acoustic panels, as well as light fittings, are suspended.
The ground floor reference colour yellow is found in several elements.

这个被治愈的人文研究中心会治愈你吗?第16张图片

石材外立面修复

十七世纪初期提倡“拆卸、重建和重新阐述”,但在十八世纪,法国当地的工匠却建议主要修复这座建筑的立面、石头踏步,甚至将各个细部恢复原状。许多损坏的石材都需要被替换。另外,修改过几次的入口也需要重建,并且替换一些损坏的石头台阶,因此需要体量适当的石头,这样才更便于将它们切割成合适的细部。

Stone facades restoration:
In the 17th century first building, it was necessary to “undertake demolition, rebuild and reinterpret”. In the Incurables wing, much of the work consisted in the restoration of the facades and beautiful stone staircases and restitution of the 18th century joinery requested by the Direction Régionale des Affaires Culturelles (DRAC), Ile-de-France.
Many damaged facade stones had to be replaced. As such, it was necessary to reconstruct several openings modified inadvertently over time and replace many damaged steps on stairs that required the installation on site of a proper stone cutting plant to produce lintels, supports, jambs, steps…

这个被治愈的人文研究中心会治愈你吗?第17张图片

圣查尔斯大学的历史
圣查尔斯大学校园历史,蒙彼利埃

校址历史
旧政权时期,这家医院是贫困者和无家可归的人的避难所。经营这家医院的慈善机构在做慈善同时,也传播天主教教义。这些被救济的穷人在此接受圣经的教育感化,同时学习手工艺来挣取一点微薄的收入养活自己。

1678年,应皇家宪章的要求,路易十四在蒙彼利埃建立了Général医院。同样用了相似的方法用于救济穷人和弃儿,主要用于控制流浪人口的数量,从而更好地维护公共治安。

Campus of University Saint-Charles History
History of the Campus of University Saint-Charles, Montpellier
HISTORY OF THE SITE
Under the Ancien Regime, the hospital was a refuge for the destitute and homeless. The religious congregations who ran these hospitals did so out of charity but also to spread Catholic doctrine. The poor were given instruction in the teachings of the Bible and the practice of piety, and occupied with crafts that might allow them to earn a meagre livelihood.
In 1678, Louis XIV established by royal charter the Hôpital Général in Montpellier. Similar measures had been taken throughout the land to confine the poor and take in foundlings, with the aim of keeping the population of vagrants in check, and maintaining public order
  
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蒙彼利埃的Général医院占用了Enclos des Carmes先前的地点,这里距离城市最繁华的地方很近。1679年,蒙佩利的主教选择了建筑师Antoine Armand来设计和建造新的医院。新医院的建造于1680年到1750年之间展开,当医院在1682年三月开始营业时,仍然还有大量的建造工作没有完成。

随着医院的病人越来越多,管理办公室在1745年决定在这栋楼旁边加建一个辅楼,用来治疗那些不可治愈的疾病(Aile des Incurables)。建造任务由三位建筑师监督完成:第一位建筑师Jean Giral主要负责1753年之前的工作,随后由建筑师Jacques Nogaret负责,最后从1764年开始,则由Jean-Mathieu Audran接手工作。

随着时间的推移,这个治疗不治之症的辅楼变成了乞丐的收容所(dpt de mendicit),直到19世纪的时候,它才被正式称为“dépôt de警察局”。

The Hôpital Général in Montpellier was to occupy the former site of the Enclos des Carmes, near one of the busiest gates to the city. In 1679, the Bishop of Montpellier chose the architect Antoine Armand to design and build the new hospital.
Construction was spread between 1680 and 1750. When the hospital opened in March 1682, vast amounts of building work had still to be completed.
As the hospital took in a growing number of sick, the administrators’ office decided, in 1745, to extend the building with a special wing for the incurably ill (Aile des Incurables).
Building work was supervised by three architects: first Jean Giral until 1753, then Jacques Nogaret and, from 1764, Jean-Mathieu Audran.
As time passed, the Incurables Wing became a beggars’ prison (dépôt de mendicité) until, in the course of the nineteenth century, it became officially known as a dépôt de police.

这个被治愈的人文研究中心会治愈你吗?第19张图片

地址:法国,蒙彼利埃
建筑设计:Hellin-Sebbag
摄影师: Jean-Pierre Porcher

Location: Montpellier, France
Design: Hellin-Sebbag, architects
Photographs: Jean-Pierre Porcher


出处:本文译自www.e-architect.co.uk/,转载请注明出处。

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