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八个人,便是八种经典风格第1张图片

圣家族大教堂天花板细节/Sagrada Familia Ceiling Detail. Image © Flickr user SBA73 licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

拥有同名建筑风格的8位建筑师
8 Architects Whose Names Became Architectural Styles

由专筑网李韧,杨帆编译

纵观历史,许多知名的建筑大师都有着独特的设计思维和创新风格,他们的思想影响着一代又一代的建筑学子。这些建筑先驱的想法极具革命性,因此有时候甚至需要一个新名词才能更好地描述这些理念。无论他们是否代表着一个时代,抑或代表着数以万计的设计师的最新构思,不可否认的是他们对建筑晚辈们确实产生了不可磨灭的影响,几乎每位建筑学子都知道高迪与柯布西耶。

以下是8位拥有自己独特风格的建筑大师:

Throughout history, there have been certain architects whose unique ideas and innovative styles have influenced generations to come. Some of these pioneers introduced ideas so revolutionary that entirely new words had to be invented to truly encapsulate them. Whether they became a style embraced by an entire era, or captured the imagination of millions for decades to come, we know a Gaudiesque or Corbusian building when we see one.
Here are eight adjectives derived from the works of architects whose names are now in the dictionary:

八个人,便是八种经典风格第2张图片

美国范斯沃斯住宅,密斯·凡·德·罗/Farnsworth House by Mies Van Der Rohe. Image © Jack E. Boucher via the Library of Congress (public domain)

密斯风格

“少即是多”和“细节决定一切”是建筑大师密斯·凡·德·罗的至理名言。这些言语能直观地表现出密斯建筑风格的主要特征,即精致极简。他热爱钢框架、玻璃幕墙来表达出精致的极简形态。

Miesian
Mies van der Rohe famously articulated that “less is more” and that “God is in the details.” These quotes perfectly describe the characteristics of Miesian architecture—meticulously crafted minimalism. His embrace of steel frames, glass walls and the beauty of the minimal inspired both the skyscrapers of today and our sleek and spartan kitchens.

八个人,便是八种经典风格第3张图片

纽约三一教堂,波士顿,亨利·哈柏森·理查森/Trinity Church, Boston by Henry Hobson Richardson. Image © Carol M. Highsmith via the Library of Congress (public domain)

理查森的罗马风格

19世纪美国建筑师亨利·哈柏森·理查森(Henry Hobson Richardson)创造了理查森式罗马风格,这种风格的建筑包含了法式、西班牙式、意大利式的罗马风特点。此类建筑主要通过厚重的砖石来表达恒久的理念,并通过建筑前侧的半圆形拱门和圆锥形塔楼来表达向上的空间感。理查森式罗马风建筑的独特雕塑形态甚至影响了芝加哥学派斯堪的纳维亚建筑师,小沙里宁便是最好的例子。

Richardsonian Romanesque
Henry Hobson Richardson created what is known as the Richardsonian Romanesque, an eclectic mix of French, Spanish and Italian Romanesque. It uses heavy masonry to create a sense of permanence, with a sense of the whimsical created through the perfect semi-circle arches in front of doors and windows, as well as rounded conical towers. The unique, sculpted shapes of the Richardsonian Romanesque influenced the Chicago School and Scandinavian architects such as Eliel Saarinen.

八个人,便是八种经典风格第4张图片

© Flickr user paytonc licensed under CC BY 2.0. Image © Flickr user paytonc licensed under CC BY 2.0

沙利文式建筑

沙利文风格来自于芝加哥学派建筑大师路易斯·沙利文(Louis Sullivan)。沙利文的作品通常使用线性、矩形的形态,并结合稍显华丽的装饰。当时的新技术让建筑楼层不断增加,沙利文将人们惯用的横向审美转移至竖向空间,他认为,高层建筑应当“充分向上延伸,从下至上是一个整体”。 The Midland Terra Cotta 公司和其他一些商业竞争者建造了很多这种风格的高层建筑,以此表达企业的勃勃雄心。

Sullivanesque
The term Sullivanesque is derived from the architecture of Louis Sullivan. Sullivan’s work used linear, rectangular forms offset with heavily ornate ornamentation. At a time when new technologies were enabling taller buildings than ever before, Sullivan transformed the horizontally-focused Beaux-Arts styles into vertically-oriented designs, following his belief that a tall building should be "every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer exultation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line." The Midland Terra Cotta Company and other competitors manufactured Sullivanesque buildings in bulk, and many line the commercial streets of Chicago.

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米拉之家,安东尼·高迪/Casa Mila by Antoni Gaudí. Image © Flickr user kcjc licensed under CC BY 2.0

高迪风格

西班牙建筑大师安东尼·高迪(Antoni Gaudí)的作品以其怪异的扭曲建筑形态而闻名,不合常理的建筑形式让作品看上去超乎想象,他的建筑作品常常让人们感觉来到了另一个世界。他把复杂的几何元素结合精致的装饰元素,设计出能够激发我们灵感的塑性作品,他的设计灵感都来自于大自然。

Gaudiesque
The work of Antoni Gaudí is characterized by warped, distorted forms that are seemingly taken out of fantasy, and the work of Gaudi often makes one feel like one has been transported to a different world. He merged complex mathematical geometries with intricate decorative elements inspired by nature to create sculptural works that capture our imagination.

八个人,便是八种经典风格第6张图片

圆厅别墅,安德烈亚·帕拉第奥/Villa Capra (La Rotonda) by Andrea Palladio. Image © Flickr user hansarosbach licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

帕拉第奥风格

帕拉第奥格建筑的创始人是文艺复兴时期建筑师安德烈亚·帕拉第奥(Andrea Palladio)。这位建筑师受到古罗马建筑风格及其古代经典设计理念的影响,在18世纪的英国,帕拉第奥式建筑异常流行,甚至传播到了欧洲和北美洲。帕拉第奥风格主要吸收了对称与平衡的理念,减少古典柱式的运用,相比起其他文艺复兴建筑,这种风格的建筑要更加严格、精致与干炼。

Palladian
Palladian architecture is a style acquired from the work of Andrea Palladio. A renaissance-era architect, Palladio was himself influenced by the architecture of ancient Rome, and the principles of classical antiquity. The Palladian style became extremely popular in 18th century Britain, as well as spreading to other areas within Europe and North America. Palladianism uses symmetry and balance, as well as elements such as classical columns and pediments, and is distinguished from other renaissance architecture by its strict adherence to mathematical proportions and rule-based design and its more pared-back, limited ornamentation.

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朗香教堂,柯布西耶/Ronchamp by Le Corbusier. Image via Maxpixel

柯布西耶风格

这种风格来源于柯布西耶的建筑作品。然而,相比起更加个性化的高迪或密斯的作品,柯布风格似乎很难有着明确的定义。柯布西耶的作品在其职业生涯中有着多次显著的变化,例如纯粹的粗野主义,该系列的作品都有着暴露的混凝土和充满塑性感的建筑造型。而其著名建筑理念“新建筑五要点”则又与粗野主义完全不同,此类建筑常常用支柱将一层空间架空,并且有着自由平面与自由立面,其中材料的使用也是柯布西耶建筑作品的一大特征。

Corbusian
The term Corbusian refers to characteristics of Le Corbusier’s architecture. However, it is perhaps more difficult to pinpoint the exact meaning of "Corbusian" compared to the more homogeneous styles of Gaudi and Mies Van Der Rohe. Le Corbusier’s work changed significantly through the course of his career, from smooth, purist forms to Brutalist exposed concrete and the more sculptural. The use of pilotis, a free plan and free façade—concepts based on Le Corbusier's "Five Points of a New Architecture"—as well as a raw and honest materiality are all characteristics that can be described as Corbusian.

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Lithograph on paper by John Ruskin. Image © Flickr user eoskins licensed under CC BY 2.0

罗斯金式建筑

约翰·罗斯金(John Ruskin)的作品影响了一代又一代的作家、建筑师,甚至经济学家。他的著作《建筑的七盏明灯》描述了他的建筑信仰,也表达了建筑装饰、材质、结构等各个重要的组成部分。罗斯金的建筑常常运用彩绘作品、哥特元素以及砖石装饰。

Ruskinian
The work of John Ruskin influenced generations of writers, architects, and economists. His book, The Seven Lamps of Architecture, described his belief that the craft of building, ornamentation and an honest display of materials and structure were integral to architecture. Ruskinian architecture generally employs polychromy, elements of the Gothic and decorative brickwork.

八个人,便是八种经典风格第9张图片

克里斯特博马厩,路易斯·巴拉干/Fuente de los Amantes by Luis Barragan. Image © Flickr user esparta licensed under CC BY 2.0

巴拉干风格

巴拉干式建筑主要用于描述墨西哥建筑师路易斯·巴拉干(Luis Barragan)的作品。其干净的线条和明亮的色彩让建筑具有亲密、诗意的感受。他更希望通过建筑来传达出一种感性理念,而非理性精神。巴拉干式建筑需要由立方体、大片平面、明亮的色彩,以及充满戏剧感的光线所组成。

Barraganesque
"Barraganesque" describes that which pertains to the architecture of Luis Barragán. His use of clean lines and forms alongside bursts of bright color create buildings that are playful and intimate, spiritual and poetic. He attempted to create an “emotional architecture” rather than one of rational analysis. The Barraganesque consists of cubes and planes, bright colors, and the dramatic use of light.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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