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九位不具有建筑学位的著名建筑师
9 Incredibly Famous Architects Who Didn't Possess an Architecture Degree

由专筑网李韧,韩平编译

遇到了有史以来最糟糕的老师吗?考试不及格?不要担心!当你在Instagram上po出一张假装开心快乐的自拍照之后便扑倒在床上哭着入睡时,你可以看看这9位建筑师,他们都有一个共同的特点——非科班出身。你可能会认为一个闪亮的建筑学位是一个成功建筑师的必备要求,虽然在许多国家,“建筑师”的头衔确实充满光辉,但这并不意味着你不能设计出惊人的作品,正如这九位建筑师所展示的,他们把传统抛至脑后,走上了大师级的建筑之路。

Had the worst jury ever? Failed your exams? Worry not! Before you fall on your bed and cry yourself to sleep—after posting a cute, frantic-looking selfie on Instagram, of course (hashtag so dead)—take a look at this list of nine celebrated architects, all of whom share a common trait. You might think that a shiny architecture degree is a requirement to be a successful architect; why else would you put yourself through so many years of architecture school? Well, while the title of "architect" may be protected in many countries, that doesn't mean you can't design amazing architecture—as demonstrated by these nine architects, who threw convention to the wind and took the road less traveled to architectural fame.


1、弗兰克•劳埃德•赖特

看看这些大师,坚持梦想沉住气,想要的自然会来第2张图片

流水别墅/Fallingwater. Image © Flickr user pablosanchez licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

美国建筑师学会于1991 年授予赖特“美国最伟大的建筑师”称号,而早在80年代末,他被授予名誉博士学位,但是,这位大师并未获得建筑学学位。1887年,由于家庭环境与当时教育系统的原因,在土木工程专业学习了一年的赖特从威斯康星大学的麦迪逊分校辍学了,后来他搬到芝加哥,成为建筑师J.L. Silsbee的一名助理。后来,赖特获得了在艾德勒和沙利文的建筑事务所工作的机会,这使他在这个著名的公司里度过了长达一年的学徒生涯。在这里,沙利文为赖特日后的建筑生涯打下坚实的基础,直到1893年,赖特建立了自己的工作室。虽然他漫长的职业生涯充满了丑闻和悲剧,但赖特对美国建筑的贡献仍然无与伦比。然而,他始终对正规教育持怀疑态度,正如他在1955年所说的那样:“教育总是建立在其自身的基础上。通过教育,你会了解已经发生的事,并且让你对未来可能发生的事情作出推论。然而我们追求的教育却无法预言。”

1.        Frank Lloyd Wright
The man labeled “the greatest American architect of all time” by the American Institute of Architects in 1991, funnily enough, did not possess an architecture degree, although he was awarded an honorary doctorate of fine arts by his former school when he was in his late eighties. A combination of familial circumstances and a disenchantment with the education system—Wright would go on to call it “a trampling of the herd” in 1956—led him to drop out of the University of Wisconsin at Madison in 1887, after just a year of studies in the civil engineering course. He moved to Chicago instead, to gain real-world experience as an assistant to architect J.L. Silsbee. While working under his supervision, Wright took a chance and applied for a job at Adler & Sullivan, which led to a six-year-long apprenticeship at the prestigious firm. Here, Louis Sullivan provided the bedrock of Wright’s instruction in architecture, before he established his own practice in 1893. While his long career was marked by scandal and tragedy, Wright’s contribution to American architecture and his mainstream popularity remains unparalleled. He continued, though, to harbor a skeptical opinion of formal education, as evidenced by his observation in 1955 that “Education, of course, is always based on what was. Education shows you what has been and leaves you to make the deduction as to what may be. Education as we pursue it cannot prophesy, and does not.”


2、路易斯•沙利文

看看这些大师,坚持梦想沉住气,想要的自然会来第3张图片

温莱特大厦/Wainwright Building. Image via Wikimedia (public domain)

赖特的“恩师”路易斯•沙利文所受的是古怪多变的教育,这位说出“形式追随功能”的神童于1872年高中毕业,并被麻省理工学院录取,这是当时美国唯一的建筑学院,缺乏耐心的他在一年后离开学校,并开始了两次短暂的学徒生涯,首先是追随费城建筑师Frank Furness,后来则是在建筑工程师William Le Baron Jenney门下,在后来芝加哥学派的发展中,这是位重要人物,在1874年的夏天,沙利文来到欧洲,就读于巴黎美术学院,这所学校在业内很有影响力,在那里他呆了一年,同时去佛罗伦萨和罗马作为短途旅行。1875年6月他回到芝加哥后,在几家公司担任绘图员,1879年他加入未来的合作伙伴Dankmar Adler的工作室。十四年来他与Adler共同设计了许许多多建筑,这些建筑都具有现代的审美,也运用了装饰艺术风格。另外,他写了大量的建筑理论,也分享了许多赖特对正规教育的蔑视。他在1894年指出:“在实践中,教育常常意味着压抑,这是多么奇怪的事,它不是把思想引导向光明,而是把它周围的事物聚集在一起,使之变得黑暗和疲惫。”

2.        Louis Sullivan
Wright’s “lieber meister” Louis Sullivan, had an erratic, if varied, formal education. The wunderkind and creator of the credo “form ever follows function” graduated high school at sixteen years of age in 1872, and was accepted into the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the sole American architecture school at the time. Impatience caused him to withdraw at the end of the year, and next came two brief apprenticeships: First, under architect Frank Furness in Philadelphia, and the second, under architect-engineer William Le Baron Jenney, a prominent figure in the development of the Chicago School of architecture. In the summer of 1874, Sullivan sailed to Europe and enrolled at the influential école des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he again just stayed a year, making short excursions to Florence and Rome meanwhile. After returning to Chicago in June 1875, he worked briefly as a draughtsman with several firms, before joining future partner Dankmar Adler’s office in 1879. His fourteen-year association with Adler produced more than hundred buildings, characterized simultaneously by a modern, yet ornamented aesthetic. While he wrote extensively on architectural theory and philosophy, he shared Wright’s disdain for formal education. "How strange it seems that education, in practice, so often means suppression: that instead of leading the mind outward to the light of day it crowds things in upon it that darken and weary it," he noted in 1894.


3、勒•柯布西耶

看看这些大师,坚持梦想沉住气,想要的自然会来第4张图片

萨伏伊别墅/Villa Savoye. Image © Flickr user yogomi licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

这位瑞士建筑师和城市规划师的学习道路始于其父亲的贸易,他15岁时就读于位于其家乡侏罗山脉的装饰艺术学院,三年后,他的艺术史的老师Charles L’Eplattenier坚持认为这个男孩应该成为一位建筑师,并为他提供了当地的一次实践项目。在他的建议下,年轻的柯布西耶在1907年至1911年间游历了欧洲的许多国家,如雅典、威尼斯、维也纳、慕尼黑等等,同时也在一些建筑公司作为短期学徒,他1907年在巴黎的Auguste Perret事务所工作,1908年在维也纳的Josef Hoffmann事务所,而1910年至1911年则在柏林的贝伦斯事务所学习,1912年他回到家中,与他的师父一起教学,并在1917年来到巴黎之前,开始了自己的建筑实践。

3.        Le Corbusier
The Swiss architect and urban planner was on his way to learn his father’s trade of enameling and engraving watchcases, enrolling at the age of 15 in the école des Arts Décoratifs in his hometown of La Chaux-de-Fonds in the Swiss Jura Mountains. Three years later though, his art history teacher, Charles L’Eplattenier, insisted that the boy should become an architect instead and helped to secure his first practice on local projects. On his advice, the young Corbusier also traveled extensively across Europe between 1907 and 1911, to cities such as Athens, Venice, Vienna, and Munich, while apprenticing briefly in several architectural offices: Auguste Perret in Paris (1907), Josef Hoffmann in Vienna (1908), and Peter Behrens in Berlin (1910-11). He returned home in 1912, to teach alongside his master and open his own architectural practice, before eventually moving to Paris in 1917.


4、密斯•凡•德罗

看看这些大师,坚持梦想沉住气,想要的自然会来第5张图片

范斯沃斯住宅/Farnsworth House. Image © Wikimedia user Victor Grigas licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

这位大师提出“少即是多”的设计格言,他出生在德国的一个石匠家庭,这意味着他接触正规教育的机会很少。早期他在一个贸易学校做学徒,密斯曾经为多位建筑师绘制建筑装饰物的轮廓,这些任务帮助提高了他的绘图技巧。1905年,在19岁那年他搬到柏林,在那里为一位建筑师工作,不久之后他离开了这个工作,成为一位家具设计师Bruno Paul的学徒。1907年他执行了自己的第一个任务——里尔住宅,这使得彼得•贝伦斯允许密斯在他的办公室工作,这位德意志制造联盟的领导人物与密斯共同工作了4年,帮助密斯与那些志同道合的艺术家和工匠建立起良好的关系网。1912年他离开贝伦斯事务所时,他已经成为一位具有自己风格的大师,已经能够为柏林的精英们建造属于他们自己的高端私人住宅。

4.        Mies van der Rohe
The man who coined the aphorism “less is more” was born to a modest stonecutter's family in Aachen, Germany, which meant he had little opportunity for formal education. Following early apprenticeships as a brick mason while in trade school, Mies worked for a number of Aachen architects sketching outlines of architectural ornaments, a task that helped refine his drawing and drafting skills. He moved to Berlin in 1905, at the age of nineteen, to work for an architect, but left his job to apprentice for Bruno Paul, a leading furniture designer of the time. The impressive execution of his first independent commission in 1907, the Riehl House, prompted Peter Behrens to offer Mies a job in his office. His four-year association with Behrens, a leading member of the Deutscher Werkbund, helped him forge ties with like-minded artists and craftsmen, who advocated “a marriage between art and technology.” By the time he left Behrens' office in 1912, Mies had come into his own, successfully handling independent commissions of private houses for Berlin’s elite.


5、巴克敏斯特•富勒

看看这些大师,坚持梦想沉住气,想要的自然会来第6张图片

蒙特利尔生物圈/Montreal Biosphere. Image © Flickr user Mikl1303 licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

富勒是这个时代最伟大的思想家之一,与正规教育有着坎坷的关系。这位大师甚至被一次被哈佛大学开除了两次。他在1961年的演讲中透露了自己的情况,他说:“我父亲在我很小的时候就去世了,尽管我的家庭相对贫困,我还是从预科学校来到哈佛。可是我很快就发现我无法融入各种俱乐部,如果我很富有或者有一个父亲照顾我的话,我可能会合群一些,因为俱乐部的许多成员都是由俱乐部的研究生委员会直接安排。直到那时我才意识到社会阶级制度的存在,世界上有不同等级的公民。我开始对自己的世界观产生怀疑,甚至内心十分恐惧,于是我便常常逃课,最终被开除了。后来,我开始努力工作。不久前,哈佛大学的报告说我是一个优秀的孩子,也许我真的应该回学校深造了,所以哈佛大学录取了我。然而,我现在被认为是特立独行的人,我没有看到我的老朋友们,于是我又开始逃课,花光了一年的零用钱,终于又一次被开除了。这次我又很努力地开始工作。如果第一次世界大战没有发生,我相信我仍然会回到学校,只是我也十分肯定我会被再次开除。每次我回到哈佛,我都十分困惑与恐慌,这并不像一个教育机构,这是个大问题。”

5.        Buckminster Fuller
Widely considered to be one of the greatest minds of our times, Fuller had a rocky relationship with formal education. The man who popularized the geodesic dome was expelled from Harvard University not once, but twice, never to graduate. He revealed his circumstances in a 1961 lecture as he spoke at length: “My father died when I was quite young, and though my family was relatively poor I had come to Harvard from a preparatory school for quite well-to-do families. I soon saw that I wasn’t going to be included in the clubs as I might have been if I had been very wealthy or had a father looking out for me, for much of the clubs’ membership was prearranged by the clubs’ graduate committees. I was not aware up to that moment that there was a social class system and that there were different grades of citizens. I became panicky about that disintegration of my idealistic Harvard world, went on a pretended lark, cut classes, and was fired. Out of college, I went to work and worked hard. In no time at all, reports went to Harvard that I was a good and able boy and that I really ought to go back to college; so Harvard took me back. However, I was now considered a social maverick, and I saw none of my old friends; it hurt too much. Again I cut classes, spent all my year’s allowance, and once more was fired. After my second firing, I again worked very hard. If World War I hadn’t come along, I am sure the university would have taken me back again, and I am sure I would have been fired again. Each time I returned to Harvard I entered a world of gnawing apprehensions, not an educational institution, and that was the problem.”


6、路易斯•巴拉干

看看这些大师,坚持梦想沉住气,想要的自然会来第7张图片

吉拉迪住宅/Casa Gilardi. Image via Wikimedia user Ulises00 (public domain)

这位获得普利策奖的墨西哥建筑师,其作品是简约细腻的代名词,曾经在墨西哥就读于一所免费的工程学校,1923年取得土木工程学位,随后他致力于攻读建筑学,可是他却没有取得建筑学学位。在1925年的巴黎装饰艺术博览会上,他结识了法国景观设计师和插画师费迪南,六年后,巴拉干遇见了巴克和柯布西耶,这两位建筑师对他未来的职业生涯产生了深远的影响。

6.        Luis Barragán
The Pritzker Prize-winning Mexican architect, whose work has been called minimalist, emotional, and mystic, attended the Escuela Libre de Ingenieros (Free School of Engineers) in Gaudalajara, Mexico, graduating with a civil engineering degree in 1923, while he continued working towards an architecture degree that he would never gain. On a visit to the 1925 Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, he became acquainted with the published works of French landscape architect and illustrator Ferdinand Bac: Six years later, Barragán met Bac and Corbusier on another visit to Europe, two architects who would eventually have a profound influence on his work.


7、卡洛•斯卡帕

看看这些大师,坚持梦想沉住气,想要的自然会来第8张图片

威尼斯双年展贾尔迪尼中心馆/Central Pavilion in the Giardini at the Venice Biennale . Image © Flickr user dalbera licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

这位意大利建筑师以独特的设计和建造方式闻名于世,他曾就读于威尼斯皇家美术学院,并于1926年获得建筑制图学位,他并没有经过建筑的专业学习。因此,他拒绝参加专业考试,由于他不与其他建筑师交往,因此他的建筑实践历程受到了许多限制与影响。他在威尼斯的皇家高级建筑学院开始了他的职业生涯,主要教授建筑制图,并与1932年至1947年在威尼斯玻璃制品业担任艺术总监。1964年的意大利维罗纳博物馆翻新工程,成为二战后斯卡帕作为一个建筑师的职业认可。

7.        Carlo Scarpa
The Italian enigma, known for his distinct approach to design and building, attended the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Venice, from where he graduated with a non-professional Professor in Architectural Drawing diploma in 1926. Refusing to sit the required professional exam, he was therefore restricted from practicing architecture without associating himself with another architect. He began his career at the Royal Superior Institute of Architecture, Venice, teaching architectural drawing, before going on to serve as the art director at Venini Glass Works in Venice from 1932 to 1947. It was only after the Second World War that Scarpa received recognition as an architect, most notably for the 1964 renovation of the Museo Castelvecchio in Verona, Italy.


8、安藤忠雄

看看这些大师,坚持梦想沉住气,想要的自然会来第9张图片

兰根基金会美术馆/Langen Foundation. Image © Wikimedia user Perlblau licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0 DE

这位日本普利茨奖获得者原先是一位职业拳击手,他的数学老师和当地的木匠引发了他对建筑的兴趣。“数学与木工这两个元素在建筑学中是对立的。然而这是我的出发点。”他在2015年接受采访时告诉杂志记者。安藤负担不起昂贵的大学学费,因此走上了漫长的自学旅程,他努力读书、上夜校,游览研究日本和海外建筑。“我必须自己思考和行动。我来自大阪,离京都和奈良大约半小时路程。每星期我都要出去看看和研究这个地区的古建筑。”他解释道。在经历了许许多多非正式的学徒生涯后,安藤于1969年创建了自己的建筑事务所,那年他才28岁。

8.        Tadao Ando
The Japanese Pritzker Prize-winning architect began as a professional boxer in Osaka, Japan, before a study of his mathematics teacher and local carpenters sparked his interest in architecture. “These two elements—math and carpentry—converse in architecture. That was my starting point,” he told Surface Magazine in an interview in 2015. Ando couldn’t afford university education, so embarked on a long journey of self-education: reading books, attending night classes, visiting buildings in Japan and overseas and studying them. “I had to think and act by myself. I’m from Osaka, which is located about half an hour from Kyoto and Nara. Every Sunday I made a point to go out and look and study the old buildings in the region,” he explained. After a host of informal apprenticeships, Ando, in 1969, opened his own architectural firm at the age of twenty-eight.


9、彼得•卒姆托

看看这些大师,坚持梦想沉住气,想要的自然会来第10张图片

瑞士瓦尔斯温泉浴场/The Therme Vals. Image © Flickr user p2cl licensed under CC BY-SA 2.0

这位2009年普利兹建筑奖得主出生在瑞士巴塞尔,少年时期跟随父亲的脚步,同时成为本地家具生产商的学徒。1963年至1967年他在巴塞尔工艺美术学校学习,在这里来自包豪斯的老师负责教授他,他接受《纽约时报》的采访时说:“设计的所有基本元素,如制图、工艺、色彩、白色空间和消极空间等,都是由最基本的线与面构成。”后来他在纽约的普拉特学院学习了一段时间,主攻工业设计,随后在1967年他回到瑞士,就职于古迹保护部门。他花了12年时间建立起自己的风格,但从未获得过建筑学位仍然是卒姆托引以自豪的事实。他在2011年接受《纽约时报》的采访时抱怨道:“这些都是空谈。密斯凡德罗和勒•柯布西耶都来自一个传统的学习体系,他们知道建筑师该做什么,并且知道如何才能做得好,我们应该让大学培养木匠与皮革工人。建筑师现在都想成为哲学家或艺术家。我十分庆幸我现在获得的所有教育,因为现在的教育,尤其在美国,人们已经失去了建筑教育的真正精髓。”

9.        Peter Zumthor
The 2009 Pritzker Prize laureate, born in Basel, Switzerland to a cabinet-maker, followed in his father’s footsteps and apprenticed with a local cabinet-maker for four of his teenage years. He continued his design education at the Basel Arts and Crafts School (1963-67), where teachers from the Bauhaus taught him, as he explained to New York Times Magazine “all the basics of design, the craftsmanship of drawing and looking, of mixing colours, white space and negative space — form, line and surface.” This was followed by a short stint at New York’s Pratt Institute, where Zumthor studied industrial design; He subsequently returned to Switzerland in 1967, receiving employment in the Department for the Preservation of Monuments, in Graubünden. It took him another twelve years to establish his own practice in Haldenstein, but Zumthor takes pride in the fact that he never earned an architecture degree. “It’s all talk these days,” he complained in his 2011 interview with New York Times Magazine. “Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier came from a tradition in which architects still knew how things were made, how to make things well. We should force universities to train carpenters and woodworkers and leather workers. Architects all want to be philosophers or artists now. I’m lucky to have had my education, because in the States, especially, you’ve lost contact with the real business of building.”

看看这些大师,坚持梦想沉住气,想要的自然会来第11张图片



出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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