网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
还不会计算楼梯?试试这个“万能钥匙”第1张图片


如何计算楼梯尺寸和设计
How to Calculate Staircase Dimensions and Designs

由专筑网李韧,曹逸希编译

这个问题非常基础,你也许知道答案,但是了解一些基本的计算原则也很必要,这样能够简化平时的设计过程。

我们都知道,楼梯由一系列踏步、休息平台、踢面组成。虽然在设计中各个元素有些许不同,但是踏步、平台、踢面是楼梯的基本组成部分,每个踏步相较下一级踏步的投影会突出一小块,这一小块部分与楼梯的整体尺寸无关。

法国建筑师François Blondel总结了一系列的计算公式,可以帮助设计师根据不同的使用状况来确定楼梯的细部尺寸。

This question can be basic and you may know the answer, but it's always good to remember some elementary calculations that help us to streamline the design process.
As we know, a staircase consists basically of a series of steps, which in turn consist of a tread (the horizontal part, where the foot will rest) and a riser (the vertical part). Although it can vary in its design, each step must also have one or more landings, handrails, and a small nosing. The latter protrudes from the tread over the lower step, allowing to increase its size without adding centimeters to the overall dimensions of the staircase.
Check the effective formula developed by French architect François Blondel, which allows you to determine the correct dimensions of a comfortable and efficient staircase according to its use.

还不会计算楼梯?试试这个“万能钥匙”第2张图片

© José Tomás Franco

2个踢面+1个踏面=63-65 cm

并不是所有的空间都能够刚好达到这个数值,但设计时可以尽量地满足。

楼梯踏步示意图

(2 x 21) + (1 x 21) = 63 cm  

2 Risers + 1 Tread = 63-65 cm
The necessary space to reach these optimal dimensions is not always available, but it's recommended to approach them as much as possible.
A schematic example of a steep and low-transit staircase
(2 x 21) + (1 x 21) = 63 cm  

还不会计算楼梯?试试这个“万能钥匙”第3张图片

21x21 cm / Schematic example. Image © José Tomás Franco


最佳楼梯尺寸设计示意图

(2 x 18) + (1 x 28) = 64 cm

A schematic example of an optimal staircase
(2 x 18) + (1 x 28) = 64 cm

还不会计算楼梯?试试这个“万能钥匙”第4张图片

28x18 cm / Schematic example. Image © José Tomás Franco


排布较宽松的楼梯尺寸示意图,适用于室外楼梯

(2 x 13) + (1 x 39) = 65 cm

A schematic example of a loose staircase, preferably for outdoor use
(2 x 13) + (1 x 39) = 65 cm

还不会计算楼梯?试试这个“万能钥匙”第5张图片

39x13 cm / Schematic example. Image © José Tomás Franco


以下为层高2.6米的楼梯尺寸计算实例

1、计算所需踏步数量

假设一个踏步高度为18厘米,可以将层高除以每个踏步的高度,最后结果四舍五入:

260/18 = 14.44 = 15 级

2、计算每个踏步的高度

将建筑层高除以刚才计算得出的踏步数量

260/15 = 17.33 cm,就是每个踏步的所需高度

3、计算踏面宽度

直接应用Blondel公式:

(2 x 17.33 cm) + (1 x 踏面宽度) = 64

因此每个踏面宽度为29.34 cm

结论:楼梯将有15级踏步,踏面尺寸为29.34厘米,踏步高度为17.33厘米。


Sample calculation of a staircase that should be 2.60 meters high

1. Calculate the number of steps that will be needed
Considering an ideal riser of 18 cm, the height of the space is divided by the height of each step. The result should always be rounded up:

260/18 = 14.44 = 15 steps

2. Calculate the height of each riser
The height of the space is divided by the number of steps that we have just obtained:

260/15 = 17.33 cm height for each riser

3. Calculate the width of the tread
Apply the Blondel formula:
(2 x 17.33 cm) + (1 x tread) = 64
Each tread will measure 29.34 cm
* The resulting staircase will have 15 steps of 29.34 cm of tread and 17.33 cm of riser


还不会计算楼梯?试试这个“万能钥匙”第6张图片

Schematic example. Image © José Tomás Franco

常见问题解答

如何确定楼梯的宽度?


根据具体使用状况和当地规定,单身公寓的楼梯最小宽度为80厘米,公共建筑中的楼梯宽度最好大于1米。另外,Ernst Neufert所著的传统书目《Architects' Data》之中,作者写道,宽度为1.25米的楼梯可以满足两个人同时上下,而宽度为1.85米的楼梯则可以满足3个人同时上下,另外在人与扶手之间能够保留55厘米的适当距离。

楼层楼梯的踏步总数应该设置为多少?

理想状况来说,楼梯最好不要超过15级踏步,因此人们在走完15级踏步之后就应该来到另一楼层。另外,楼梯踏步最少不得少于3级。

楼梯间的净高为多少?

踏步区域的净高至少为2.15米。根据Ernst Neufert的说法,至少应该达到2米。而扶手的高度则在80厘米至90厘米之间。

如何改变踏步高度和宽度之间的比例关系?

每座楼梯都可以有不同的形状和数据,但踏步高度和宽度之间的关系尽量保持一致,反之会给使用者带来不便,因为人们在行进中具有一定的惯性作用。

以上公式能够帮助设计师对楼梯踏步进行计算,但由于每个项目的特殊性,以及每个地区的法律规范,计算时仍然应当遵守当地的规定,该公式只是提供一种思路,而非固定模式。

FAQ
How to determine the width of the stairs?

Depending on the use and local regulations, a minimum width of 80 cm is recommended for stairs in single-family homes, and greater than 1.00 meters in public buildings, taking into consideration the tentative number of people who will use it. As a reference, according to the traditional book 'Architects' Data' by Ernst Neufert, in a staircase of 1.25 meters two people can go up and down at once, and in one of 1.85 meters 3 people can do it at the same time, with one appropriate distance of 55 cm between the person and the handrail.

After how many steps should a landing be included?
Ideally, a stairway shouldn't have more than 15 steps in a row. After 15 steps, a landing should be provided. It's recommended that a landing measure at least the same as 3 treads.

What is the ideal height between the staircase and the ceiling?
The height between the steps and the ceiling must be 2.15 meters at minimum. According to Ernst Neufert, you can reach a minimum of 2.00 meters. The height of the handrail can vary between 80 and 90 cm from each step.

How do I vary the proportions between the tread and the riser?
Stairs can take a variety of shapes and configurations, but the relationship between the tread and the riser must remain the same throughout its route to avoid causing imbalance to the user, who is already used to climbing or descending stairs in a certain way.
This formula will help you to design a staircase correctly. However, calculations should always consider the specificities of each project, as well as local regulations in the area where the project is located.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

新闻 (359 articles)


建筑 (9139 articles)


楼梯 (60 articles)


设计 (477 articles)


2018 (243 articles)