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2018年风景园林设计的五大趋势
5 Trends Shaping Landscape Architecture in 2018

由专筑网孙佳,邢子编译

就其本质来说,设计会随着环境和意识的发展而变化。2017年设计界的声望和喧嚣(有太多可以列出的内容)已经过去,我想知道下一代风景园林设计会是什么样子,又会是一个怎样的水平?而什么是持续增长趋势的动力,我们必须面对的新挑战又是什么?从LAF宣言的持续效应到在设计会议上寻找强大的黑色设计的权威立足点,2017年是景观设计师们在实践中发现并且超越其价值的一年,同时也强调地方司法、经济和环境稳定等方面对设计的作用。没有特别的顺序,这里有5个正在渗透到景观建筑设计行业的话题。

By its nature, design evolves, responding to both context and conscious. Reflecting on the prestige and tumult of 2017 (there’s too many to list), has me wondering what the next iteration of landscape architecture will be. What’s on the horizon? What are the groundswell moments that will continue to gain momentum, and what are the emerging challenges that we must confront? From the continued ripples of the LAF Declaration to finding legislative footholds to the powerful Black in Design conference, 2017 was the year that landscape architects awoke to find value in participation beyond practice as well as placing continued emphasis on of the role of place in justice, economics, and environmental stability. In no particular order, here are 5 topics that are permeating the profession of landscape architecture right now.

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设计实践从来没有一成不变的法则,它重在社会参与,并且越来越成功/Design practice has never fit into a box and is employing community engagement strategies with increasing success.

混合实践

混合实践,练习实践,适应实践 - 无论术语如何,非传统设计方法的价值积累都是景观设计师越来越重视的话题。在最近的Land8的文章中,我写道:

“随着社会对经济、社会和环境变化的反应不断变化,好设计的必要性得到持续的关注,并且变得越来越普遍,为了个人审美和专业需求,进行新的设计过程至关重要。战术城市主义,无数低成本临时设计及其同时代的设计方法(公共空间项目,更轻,更快,更便宜)激发了人们对设计的不同思考方式。这是以人为中心、建筑功能论和更常见的基于问题解决的流程之间的细微差别,但是更重要的是使用者的参与与反馈感受。这些非传统技术越来越多地在设计中找到立足点,但设计师在恶劣的设计环境中扮演什么角色?由于客户和社会的财政限制收紧,景观设计师不得不找到一种方法来维持他们的需求。特别是小型从业者不得创造更加灵活,更具有独特的识别性的设计,从而与有利可图的市场分开。“

Hybrid Practice
Hybrid practice, alt-practice, adapting practice – no matter the term, the accumulative value of non-traditional design methodologies is a topic gaining increasing traction for landscape architects. In a recent Land8 article, I wrote:
“As society responds to inconstancy in economic, social, and environmental change, the necessity for ‘good design’ continues to adapt and become more prevalent, it is essential to engage in a new process of design, for both personal and professional gain. Tactical Urbanism and its myriad of low cost, temporary design approaches and its contemporaries (Project For Public Spaces and lighter, quicker, cheaper), spurred a different way of thinking about design. It is a subtle difference between human-centric, capacity building approaches and the more common problem-solving based processes, but far more participatory and responsive to end users. Increasingly, these non-traditional techniques are finding a foothold in design, but what role do designers have in rogue design? Already, as financial constraints for clients and communities have tightened, landscape architects have had to find a way to sustain their organizations. Small practitioners in particular have had to be nimble, identifying unique and profitable markets separate from developing drawings.”

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ASLA年会上的混合实践主题演讲变得越来越普遍/Hybrid practice themed presentations at the ASLA Annual Meeting are becoming more and more common.

虽然传统景观建筑的地位在不断调整和发展,但仍然证明了跨学科合作的必要性,理解了专业技能的可转移性,并且发展了新的实践方法。

While the role of traditional landscape architecture continues to adapt and evolve, what remains clear is the increasing value of cross-disciplinary collaboration, understanding the transferable skills of the profession, and developing new methods to practice.

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INASLA代表与政策制定者讨论景观设计师的立法优先事项/INASLA representatives discuss the legislative priorities of landscape architects with policymakers.

倡导和行动主义

在实践中优先考虑倡导和行动主义具有非常实际的经济影响。这些包括来自市场的感知(什么是你真正的信念,以及如何证明你擅长的东西),以利用潜在的税收抵免(小时志愿者和实物捐赠)对景观设计产品的合法资金和对地方小企业的监管的一些碰撞。政府事务举措可以带来实质性的经济收益并加强景观设计师的影响力。麦肯锡公司指出:“来自政府和监管机构的商业价值非常大,大多数行业公司此部分的收益大约为30%。”这对全国景观设计服务的潜在影响大约为6.3亿美元,这些数据来自于2015年国家环境报告。

景观建筑师每年的煎熬就是面对无休止的放松管制之战,以及如何应对持续不断的资金挑战,并且保持景观设计师的执业权利。根据ASLA政府事务团队的统计,从2010年到2015年,景观建筑面临26个挑战。而在2017年,这些挑战同样有有二十多个,它们以各种各样的形式存在。不幸的是,这种趋势似乎持续威胁到不确定的经济状况。只有进一步的激进主义和倡导才能提高这一职业的地位。

Advocacy and Activism
Prioritizing advocacy and activism within practice has very real economic implications. These include everything from marketplace perception (how genuine are your convictions and how does that prove what you’re good at) to leveraging potential tax credits (volunteer hours and in kind donations) to the legitimate funding of the product of landscape architecture and the impact of regulation on places and small businesses. Government affairs initiatives can lead to substantial economic gain and strengthen the impact of landscape architects. McKinsey and Company notes, “The business value at stake from government and regulatory intervention is huge: about 30 percent of earnings for companies in most industries.” That figures roughly $630M in potential impact to landscape architecture design services nationally, using figures from a 2015 NEA Report.
Landscape architects have had a hell of a year confronting nonstop deregulation battles to continual challenges to the funding that keeps landscape architects employed. According to ASLA’s Government Affairs team, from 2010 to 2015 there were 26 challenges to landscape architecture licensure. In 2017, there were over twenty, in some form or another. Unfortunately, this trend looks to continue threatening an uncertain financial foothold. Only further activism and advocacy will strengthen the position of the profession.

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公园也是社区基础设施/Parks are community infrastructure too.

社区基础设施

基础设施是目前美国两党最为关心的问题。面对摇摇欲坠的桥梁和道路,我们很难反驳这个说法。几十年的延期维修已经让设计回到了原地,只有大量的投资才能减轻这些对工业和公众造成的灾难性影响。国家交通部仍然制定了许多市政标准,看看哪种设计软件更适合于考量是否能够将纤维网添加到人行道这个话题。

由于这种再投资运行的是官僚主义色彩,景观建筑师有机会将自己投入到对话中,用更好的方式来设计基础设施和市政设施系统(雨水管理,生态系统,公共健康等)。像NACTO这样的团体的兴起会加强景观设计师在这个对话中的作用,并支持景观建筑师长期以来倡导的设计标准,例如行人导向设计。

随着新技术的兴起,这些新技术将重塑人们对社会的基础设施的体验,比如自动驾驶汽车开始形成自有的道路形式,市政管理部门不能对其采用相同的工程标准。通过倡导和展示替代策略,景观建筑师可以为社区基础设施的重建作出贡献,并且一度有机会改善我们城市的工作方式。考虑整合,而不是扩展,不是像苹果种植园区那样。

Community Infrastructure
Infrastructure is the most bipartisan issue in the United States right now. It’s hard to disagree with bridges and roads literally crumbling underneath us. Decades of deferred maintenance have come home to roost and only substantial investment will mitigate what could be catastrophic impact to industry and the public. State DOTs still shape many municipal standards, from which design software is preferable to whether or not to add fiber mesh to sidewalks.
As this reinvestment runs the bureaucratic gamut, landscape architects have the opportunity to inject themselves into the conversation, leading to better ways to design this infrastructure and the systems that infrastructure impacts (stormwater management, ecologic systems, public health, etc.). The rise of groups like NACTO will only strengthen the role of landscape architects in this dialogue, espousing design standards landscape architects have long advocated, such as pedestrian-oriented design.
With the dawn of new technology that will reshape society’s experience of infrastructure, such as the way that self driving cars will begin to shape roadways, municipalities cannot employ the same engineering standards. With advocacy and demonstrated alternative tactics, landscape architects can contribute to a remaking of community infrastructure with once in a generation opportunities to improve the way our cities work. Think integration, not sprawl. The anti-Apple campus.

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南本德居民在公共规划会议上讨论邻近空地的土地使用选择/South Bend residents discuss land use options for adjacent open space at public planning meeting.

社区驱动设计

2016年末和2017年所有的游行和抗议活动都让我们对所有公共场所有了更深的期待。作为快速发展的公司最近指出,精品城市主义的影响正在适当的重新评估。这种以社区为中心的设计转变并不新鲜; IDEO和Greater Good Studio等设计公司长期以来一直支持将用户放在首位的设计方式。与此同时,在过去几年中,小型园林公司仍旧停留在规划部门的五年总体规划设计中,而所有这些都需要社区的反馈配合。这次景观设计师有机会运用他们的专业知识让公众参与进来,并让他们自主选择公共空间设计的方向,而不是简单地浏览并提供一些不受欢迎的反馈信息,使设计不为所用。

发挥能力而不是简单地就提出的问题给予解决的方案,情感设计有望迎来更公平的公共空间时代。

Community Driven Design
All of the marches and protests of late 2016 and throughout 2017 lead to a deeper expectation of all of our public spaces. As Fast Company recently pointed out, the implications of boutique urbanism are appropriately being reevaluated. This shift toward community-centric design isn’t new; design firms like IDEO and Greater Good Studio have long championed the process of placing users at the forefront. At the same time, small landscape architecture firms have lived off of 5-year Master Plans for Parks Departments over the last few years, all with required community feedback components. This time, though, landscape architects have the opportunity to stress their expertise in public engagement and let that drive the direction of public space design rather than simply checking boxes and supplying a catalogue of unheeded feedback. Designing with, not for.
Geared toward supporting capacity rather than simply projecting solutions to problems, empathetic design hopefully ushers in an era of more equitable public spaces.

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景观设计师们长期以来使用的工具对于我们如何应对气候变化非常重要/The tools landscape architects have long used will be important in how we address climate change.

气候响应式设计

从野火到飓风,2017年对与气候相关的自然灾害来说是毁灭性的一年。无论人们是否认为气候变化是人类发展工业的结果,设计对这些灾难的回应都将由人们主导。而简单地向FEMA提供更多的资金是不可持续的方式。过去五十年的工程策略创造出了和他们解决的问题一样多的问题,这表明对景观设计师的支持在解决问题方面是十分重要的。这个行业是否能够利用我们的市场定位还有待观察。在LAF宣言一书中,对同样的现象也表示了感叹和认同。

Climate Responsive Design
From wildfires to hurricanes, 2017 was a devastating year regarding climate-related natural disasters. Whether or not you think climate change is a result of human industry, design responses to those disasters will be decidedly human led. Simply adding more and more funds to FEMA is unsustainable. The engineered strategies of the last five decades have created as many problems as they have solved, signalling an important rise in solutions that landscape architects have long espoused. Whether or not the profession can capitalize on our marketplace positioning remains to be seen. Comparably minuscule numbers undermine that opportunity, a fact both lamented and bolstered in the LAF Declaration book.

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从陪审团到咨询委员会,找到一种参与并参与讨论的方法/From juries to advisory boards, find a way to get involved and join the fray.

从现在开始做5件事:

  • 实践勇气的倡导。日常反思;不要满足于基层设计的标准,并且勇于挑战现状。
  • 实践情感设计。景观建筑设计的许多过程都涉及人类对环境的影响。心怀专业素养,并且体现道德修养。工作是一种信念,而不是一种趋势,要展示但不要平铺直叙。
  • 像你这样的设计真糟糕。时间计费和生产力驱动的思维模式限制了设计过程。不要仅仅为了您的客户,也为自己表现出一些主动性和超越这些限制的想法。
  • 未来可以证明这个行业。在可转移技能方面描述你的实践和你自己,特别是当新领域、新的合作机会和实践领域出现时。
  • 理论与实践结合。你可以思考孩子们在谈论什么,研究、阅读并且参与其中。即使你附近没有设计学校,你也可以坐在评审委员会(通常是电话会议)上,或者打电话给你的母校,看看有什么新鲜事。创新诞生于理论与现实生活实践的交汇处。

Lead Image:SB150庆祝活动利用一个25,000平方英尺的公园连接主要的节日地点,同时利用互动元素增加整体活力。

5 Things To Start Doing Right Now:
  • Practice grit advocacy: the day-to-day hustle; don’t settle for the base level design standards and challenge the status quo.
  • Practice empathetic design. Much of the process of landscape architecture deals with the human impact on the environment. Embrace the embodied ethics of the profession. Stewardship is a conviction, not a trend. Meaning, show don’t tell.
  • Design like you give a damn. The billable hours and productivity driven mindset places limitations on the already undervalued design process. Show some initiative and work beyond those limitations, if not for your clients, for yourself.
  • Future proof the profession: Describe your practice and yourself in terms of transferable skills, especially as new fields, collaboration opportunities, and areas of practice emerge.
  • Facilitate the intersection of theory and practice. Find out what the kids are talking about. Research, read, and get involved. Even if you don’t have a design school nearby, sit on an awards jury (which are often teleconferences) or just call your alma mater and see what’s new. Innovation is born at the intersection of theory and real life practice.

Lead Image: SB150 celebration utilized a 25,000sqft pop-up park to connect major festival locations, while also leveraging interactive elements to increase the vitality of the event.


出处:本文译自land8.com/,转载请注明出处。

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