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废水处理与城市情怀第1张图片

隐形工程:公开介绍废水处理的动态生活/invisible works: a publicintroduction to the dynamic life of wastewater infrastructure

竞赛:看不见的工程:向公众介绍关于废水的动态处理
Invisible Works: A public introduction to the dynamic life of wastewater treatment

由专筑网胡婧宜,李韧编译

“这个项目采用了一些通常被公众忽视、甚至误认为功利主义的策略,使人们对其产生兴趣,从而成为一种公共设施和科普工具。”——2017学生奖评审团评语


项目背景:

废水处理系统是现代基础设施,与我们的现代城市发展息息相关。“看不见的工程”项目是在尝试向公众介绍对美国明尼苏达州州府圣保罗的废水动态处理方式。这是一个很好的机会,可以让人们了解废水处理的积极意义,同时通过亲身经历去感受处理过程。项目旨在让人们更好地了解曾经为人们所忽视的废水处理厂,让它成为公共生活的一部分。

设计主要围绕着三个问题展开:
  • 这些设计如何与公共生活结合?
  • 如何通过材质和场地尺度来表达废水处理过程?
  • 这种公共空间的全新类型会如何影响公众思维?

这个项目很值得思考,因为它给设计师带来了诸多可能性:人们是否能更深入地探索复杂的生活系统?并且是否能结合自身的所学专业?

Though easily forgotten and often misunderstood, the infrastructures of wastewater treatment are inextricably linked with the pulse of our modern cities. Invisible Works is a public introduction to the dynamic life of wastewater treatment in St. Paul, Minnesota. It is a chance for people to engage in the active nature of treatment and simultaneously uncover its mysteries through experience. The intent is to transform the wastewater treatment plant from a marginalized system into a place that all can enjoy, acknowledging its importance as part of the public realm.

Three questions drive the design:
  • How can the public realm be stitched back into this public works?
  • How can the metabolic process of wastewater treatment be revealed in material and site scales?
  • How can this new typology for public space cultivate dynamic thinking?

This project is worthy of consideration because of its potential to expand the role that landscape architects play in celebrating and exploring the hybrid systems that support us, and in evolving the scope of the profession.

废水处理与城市情怀第2张图片

地位的演变QUO:随着时间的推移,对基础设施的看法不断变化/EVOLUTION OF THE STATUS QUO: the changing perception of infrastructure overtime

项目介绍:

1. 这些设计如何与公共生活结合?

打开水龙头、拔掉塞子、推开手柄,这是人们对于水利基础设施能够想到的部分,但却忽略了这背后庞大的支撑体系。现代城市的水处理通过基础设施体系所支持,这是由水管、泵、闸门和蓄水池组成的网络体系。废水处理中的绝大部分并不为人们所知,“看不见的工程”项目让人们重视水利基础设施中这些必不可少的部分,让人们参与整个过程,同时了解到,污水处理并不只是工业设施,也可以是一种变化的公共景观,它将成为一种全新的创意生活方式。

1) How can the public realm be stitched back into the public works?
Turn on the faucet, open up the spigot, push down the handle, forget the rest. The metabolism of the modern city is supported through an invisible network of pipes, pumps, valves, and tanks. However, the majority of wastewater treatment functions out of sight and beyond everyday perception. Invisible Works brings the public realm back into this essential piece of public works, engages everyday users in its metabolic process, and shifts perception of wastewater treatment from an industry happily ignored to a dynamic public landscape and source of new materials, traditions, and ideas.

废水处理与城市情怀第3张图片

系统和广度:地区内的地铁污水处理厂/SYSTEM & BREADTH: Metro Wastewater Treatment Plant within the region

废水处理与城市情怀第4张图片

现场和用户:地铁污水处理厂在其环境和使用/SITE & USERS: Metro Wastewater Treatment Plant in its context and use

人们对污水处理的无知源于城市的发展方式。随着人口的增长,污水处理系统主要排布在城市的边缘地区。然而,持续的创新使得城市卫生大为改善,已经不再需要人为地分离公共生活和污水处理系统。如今,Twin Cities Metropolitan Council 每天通过8个污水处理厂处理约2.5亿加仑(约9.5亿升)污水,其中需要让这些污水流经5000英里(约8000公里)的管道,穿越108个社区。Metro污水处理厂(Metro Wastewater Treatment Plant——WWTP)既是最大、也是最远的污水处理厂,它距圣保罗3英里(约4.8公里),位于密西西比河、Pig’s Eye湖、几个工厂以及自然保护区周围。这个180英亩(约合0.73平方公里)的工厂割裂了居住区、工厂和自然环境之间的联系。

The cause for this naiveté about wastewater treatment stems from the manner in which cities have grown. As populations and footprints increased, wastewater treatment was relegated to the periphery of cities. However, continuous innovation has led to more sanitary and sustainable practices, and it is no longer necessary to separate the public from the process. Today, the Twin Cities Metropolitan Council treats approximately 250 million gallons of wastewater daily at 8 regional treatment plants, directed through 5,000 miles of sewers across 108 communities. The Metro Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) is the largest and farthest-reaching of all the plants. Located 3 miles from St. Paul between the Mississippi River, Pig’s Eye Lake, neighboring industry, and nature reserve, the 180-acre plant blurs the line between community, industry and ecology.

废水处理与城市情怀第5张图片

主要平面图:公共工程作为公共领域/MASTER PLAN: Public works as public realm

但是Metro污水处理厂的服务却广泛而持续。居住区和商业区产生的污水被冲进下水道,然后进入市政下水管道,接着通过污水拦截器流向整个污水传输系统的最低点:Metro污水处理厂。如果这些污水不能通过自然重力直接流向下一级系统的话,就会使用到污水提升站,这同样是一项不为公众所见、但十分有效的工程。它们一般都有着不起眼的外表,且被埋在公园的地下或一条死胡同的末端,路过的人甚至都不会看上它一眼。这个项目的初衷就是为了这个,将污水提升站从被人忽视的场所改造为肥料的供给方,这既是一种建筑元素,也是一种资源。

The fingers of the Metro WWTP infrastructure are expansive, and the flow constant. After being used in residences and businesses, wastewater is flushed into local pipes, which plug into municipal sewer pipes, which then lead into interceptors, the largest of the conveyor pipes. Interceptors flow to the lowest point in the sewershed: the Metro WWTP. When gravity is insufficient to direct the flow of blackwater, the interceptors run through lift stations, which are effectively invisible to the public eye. Embedded within a public park as a nondescript building or sitting at the end of a cul-de-sac, the stations are quiet connections which rarely merit a second glance. The design proposal begins at this community level, transforming the lift stations from overlooked elements to distributors of fertilizers, building materials, resources, and information.

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收集能力:将公众整合为一个功能完善的工厂/GATHERING CAPACITIES: Integrating the public into a fully functioning plant

2. 如何通过材质和场地尺度来表达废水处理过程?

设计在空间性、自发性和材质方面实现了创新,游客可以切身体会污水的处理过程,而不是仅仅从书本中进行学习。安全性和沉浸式体验是设计的核心,场地北部的区域仅对工作人员和特定游客开放,中心区域是集中的公共场所,南部区域主要关注的是自由体验,与外部环境联系也更加紧密。

等污水到达Metro污水处理厂,净化它将要花费约15个小时。在这一过程中,污水会被分离成几种不同的物质,并经过数道药物或生物处理。通过将各个过程进行分解,“看不见的工程”将揭示整个净化过程:

2) How can its metabolic process be revealed in material and site?
The site design blends spatial, visceral, and material opportunity, allowing the visitor to read the treatment process through experience rather than on a pamphlet. Safety and immersion are paramount in pedestrian flow. The northern zone, is primarily restricted to employees and guided tours only; the central zone encompasses the most concentrated public realm; the southern zone focuses on the less programmed experience with trail connections to the larger context.
Once wastewater arrives at the Metro WWTP, it takes approximately 15 hours to make the journey from dirty to clean. During that time, it is separated into a number of different materials through a series of chemical and organic processes. By breaking down each of those stages and quantities, Invisible Works reveals strategic points throughout the process that present opportunities for intervention:

废水处理与城市情怀第7张图片

邻里卫星:将污水处理纳入社区/NEIGHBORHOOD SATELLITES: Integrating wastewater treatment into the community

废水处理与城市情怀第8张图片

流程:污水处理过程和材料转换/Flow: Wastewater treatment process and material transfer

废水处理与城市情怀第9张图片

场地:处理手段和公众在污水处理厂中的移动/Site: Treatment and public moving through the WWTP   

处理:设计着重强调了污水的处理过程,既从北到南逐渐被净化。当游客向出水口游览时,公共空间的形式感逐渐减弱,这使人们能够更深入地了解到材质交互的过程。

季节:明尼苏达的极端天气下,不同的季节拥有不同的特性。比如夏天的水体更适合玩耍,冬季则会有蒸汽和冰,春秋季则适于动物群的活动以及植物的种植。设计充分利用了这一季节变化,使人们能够与这些副产品产生互动,同时让人们更加深刻地感受到污水处理的不同阶段。

Treatment - The design highlights treatment north to south; dirty to clean. As the visitor moves toward the outfall, public space becomes increasingly less formal, enabling deeper exploration of the process as the material eventually returns to an interactive state.
Season - In Minnesota’s extreme climate, materials become amplified during certain times of the year. Summer lends itself to interactive water features, winter enhances steam and ice crystal formations, and spring and fall invite fauna activity and mushroom harvest. The design takes advantage of these phenomena by bringing the public into contact with these safe byproducts, simultaneously allowing people to read the phase of treatment.

废水处理与城市情怀第10张图片

与基础设施互动:跨季节体验污水处理厂,材料和处理/INTERACTION WITH INFRASTRUCTURE: Experiencing the WWTP across season, material, and treatment

光与蒸汽:Metro污水处理厂全年无休,每天能处理1.8-2.5亿加仑的污水(约合5.7-9.5亿升)。因为现在污水处理厂的处理过程并不面向公众开放,因此设计时就必须考虑如何用一种精巧的方式对污水进行标准化测试,因此,设计师考虑使用人行道的路灯。这一灯光变换可能在任何地方出现,每天18-25次,这取决于季节和水流。设计师将场地照明转化为了对净化过程的度量。因为这些光源随水流而产生精巧的变化,游人的每一次参观都将拥有不同的体验。

Light & Steam - The treatment process at the Metro WWTP is constant, operating 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, and treating 180-250 million gallons of water each day. Because the current plant is visually constant and does not reflect this flow to the untrained eye, a system of showing benchmarks in a subtle way is essential. The design proposal uses pedestrian path lights as meters of the process. Each time 10 million gallons of wastewater is cleaned, the lighting will perform a recognition of this achievement. Depending on season and flow, this will happen anywhere from 18 to 25 times per day. The proposal transforms site lighting into meters of treatment process. Through this nuanced cadence, the user experience will change with each visit.

废水处理与城市情怀第11张图片

经验和频率:微妙的测量显示治疗间隔/EXPERIENCE & FREQUENCY: Subtle metering reveals treatment intervals

蘑菇:目前,Metro污水处理厂消减气味的主要方法是通过室外木屑基质培养一种细菌,这一有机过程可使异味削弱一半。设计师希望能够使这一有机处理过程翻倍,并且将其移到一个更加合适的位置,在温暖的木屑基质中,甚至能长出蘑菇。利用基质的细微变化以及处理厂的阴凉状态,可以促进蘑菇的生长,从而使游客可以在这一区域收获可食用的蘑菇。另外,孢子可用于持续生产菌丝块。这种有机物可以以任何形式生长,既可以补充场地内的材料短缺,也可以被分发给周边居民。

污泥:设计方案能够在5年内将48000吨的B类污泥从当地的垃圾填埋场移向地块南段,从而形成大型活动空间。这一阶段后,污泥将被分散用于居民区的建设,加强处理厂在城市空间的运用。

Mycelium - Currently, the Metro WWTP treats approximately half of its odors through an organic process of odor eating bacteria in large mulch beds outdoors. The design proposal doubles this organic treatment and relocate treatment to accommodate the size. One unintended byproduct of this process is growth of mushrooms in the warm mulch beds. Using subtle changes in topography in the mushroom beds combined with tree canopy amplifies and expands the mushroom growth process so that users can harvest edible mushrooms on site. Additionally, spores will be used to create durable mycelium blocks. These can be grown in any form, are structural, organic, and will be used for short term material storage on site and distributed throughout the community.
Biosolids - The proposal redirects 48,000 dry tons of class B biosolids from the local landfill over 5 years to create a landform at the south end of the site, which will serve as a large, informal events space. After this period, biosolids will be distributed to the community for earthworks projects, reinforcing the plant’s city-scale metabolic process.

废水处理与城市情怀第12张图片

衰减和增长:固体处理气味副产物重新利用和重估/DECAY & GROWTH: Solid treatment odor byproducts repurposed and revalued

3. 这种公共空间的全新类型会如何影响公众思维?

通过景观设计,城市的公共空间与基础设施之间的区别会稍微弱化。在人类和城市的未来发展中,公共项目能够大大提升城市景观与人类的关系。因为污水处理厂是美国每个主要城市都有的系统,因此该方案的适用范围很广。“看不见的工程”项目向人们展示了废水处理的活力、神秘和潜力,并且在此过程中敦促人们转变观念,以更积极的态度面对基础设施的公共性质。

3) How can this new typology for public space cultivate dynamic thinking?
Landscape architects have the unique opportunity to blur the line between infrastructure and public space in the places and experiences they design. In the future of the Anthropocene and the era of the city, public works will be seen as opportunities to re-imagine the urban landscape and our relationship to it. Given that wastewater treatment plants are recurring systems with predictable typologies within every major metropolitan area in the United Sates, they present a unique opportunity for scalable intervention. Invisible Works reveals the dynamism, mystery, and potential in wastewater treatment, and in doing so urges a shift in perception and > questioning of the role of infrastructure in the public realm.

废水处理与城市情怀第13张图片

菌丝体作为构建模块:利用废物副产物进行新的培养/MYCELIUM AS BUILDING BLOCK: Harnessing a waste byproduct into a new cultivation

废水处理与城市情怀第14张图片

生物固体堆积:将垃圾填埋产品转移到地形材料/BIOSOLIDS BUILDUP: Diverting landfill product to landform material

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新类型学,新观念:动态基础设施及其在环境中的位置/NEW TYPOLOGIES, NEW PERCEPTIONS: Dynamic infrastructure and its place in the environment

2017ASLA学生通用设计奖
设计者: Bridget Ayers Looby
指导老师:Matthew Tucker; Joseph Favour; Baline Brownell
学校:明尼苏达大学

项目相关人员:
Nicholas Davern
Metropolitan Council Environmental Services (专业顾问)
Ross Altheimer
TEN x TEN Studio (非学术顾问)

St. Paul, MN, USA | Bridget Ayers Looby, Associate ASLA
Faculty Advisors: Matthew Tucker; Joseph Favour, ASLA; Baline Brownell
University of Minnesota

PROJECT CREDITS
Nicholas Davern
Metropolitan Council Environmental Services (specialty advisor).
Ross Altheimer
TEN x TEN Studio (non-academic advisor).


出处:本文译自www.asla.org/,转载请注明出处。

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