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低造价与乡土环境,考验设计师能力的时候又来啦第1张图片

秘鲁Jerusalen de Miñaro小学
New Jerusalen de Miñaro Primary School / Semillas

由专筑网李韧,王帅编译

项目背景

Jerusalen de Minaro土著社区位于秘鲁中部丛林的Pangoa地区,这里又叫VRAEM区域,因为住在这里的居民都是由于上世纪90年代的战争而流离失所。这座学校成立于40多年前,大约有200位学生在校,但整体情况并不稳定。学校由一些临时教室和舒适度并不高的空间组成,只能满足最为基本的活动需求。

Background
The native community of Jerusalen de Minaro is located in the district of Pangoa, in Peru’s central jungle. It is designated as a VRAEM zone, meaning its inhabitants are indigenous communities that were severely affected and displaced by the armed conflict of the 1990’s. Although the school functioned for about 40 years and more than 200 students attended, the conditions were precarious at best. The infrastructure consisted of temporary classrooms and the spaces did not meet the minimum comfort requirements necessary for proper educational activities.

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设计与建造过程

该项目的目的是建造“民主空间”,在这里,孩子们、年轻人、成年人都能规划并且完成属于自己的梦想。因此,建筑师构思了综合策略,其中包括多个国家不同机构团队的参与和合作。

Process and construction
The purpose of the project was to create a “democratic space,” in which children, youth, and adults would be able to dream and plan their desired futures. As such, we proposed an integrated methodology involving the cooperation of different national and international institutions, and directly involved the community in every phase of the project.

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在项目的构思阶段,建筑师与学生、家长、教师进行沟通,来确定学校的主要功能与设施。项目的主要施工人员全程监管项目的施工过程,并且当地社区人员也直接参与,这在整个建造过程中,让各方人员能够进行即时的沟通和知识的交流。

In the research phases of the project, we held workshops with students, parents, and teachers to determine the needs, dreams, and priorities for the future school. The construction was carried out under the guidance of master builders and with direct participation from workers in the community. The involvement of local workers allowed for the exchange of knowledge through “in situ” work experience and training workshops held throughout the construction process.

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项目描述:

该项目的整个过程,加大了文化的交流、当地人力资源的评估,同时也促进了当地材料的运用。更加重要的是,新型功能空间更加满足当前的教学需求。这座建筑分为4个区域,其中有3间教室和1个多功能大厅,另外建筑师还将2间现有教室改造成教师公寓,并且也对厕所进行了翻新。3间教室位于基地的南侧,沿着南北方向的立面而排布。场地上现有的植物也与设计相结合。在多功能大厅中,建筑师通过一棵大树来表达其入口特征,同时也象征着室内场所。

Project Description
The project proposed processes which promote the exchange of knowledge, the revaluing of human resources, and the use of local materials. Importantly, versatile spaces were proposed to be in line with new pedagogical methodologies. The building is organized into 4 modules: 3 classrooms and 1 multipurpose space. In addition, two existing classrooms were repurposed as a residence for the teachers, and the toilets were renovated. The three classroom modules are located along the southern end of the lot with the longitudinal façade running north and south. The existing trees and vegetation were integrated into the design. In the multipurpose room, a tree marks the main entrance for the school and forms part of the interior space.

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建筑北侧种植着一列树木,树荫遮挡着建筑的走廊,形成很好的日光效果。孩子们拥有宽敞舒适的庭院,这就好像是一个完全属于他们的魔幻世界,他们可以在墙上肆意攀爬,坐在窗框上休息与玩耍。教室和走廊似乎也成为了孩子们的天然游乐场所。在公园里,孩子们能够释放天性,其创意理念来源于建筑师与当地孩子们的沟通。

Along the north side, a line of trees runs along the façade to create indirect lighting and shade for the connecting corridors. The children have taken ownership of the spacious covered patios and created an imaginary world. They climb on the walls, hide in the wooden divisions, and use the windows as chairs. The covered corridors and continuous patios of the classrooms form circuits, or routes of play, which lead to Parquebambu.  The park is a place for children to play and use their imagination and was conceived of during a construction workshop with children from the community.

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材料与生物气候设计

Jerusalen de Minaro项目的另一个创新在于其建筑设计方案,整个项目的预算很低,但建筑的品质却丝毫没有打折。首先,建筑师充分使用了可利用资源,例如当地传统材料,并且通过当地的理念与技术来进行建筑生物气候的设计,但前提仍然是满足建筑安全规范。在设计中,建筑师运用了混凝土和木制结构,并且在木板屋面上覆盖了沥青瓦片。

Materials and bioclimatic design
Another innovative strength of the Jerusalen de Minaro project is the architectural proposal which was carried out with a minimal budget but did not sacrifice the quality of the construction. One strategy was to determine the best use of the available resources. Local materials were used and local knowledge was employed to create a bioclimatic design which still met all safety and construction regulations. For the design, the proposal called for the main structure of concrete and wood and a roof of wood panels covered with asphalt tiles.

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另外建筑师还结合了“被动式设计策略”,从而满足建筑的环境舒适性能,同时充分使用太阳能、自然风、间接采光和烟囱效应。屋面上设置有雨水收集系统,通过水箱存储使用水。总体来说,这座Jerusalen de Minaro社区小学的设计思路既新颖又实用,同时极具创造性。学校是公共场所,它也将成为当地社区的一大里程碑,同时也促进了社会的发展,为更多人带来学习的机会。

Ambient comfort is achieved using a “passive systems design,” with particular attention paid to controlling solar energy, ventilation, creating indirect sunlight, and the chimney effect. The roof also has a rainwater collection system which stores water in elevated tanks. In conclusion, the school in the native community of Jerusalen de Minaro proposes new, versatile, educational spaces which encourage creativity. The school, being a public space, has become a huge milestone for the community. It acts a social catalyst and provides many opportunities for all.

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建筑设计:Semillas
地点:秘鲁,萨蒂波
主创建筑师:Marta Maccaglia, Martina Uda, Giuliana Miglierina
设计团队与项目管理:Gonzalo Diaz Arrieta(建筑部分), Marta Anducas Armengou(文化沟通与协调), Pamela Amadio, Raffaela Ceparano, Matteo Penzo, Ilaria Pinto(项目管理 - CPS - Comunità Promozione e Sviluppo)
项目时间:2017年
摄影:Eleazar Cuadros
建造商:EGGER, IKO, Aceros Arequipa
结构设计:Carlos Barreda
成本预算:Costa Foundation
施工方:Javier Garcia Paucar, Elias Martinez Ramos
Communitary Management:Italo Cherense Leguía, Caleb Jerónimo Jerónimo, Verónica Chari
推广方:Asociación Volcafé Speciality Perú (VSP) Generaciones
Interinstitutional Mediator:Roberto Ortiz (VSP Generaciones), Simone Wick (VSP Generaciones)
合作方:CPS – Comunitá Promozione Sviluppo, Pobladores de la CN de Jerusalen de Miñaro, Municipalidad Distrital de Pangoa, Municipalidad provincial de Satipo
面积:1000 m2(新建筑); 87 m2(修复建筑)

Architects: Semillas
Location: Native Community Jerusalen de Miñaro, Pangoa, Satipo, Peru
Author Architects: Marta Maccaglia, Martina Uda, Giuliana Miglierina
Design Team and Management: Gonzalo Diaz Arrieta (Architecture), Marta Anducas Armengou (cultural mediator and logistics), Pamela Amadio, Raffaela Ceparano, Matteo Penzo, Ilaria Pinto (work management - CPS - Comunità Promozione e Sviluppo)
Project Year: 2017
Photographs: Eleazar Cuadros
Manufacturers: EGGER, IKO, Aceros Arequipa
Structure: Carlos Barreda
Financer: Costa Foundation
Construction: Javier Garcia Paucar, Elias Martinez Ramos
Communitary Management: Italo Cherense Leguía, Caleb Jerónimo Jerónimo, Verónica Chari
Promoter: Asociación Volcafé Speciality Perú (VSP) Generaciones
Interinstitutional Mediator: Roberto Ortiz (VSP Generaciones), Simone Wick (VSP Generaciones)
Cooperation: CPS – Comunitá Promozione Sviluppo, Pobladores de la CN de Jerusalen de Miñaro, Municipalidad Distrital de Pangoa, Municipalidad provincial de Satipo
Area: 1000 m2 (new building); 87 m2 (refurbishment)

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