网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第1张图片

Courtesy of STO

如何设计连续绝缘系统
What is CI and How to Design a Continuous Insulation System

由专筑网李韧,杨帆编译

CI(连续绝缘系统)是运用于建筑墙体和通风面板的隔热立面系统,其中共分为以下几个部分,分别是固定层、绝缘层、防水层以及外部覆层。

而这些部分是如何安装在一起的?它们的工作机理又是什么?这是一个新项目系统吗?是否可以运用在改造项目中?该如何为建筑项目设计实用的连续绝缘系统?请看下文。

CI (Continuous Insulation System) is an insulated facade system for walls and ventilated slabs that works through the superposition of 5 skins: fixation, insulation, waterproofing (open to the diffusion of the vapor and resistant to impact), and an outer cladding layer.
How are these components installed, and how do they work? Is it a system for new projects or can it be incorporated into existing buildings (retrofit)? How to design an CI correctly for my architecture project? Find these and other answers, below.


CI的组成部分

固定层的绝缘材料

该部分主要由粘合剂砂浆组成,如果项目需要承担较大的风力,或是材质涂层较厚,那么就需要使用机械固定装置。

Components of a CI
Fixation for Insulating Material
It is usually composed of adhesive mortar. In some cases, mechanical fixings are added, especially if the project has large wind suctions or if a very heavy coating has been placed.

StoTherm | StoTherm Silt

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第2张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绝缘材料

这取决于具体项目和客户的具体需求。市面上的绝缘材料成千上万,一般常用的有EPS、XPS、矿棉,还有一些来源于木材、刚性硅酸盐泡沫、石碳酸泡沫的绝缘材料。

Insulation Material
It depends on the choice of the client and the specific needs of the project. There are a large number of insulators on the market, but the most commonly used are EPS, XPS, Mineral Wool, Insulation Materials derived from Wood, Rigid Silicate Foams, Phenolic Foams, among others.

EPS | EPS Graphite

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第3张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

岩棉丨刨花
Rock Wool | Wood Wool


绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第4张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

矿物泡沫丨酚醛泡沫
Mineral Foam | Phenolic Foam


绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第5张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

砂浆聚合物与钢筋网格组合而成的基础层

基础层的组成由欧盟统一进行规定,主要用作防水层,但能渗透蒸汽,同时钢筋网格能够让该系统有效地抵御冲击力和一些恶劣天气条件等外部因素。

Base layer of mortar with polymers + reinforcement mesh
The base layer, as determined by the European Union, works as waterproofing liquid and a vapor permeable water, while the reinforcement mesh allows the system to properly resist impacts, weather conditions, and other external stimuli.

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第6张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

覆层

这是系统的最外覆层,在外部清晰可见。这一层可以使用各种涂料与油漆等其他完成面做法。

Cladding
It's the final layer and is visible from the outside. It can be chosen from a wide spectrum of coatings, paints, and other finishes.

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第7张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第8张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

它可以运用于哪些表面?

该系统的主要目的是提升建筑性能,因此适用于任何表面,例如砌体墙、混凝土、预制系统、轻质木材/金属面板、OSB、纤维混凝土、石膏板等等。因为该系统中央填充了空气,所以质量较轻,并没有多余的重量。

需要注意的是,在一些市场中,此类型系统经过层层监管,供应的来源比较单一。所以,其性能与供应商有关。

On what surfaces can it be applied?
These systems originally arose to improve existing buildings, so they can be applied on any type of surface: masonry walls, concrete (coated or not), prefabricated systems, lightweight wooden or metal partitions, OSB, fiber cement, gypsum boards for exteriors, among others. Being that it is composed of air, it is a lightweight system that doesn't add extra weight.
It's important to note that in developed markets, this type of system has been regulated so that it's a single manufacturer delivering the complete product. Thus, the performance will correspond to a single provider.

混凝土丨Baumax预制隔墙丨SIP面板
Concrete | Baumax Prefabricated Partitions | SIP Panel

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第9张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

纤维水泥轻质隔墙丨OSB面板丨外部石膏板
Fiber Cement Lightweight Partition | OSB plate | Exterior Gypsum Board

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第10张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

砖石墙丨现有墙面涂料
Masonry | Existing wall coated

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第11张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

预制EPS/ICF/ Exacta
Prefabricated EPS (ICF or Exacta)


绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第12张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

设计考量

1、提问:我需要隔绝多少热量?

在设计CI系统之前,我们必须仔细思考以下问题,我们是否应当进行项目的能量分析?项目中是否有必须达到的U值(热传递额度)?该项目是否会污染空气?其U值的设定是否更加严格?如果CI系统能够满足项目所需的U值,那么其未来的热行为便易于掌控。

2、根据具体情况确定系统宽度

该系统的宽度并非一成不变,其范围大约为2.5厘米至20厘米,一般常见的宽度为8厘米。首先,设计时必须先确定立面,然后思考什么样的表面形态能够将条件与非条件空间分隔开?这座建筑是否面向街道?这对该系统会有什么样的影响?建筑的不同层数、是否面向街道,以及当地的气候状况,这些因素对系统数据都有重要的影响。

Design Considerations

1. Start by asking: How much do I want to isolate?
Before designing an CI system, we must answer the following questions: Was an energy analysis of the project carried out? Is there a U value (thermal transmittance) that must be achieved? Is it a project developed under the air pollution program, with stricter U values? If our CI system is designed to achieve the U value required by the project, we can rest assured of its thermal behavior in the future.

2. Determine how wide the system is based on your specific conditions
The width of the system is varied and can range from 2.5 cm to 20 cm, the most common being a width of 8 cm. First, the envelope must be defined: what surface will separate the conditioned spaces from the non-conditioned ones? Is it a public building that faces the street? What impact risks will it have on the system? It's not the same to design a CI under an eave in a 3rd floor than one that is at street level or exposed to weather conditions (rain, hail, direct sun, wind, others).

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第13张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

3、根据项目需求选择合适的隔绝材料

如前文所述,你无法在不同的项目中使用同一个CI 系统。但是不同的绝缘手法可以运用在同一个项目之中,这也取决于该系统所在的区域。不过,CI系统运用在墙面或通风板时,其U值也不同。

3. Choose the insulating material according to the project's needs
As previously stated, you cannot design a CI for a standard wall or a ventilated slab in the same manner as a site with water damage. Different insulating solutions can be mixed in the same project, depending on the area where the system is located. Also, the U values will be different if the CI is applied to a wall or a ventilated slab.

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第14张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

4、明确CI系统和其他诸如屋面、基础、门窗等构件的关系

CI并不是屋面或地下系统,因此设计时需要考虑如何将该系统和其他部分连接起来,例如是否应该为各个构件加上覆层?是否应该将CI系统安装在屋顶隔热层之中?如何将其与墙面连接在一起?而针对基础,建筑师应该明确其深度及其与地板的连接方式。

4. Define the connection between the CI and the insulation systems of the roof, the base, windows, and others
As it's not a system for roofs or submurations, CI forces us to determine how our wall insulation will be connected to the roof insulation: should I wrap everything and fit the CI in the roof insulation system? Or can it be applied to the wall without the need for splicing? As for the base, we must also define how far the insulation will go, and how it will be connected to the floors' insulation.

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第15张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

5、如果某些元素阻碍了CI系统的正常运行,那么需切断二者之间的联系

除了屋面和基础,建筑师需要了解那些影响CI系统正常运行的要素,其中包括门窗、照明设施等。在现有建筑之中,所有这些要素都必须考虑在内,同时结合该系统所运用的底部表面,例如油漆或涂料是否易于脱落?是否需要将其清理?是否有一种油漆能够加强二者之间的粘着力?

5. Resolve the connection between the CI and the elements that "interrupt" the system
In addition to the roof and the base, all those elements that could "interrupt" the system must be identified and resolved: doors, windows, lighting, and others. In existing buildings, all these pre-existences must be considered, and at the same time the substrate on which the system will be applied must be studied: is it a stucco or paint that is easily peeled off? Do you need to scrape? Can I simply use a primer that improves the adhesion between the wall and the system?

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第16张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

6、 建议与分析IC系统的技术特征

CI系统并不是涂料,它存在一定体量,因此其设计需要具有一定的专业性。那么,了解其技术特征则非常重要,同时建筑师也需要了解其背后的运作机理,这样才能更好地操纵它。

6. Look for advice and analyze the technical characteristics of the CI offered
CI is not a painting; It's a solution that has a certain volume and, therefore, requires professional advice to ensure its proper functioning. In this sense, it's important to understand the technical characteristics of the product, and require a set of instructions that explains everything we need to know before applying it to our project.

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第17张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第18张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

*CI系统也称作EIFS(外部绝缘完成系统)、SATE(外部隔热系统)、EWIS(外墙保温系统)、EICS(外墙保温复合系统)、WDVS (Wärmedämmverbund系统)、热表皮。

图片来源:Nicolás Schultz, STO Chile Product Manager

* CI systems are also known as EIFS (Exterior Insulation Finish Systems), SATE (External Thermal Insulation System), EWIS (External Wall Insulation System), ETICS (External Wall Insulation Composite System), WDVS (Wärmedämmverbund System) or Thermohaut ("Thermal Skin").
The images in this article have been developed by Nicolás Schultz, STO Chile Product Manager.

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第19张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第20张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第21张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第22张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第23张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第24张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第25张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第26张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第27张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第28张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第29张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第30张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第31张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第32张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第33张图片

Image Courtesy of STO

绿色建筑当道,绝缘系统少不了第34张图片

Image Courtesy of STO
         
【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

新闻 (471 articles)


建筑 (9692 articles)


绿色建筑 (79 articles)


材料 (121 articles)


刨花板 (2 articles)


混凝土 (2311 articles)


砖石 (55 articles)


2018 (503 articles)