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与社会活动家相比,设计师的“呐喊”更加振聋发聩!第1张图片


便携式抗议厕所
Yellow Spot is a portable protest toilet for women

由专筑网王帅,李韧编译

埃因霍芬设计学院(Design Academy Eindhoven)毕业生Elisa Otañez设计了一个黄色的移动厕所,目的是抗议荷兰缺乏女性公共设施。

Otañez来自墨西哥,他注意到荷兰城市里有许多公共小便池,而它们仅仅供男性使用,专为妇女而设的此类设施却寥寥无几。

Design Academy Eindhoven graduate Elisa Otañez has created a bight yellow, mobile toilet as a protest against the lack of public facilities for women in The Netherlands.
Originally from Mexico, Otañez noticed that there were many public urinals in cities in The Netherlands to reduce the number of men urinating in the street, but that there were very few facilities for women.

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这位爱恩德霍芬设计学院的社会设计硕士毕业生发现,在这座城市里,小便池和公厕的比例约为10:1。

Otañez 告诉Dezeen的记者说:“男人们在公共场合、角落、街道上撒尿,政府为他们建立了小便池,可这对女性来说是否有些不公平?”

她补充道:“我想找出解决方案,并且希望真正有用,而不仅仅是抗议而已。这个问题始终存在,女性只能去餐馆或酒吧寻找厕所,而实际上,我们的城市应该为此提出解决策略。”

The graduate from the Social Design masters programme at Design Academy Eindhoven, found that there was one public toilet for every 10 urinals in the city.
"Men were peeing in public, in corners, in the streets, and they got rewarded with toilets," Otañez told Dezeen. "Do women have to start doing that as well to get their public toilets?"
"I wanted to make a solution, something that worked and wasn't only as a protest," she added. "It's kind of an invisible issue – as a woman you are very used to going into a restaurant or a bar, looking for somewhere to go, when actually the city should provide a solution."

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Photo is by Marica De Michele

“Yellow Spot”由三种元素组成,分别是轮子上的亮黄色框架、保护隐私的帆布面板和充当马桶的小型黄色容器,其顶部为倾斜的凹形。

油漆框架由带螺纹接头的钢管与工业接头构成,它们的形状类似脚手架。

黄色的帆布面板上印有黑体的“免费厕所”和“女性专用”等标语。帆布的前侧面板被固定在夹子上,很容易打开和关闭。在内部印有女性专用公厕的字样。

Yellow Spot consists of three elements: a bright yellow frame on wheels, panels of canvas that form walls for privacy and a small, yellow container that has a sloped, concave top that acts as the toilet bowl.
The painted frame is made from straight pieces of tubular steel bolted together with industrial joints to create an effect similar to scaffolding.
The yellow-coated walls feature the slogans "free toilet" and "occupied by women" printed in bold black lettering. The front panel of canvas is secured with a clip that allows it to easily be opened and closed. Facts about the number of public toilets available for women are printed on the inside.

与社会活动家相比,设计师的“呐喊”更加振聋发聩!第4张图片


这种无座、无水、聚苯乙烯马桶的造型参考了jerry 罐(通常用于运载燃料),它的一边是手柄,这样的设计是使用时不需要坐下。

Otañez解释说:“我在各个城市调研时了解到,在使用公共卫生间时,61%的女性没有坐下,而85%的女性说她们只在公共卫生间小解。”

她补充说:“该项目最重要的特点是可移动,因为这件物品既实用,又能用作游行,因此集结了两个功能。”

The seatless, waterless, polystyrene toilet is loosely modelled on the shape of a jerry can – commonly used for carrying fuel – with a handle on one side. It is designed for hovering over, rather than sitting on.
"In the research I made in Eindhoven and other Dutch cities, I learned that 61 per cent of women don't sit down when using a public toilet while 85 per cent of women say they use public toilets only for peeing," explained Otañez.
"Mobility is important in order for it to perform as a protest artefact that ‘marches' around the city demanding toilets for women," she added. "The outcome had to reconcile a functional toilet and a totem of protest that matched together, making sense of each other."

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由于项目时间的限制,原型马桶使用了聚苯乙烯经真空成型,但将来计划使用旋转模塑来制造。

“Yellow Spot”是Otañez的毕业设计作品。截止到目前,他已经在公共场合进行了两次试验,一次在市场上,一次在公共广场中央。但是都被警察要求移走,因为警方认为其缺少官方许可。

这位设计师说:“许多女性也发现了这一问题,我和她们进行了沟通,大家一致认为这是当前的一个社会问题。当女性为自己争取相应的解决方案,她们要么为此受到惩罚,要么必须申请官方认可。”

The prototype is polystyrene and vacuum-formed due to time limitations for the project, but the aim is for the bowl to be rotation moulded in the future.
Yellow Spot is Otañez's graduation project. So far, it has been trialled in public twice, once in a market and once in the middle of a public square, where she was asked to remove it by police as they said she needed a permit.
"I had many passionate conversations with women who recognised and identified with the issue, since it's a problem they have been facing all their lives," said the designer. "When women need to provide for themselves their own toilet solutions in response to the inability of the city to do so, they either are punished for it or have to ask permission."

与社会活动家相比,设计师的“呐喊”更加振聋发聩!第6张图片

Photo is by Marica De Michele

Otañez认为这种功能强大的便携厕所能够满足女性的需求,同时,对于孕期等特殊时期的女性,也起到很好的帮助作用,只是这将需要更多的研究。

她说:“‘Yellow Spot’就像‘特洛伊木马’,它让更多人意识到这个问题,希望通过此举能够为所有需要的女性提供合适的解决方案。”

Otañez said that a functional, portable toilet that would meet the needs of all people who identify as women and don't have safe spaces to urinate in public, as well as pregnant and menstruating women, would require more time and research.
"The Yellow Spot acts as a ‘trojan horse' to bring the issue to a wider audience and hopefully, through this, a proper toilet for all needs can be provided," she said.

与社会活动家相比,设计师的“呐喊”更加振聋发聩!第7张图片

Photo is by Marica De Michele

上个月,《美国建筑》( US architecture)没有正常出版,而是发行了为公共建筑设计包容性浴室的免费指南,来解决“紧迫的社会问题”。

其它解决过厕所问题的设计师还有Nendo,他提议灾区可以用空水瓶组装厕所。除此之外还有 EOOS,他与Eawag水资源研究所合作,为极端贫困的地区设计了自我过滤式移动厕所。

Aandeboom在丹麦的罗斯基勒节(Roskilde Festival)上设计了树上小便池,从而减轻公共厕所的压力,而Faltazi则用稻草袋解决了同样的问题。

图片来源:Elisa Otañez(除非特别说明)

Last month US architecture initiative Stalled! published free guidelines for designing inclusive bathrooms for public buildings to address an "urgent social issue".
Other designers who have tackled toilet issues include Nendo, whose proposal for disaster areas could be assembled using empty water bottles, and EOOS, who teamed up with water research institute Eawag to create a self-filtering mobile toilet for areas of extreme poverty.
Aandeboom created tree-mounted urinals to try and mitigate public urination at the Roskilde Festival in Denmark, while Faltazi tackled the same issue with a straw-bale solution.
Photography by Elisa Otañez, unless stated.

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