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城市公园:设计师的视角 - 第二部分
Urban Parks: Designers’ Perspective – Part II

由专筑网孙佳,李韧编译

“城市的每个街区似乎都是由不同的物质组成,每个街区似乎都有不同的气压,不同的心理重量:明亮的灯光和百叶窗商店,住房项目和豪华酒店,火灾逃生和城市公园。 “ - Teju Cole

*本文是该系列的第2部分。

城市核心区域如何影响城市公园?

“这取决于你如何定义‘城市公园’。一般的使用者距离公园只要步行10分钟。城市地区的公园不需要建造在城市核心地区,只要它能满足人们的需求即可。”-  Landoll

“无论城市人口多少,目标人口统计数据和利益相关者都会有很大差异。如果公园靠近学校,那么公园使用者就有大量的年轻人,他们总是想要紧跟时代的脚步,独自在私密环境中学习?公园也是一个小社区,父母和孩子可以在公园里散步或骑自行车,亦或是观看电影和在游乐场玩耍,而对成年人来说,他们也许想要离开公寓在草地上休息。这些空间还可用作游行、众筹、聚会,因此,使用者至关重要。” – Stout


“Each neighborhood of the city appeared to be made of a different substance, each seemed to have a different air pressure, a different psychic weight: the bright lights and shuttered shops, the housing projects and luxury hotels, the fire escapes and city parks.”-Teju Cole

*This article is part 2 of a 2 part article. You can find Part I here.

How does proximity to the urban core affect an urban park?
“It depends on how you are defining “urban park.” Those within a 10 minute walk are most likely to use a park. A park in an urban area need not be in the urban core to be successful, provided that it serves a decent population and caters to that population’s needs.” – Landoll
“Your target demographics and stakeholders can vary greatly, whether it be a city of 10,000 or 500,000. Are you near a university where you will have young adults that always wants to be plugged in, study alone in intimate settings, or group settings with presentation pods? Is it a small community where parents and children can walk or ride their bikes to watch a movie in the park or run around in a playscape?  Are you at a public plaza where young, professional adults want a place to spread their legs from the apartments and play bocce or sit on a lawn and read a book? These spaces can also be places of demonstrations, protests, fundraisers, and community gatherings. The audience is crucial.” – Stout


城市公园的未来发展趋势(二)第1张图片

布鲁克林大桥公园/Brooklyn Bridge Park | Image: Lexi Van Valkenburgh

“场地入口十分关键。在玛吉戴利公园(Maggie Daley Park),其中一个主要焦点是为公众寻找进入公园的更优方式。这需要结合考虑周边的交通模式以及场地规模,了解附近居民的出行时间和地点。”-  Bird

“入口和访问程度之间存在相关性。人们是否需要开车才到到达目的地?以及人们能接受的最远距离是多少?在纽约市,公共交通系统非常便捷,因此人们固然会选择距离自己更近的城市公园。但此时同样需要考虑部分出行不便的人士,而这些问题在最初规划时就应得到解决。”- Tominaga

“入口就是一切。当代的城市公园,必须充分考虑地点。居民密度、工作人员和零售商业契机也会对公园产生一定的影响。对于部分居民来说,在公园闲逛就是生活的一部分,同时也是城市居民和游客的周末目的地。这些空间是我们室内环境的延伸,必须贴近生活才能获得成功。” - Russo


因此,再强调一遍,地点至关重要。但是,地点并不一定意味着市中心,它更意味着具有洞察力的设计空间,与周围社区及其需求有着直接关系。随着城市的发展,城市公园将成为吸引人们的新方式。

“Site access is critical. At Maggie Daley Park, one of the main focuses was finding better ways for the public to access the park. This required looking at transportation patterns on a neighborhood level and also at the site scale to understand where nearby residents were accessing the park on a regular basis.” – Bird
“There is a correlation between the issues of the proximity and accessibility. Do people have to drive and how far/long people are willing to drive before they find it too far. In NYC, the public transportation system allows people travel distances with the same amount of monetary investment so people may be more willing to go a bit further for that favorite park. But not everyone has a car or money to use public transport. Many of the solutions to these problems need to be addressed during the early planning stage much as provided access on all fronts on the site scale.” – Tominaga
“Proximity is everything. To be the icons that 21st century parks aim for, we must consider location. Adjacencies to density of residents, office workers and retail opportunities are essential for a park’s survival. A successful urban park is a part of your daily life, while also being considered a weekend destination for city inhabitants and visitors. These spaces are extensions of our interior environments and must be lived-in to be successful, with varied places to sit, stay and use for recreation.” – Russo

So the adage of location, location, location holds true with parks. However, location, doesn’t necessarily mean downtown. Location means insightfully planned spaces that have a direct relationship to the surround communities and the needs of those communities. As cities densify and grow, investments will be made to build the city park stock and as means for enticing new residents.

城市公园的未来发展趋势(二)第2张图片

马歇斯校园(Campus Martius)公园/Campus Martius Park | Image: Rob Specht

公共/私人投资的结合带来了什么好处?

“P3模式确实提供了财务资源,但非营利组织也可以提供人员、规划和研究服务,项目管理以及项目前后的评估,超出了纽约市能够承担的范围。我们还可以帮助建立公园的遗产保护机制。”- Landoll

“公共/私人投资带来了效率和创新。这样的项目可以不经过某些过于的严格审核,当外部推动力能够促进项目的发展时,其空间会更具有创新性。”- Bird


当公共资金与私人资金混合时,那么又存在了资金的滥用问题。虽然这样情况只有小数,但也引起了媒体的关注。

What, if any, benefits come from the combination of public/private investments?
“P3’s do provide financial resources, but nonprofits can also provide staff capacity, planning and research services, project management, and pre and post project evaluations beyond what the City could otherwise afford to do.  We can also help form foundations to help preserve a park’s legacy.” – Landoll
“There are efficiencies and innovations that come from public/private investments. These arrangements allow many projects to escape some of the bureaucracy that can weigh down publicly led projects which have strict rules of engagement and a standardized process. When outside entities can disrupt the normal design process and push for greater innovation, there can be a greater chance for creation of a unique space.” – Bird

When public dollars mix with private funds, the opportunity exists for abuse and the misalignment of public money from the public goals. While this is not often the case, it certainly garners the attention of the media. A quick search for controversial uses of public funds in parks will turn up several articles. Here are a few examples.

城市公园的未来发展趋势(二)第3张图片

猎人角南海滨公园/Hunters Point South Waterfront Park | Image: www.tbany.com

公园的被动策略是否存在?其目的是什么?

“在城市地区,这些空间当然仍然必要。它们似乎不像活跃的公共空间那样吸引人,对于人口老龄化的城市来说,这些空间必不可少。” – Bird

“当然,人们渴望接近自然。无论是天然还是人造,沉浸在自然元素中的体验都为人们所需,这样才能从繁忙的工作中抽离片刻。”- Russo

“当然,它们不仅经常出现在环境敏感地区,亦或是起到资源保护的作用,更重要的是对人们心理健康的压力缓解,同时促进人们的健康发展。此外,空气质量是许多城市社区的一大困扰,越来越多的年轻人与大自然的联系逐步变少。那么这些公园便可以很好地解决这些问题。”- Landoll


2016年新奥尔良ASLA会议上的一个小组(项目主题:设计的价值是否被降低?)提及诸如PPS等机构与设计师之间的矛盾。投资者都在寻求高额回报,因此设计师则为公园不断地增添各项附属设施。那么,我们是否更应该了解城市公园的项目需求,以及最适合的设计方式和设计目标。从不同角度来理解项目也许能够更好地帮助设计师通过设计的方式来满足当地社区的不同需求。

Are passive parks still relevant? What purpose do they serve today?
“In urban areas, these spaces are certainly still necessary. They may not seem as engaging as active public spaces, but they are often essential public spaces especially for aging populations.” – Bird
“Absolutely. People, as humans, have an intense desire to connect with nature. Whether natural or man-made, the experience of immersion in natural elements is something we all need in order to unplug from our hectic, technology driven lifestyles.” – Russo
“Of course. Not only do they often occur in environmentally sensitive areas, therefore provide protection of these resources (wetlands, streams, buffers, forests, etc.), our most disadvantaged communities are often seeking stress relief for their mental health as much as physical health opportunities. Additionally, air quality is a big concern for many urban communities and our youth are losing their connections to nature. The natural aspects of parks can provide relief for many of these challenges.” – Landoll

A panel at the 2016 ASLA Meeting in New Orleans (The Primacy of Programming: Is it Lowering the Value of Design?) brought up a point of contention that exists between some designers and organizations like PPS. With all investors looking for a high ROI, designers are constantly, subtly if not directly, pushed to inject a variety of programming into urban parks. We should be asking ourselves how to do this in a way appropriate to the with the other needs of the site and if that is always the primary goal. Having a good understanding of the dynamics and the effects of active and passive programming will help designers appropriately meet the various needs of the community.

城市公园的未来发展趋势(二)第4张图片

滨河公园和登高圆形剧场/Riverfront Park and Ascend Amphitheater | Image: Aerial Innovation

公园如何为市区带来价值?它们是城市的资产吗?

“它们是城市的资产。城市公园通过土地利用而升值,并且促进旅游业的发展,而这两者结合起来对城市的经济仍然有着一定影响。另外,城市公园也能为市民节约不少出行娱乐费用,同时也有益于身心健康,节约医疗花费。公园还可以储存水资源,减少水污染,改善空气质量,减少热岛效应,促进城市的宜居发展。”- Landoll

“公园创造价值。纽约的高线公园很值得借鉴与考察。它的创始人试图通过社区设施来解决当下所出现的问题。他们的所作所为为这座世界著名的公园奠定了基础,该公园的土地价值暴涨,同时促进城市发展。在这种情况下,居民的舒适性已成为城市发展的目标,而这些公园也成为了旅游景点。” - Russo

“在空间有限的城市地区,公园对经济和社会方面都是资产。全国各地的开发项目通常与蓬勃发展的公园直接相关,公园已被证明能够促进经济增长。这些空间本身就是社区内所有人的必需品。”- Tominaga


景观基金会等组织对城市公园等景观的价值评估做出了杰出的贡献。在其官方网站可以查看相关案例:www.landscapeperformance.org

How does a park inject value into an urban area? Are they amenities or assets?
“They are assets. They provide increased revenue from increased property values, can increase tourism, and these two combined can impact the collective wealth of the citizens. The use of city parks can provide savings to citizens as well, as they don’t have to seek out recreation opportunities from the marketplace. Then there are health benefits that result in savings on healthcare and on city subsidized healthcare. They can store stormwater, reduce water pollution, and improve air quality.  They can reduce heat island effect, making areas more livable. I could go on and on.” – Landoll
“Parks create value. Consider the High Line in New York, perhaps one of the most notable right now. Its founders were trying to find a solution to an aging piece of infrastructure by creating a community amenity. What they did was lay the groundwork for a world-renowned park that has skyrocketed land values, and catalyzed development along its edges. In this best-case scenario, this amenity to residents has become an asset to the city, as well as an international tourist attraction.” – Russo
“In urban areas where space is at a premium, public parks are an asset both economically and sociologically. The highest profile developments around the country are often directly connected to a thriving public park which have proven to be engines of economic growth. And the spaces themselves serve as needed escapes for all people within a community.” – Tominaga

Organizations like the Landscape Architecture Foundation are making great strides in defining and validating the value that landscapes like urban parks bring to our cities. You can check out over one hundred case studies and dozens of tools on their website: www.landscapeperformance.org

城市公园的未来发展趋势(二)第5张图片

千灯湖公园系统/Thousand Lantern Lake Park System | Image: SWA

城市公园是否需要平民设施?公园是否能够促进社会的公平?

“这个问题我认为更加重要的是,我们应当了解公园对于普遍性具有哪些重要意义,这就好像环境问题已成为设计界的前沿,社会的公平变革问题也存在于这个领域之中。”- Bird

“社会的中产阶级化不可避免。公共住房设计有助于维持现有社区的繁荣发展,但这是一场艰苦的战斗。大型公园的周围常常环绕着高档住宅与商业区。然而,一座成功的公园也将保持对现有社区的敏感性和包容性。公共和私人投资也会提升项目的回报。”- Tominaga

“公园必将促进中产阶级的发展,但这也无可厚非。周边社区和城市规划从一开始就与其他机构密切合作,从而减轻对社会发展的部分影响。至于公园是否能为社会带来公平,事实上,人人生而平等,不只是公园,城市的发展策略也应该促进这方面的进步。”- Landoll


在过去十年中,中产阶级化一直是一个热门话题。社会改革和课程改革一直影响着我们的城市和政治发展。我们可以回顾塞内卡村(Seneca Village)等历史案例,这个曾经破败的社区现在发展为中央公园。现代城市价值观同样能够推动少数人的利益,我们的国家奥运场馆模式也是在这样的情形下发展起来。

Is gentrification by way of urban park important, vague, meaningless, to be avoided, or unavoidable? Can parks provide social equity?
“Finding ways to better understand how parks impact gentrification is one of the most important topics in the field I believe. Just as environmental issues have come to the forefront of the design world, social justice reforms will also play a big role in how the field changes in the near future.” – Bird
“Gentrification is unavoidable to a certain extent. Public housing programs help maintain existing communities to thrive but is often an uphill battle. If you look at any large successful park, it is surrounded by some of the most expensive real estate whether residential or commercial. However, a successful park will maintain sensitivities to existing communities and remain inclusive. It is often that public and private investment has brought some of the most successful parks to fruition and return on investment is expected.” – Tominaga
“Gentrification from parks can definitely happen, but do poor people not deserve good parks? Again, I go back to neighborhood and city planning and working with other service providers from the start to understand and mitigate potential impacts. Can parks provide social equity? Everyone deserves access to a good park, so cities can help improve social equity by providing equal access and opportunity through strategic investment.  Within the park itself, they can break down social barriers.” – Landoll

Gentrification has been a trending topic over the past decade, but is by no means a new topic. Social reform and the restructuring of the classes has always impacted our cities and mixed the politics of parks. We can look back to historic examples like Seneca Village, the once run-down community found on what is now known as Central Park. Even modern urban values push out those with less power and privilege. Our national Olympic venue models do this year after year.

城市公园的未来发展趋势(二)第6张图片

哈德逊公园和大道/Hudson Park & Boulevard | Image: Alex Maclean

城市公园是社会基础设施?

“是的。但它们通常不该那样设计。” - Landoll

“社会在建筑环境中具有反思性。自由开放社会的最大象征是共享空间,这些城市空间是人们日常沟通交流的场所。特别是公园,人们在这里放松身心,这里是我们真正体验社区和城市的场所。这些空间对于城市生活至关重要,是人们的共享空间。每个人都应该享受它们。”- Russo

“它们不仅是公园的基础设施,但同样也是城市的基础设施。人们常常公园的重要性弱于基础设施项目,但公园历来一直是城市结构不可分割的部分,随着城市密度和环境挑战的增加,大众公园也许对城市的环境恢复有着重要的意义。”- Bird


当夏日来临,希望你多多去公园游览,观察其使用者和使用方式。如果没有人,公园就没有了意义。关注民生。为人民而设计!

*特别感谢与我们分享想法的专业人士。您宝贵的建议推动了设计与城市的发展,谢谢。

Cameron R. Rodman,Associate ASLA的工作人员,也是Stewart事务所的景观设计师,该事务所位于这是一家位于北卡罗来纳州夏洛特市的多学科设计公司。

Are urban parks social infrastructure?
“They should be. They often aren’t designed that way.” – Landoll
“Society is reflective in the built environment. The greatest symbol of a free and open society is a communal space that it shared for and cared for by all. These urban spaces are where the different classes, age groups, genders, and races collide on a daily basis as we live out our lives together. Our urban spaces, particularly parks, where people relax and unwind in cities are the great melting pots of shared space. These are the places where we really experience community and neighborhood. These spaces are essential to city life, our shared living rooms, so to speak. Everyone should have access to such a place.” – Russo
“Not only are parks social infrastructure, but they should be considered physical infrastructure of the city as well. Often a park can be considered less important than the highly engineered ‘infrastructure’ project, but parks have historically been shown to be key pieces of a city’s fabric. Especially as density in cities increases and environmental challenges are more present, having established parks available for use by citizens as well as playing a role in environmental remediation will lead to more successful urban space.” – Bird

As we step into the summer, be sure to get out and visit your parks. Pay attention to who uses the parks, what they are using at the park, and how they are using the park. Parks are nothing without people. Pay attention to the people. Design for the people!
*A special thank you to each of the professionals who took the time to share their thoughts and years of experience with our audience. Your valued input and insight pushes the envelope of design, public engagement, and healthy cities. Thank you.

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