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城市公园见证着城市的发展第1张图片


两个著名的美国城市公园展示了160年来公园如何改变市民的生活
Two Famous American Urban Parks Demonstrate How Citizens Changed in 160 Years

由专筑网孙佳,邢子编译

文章来自Maria Giovanna Drago。我们通过比较纽约市中央公园和芝加哥千禧公园来研究过去160年来美国城市公园的演变情况。社会对事件和新奇事物的反应随着历史不断变化。在重要的时期,如工业革命和战争影响了生活方式,由于这些事件,一些人喜欢生活在快节奏的城市,而其他人则喜欢生活在乡村。这些发展变化可以从城市布局中看出,尤其是城市公园。公园让我们更好地了解自然与建筑环境之间的斗争。尽管人们似乎更多地关注着城市的扩张,但几个世纪以来,城市绿色基础设施的建设并未停止。

Article by Maria Giovanna Drago We examine how urban parks in the United States have evolved over the last 160 years through a comparison of New York City’s Central Park and Chicago’s Millennium Park. Society has continually changed throughout history, often in reaction to events and novelties. Important time periods, such as industrial revolutions and wars have influenced the way of life and because of these events some people favored living in fast-paced cities while others in the countryside. These progressions can be seen in the layout of cities, particularly the urban parks. Parks allow us to better understand the struggle between nature and the built environment. Even though it seems that more attention is usually given to the expansion of cities, over the centuries urban green infrastructure has not remained static.

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中央公园西历史区,从中央公园的湖上的拱桥看去/Central Park West Historic District, seen from Bow Bridge over the Lake in Central Park. Credit: CC BY-SA 3.0

城市公园的建设历史可以追溯到古老的波斯时代,那时人们在私人公园里捕鱼和养殖,而希腊人则在公共花园中漫步并教授哲学。在过去的几个世纪,公园仍然存在于许多西部城市,然而新公园并没有取代旧公园,两者都以独特的方式取得了成功。历史可以追溯到19 世纪,中央公园在纽约市是世界上最有名的观赏公园之一。此外,一些现代公园也与当今社会保持着和谐的关系,并展示了生活的变化。在考察芝加哥的千禧公园时,与已有147年的历史的中央公园相比,区别也很明显。规模区域的大小表明它是否可以步行游览并影响其类别。如果可以在可接受的时间内走动和游览,则空间更为有用,因此它可能包括大型公园所不具备的功能。千禧公园和中央公园是大型公园的两个例子,它们分别占地24.5英亩(99,000平方米)和843英亩(3.41平方公里)。

Urban parks have roots as far back as the ancient Persians who used to hunt and breed fish in their private parks, while Greeks famously walked in public gardens and taught philosophy. Parks from past centuries still exist in many western cities, new parks didn’t substitute old parks, and both are successful in unique ways. Dating back to the 19th century, Central Park in New York City is one of the most famous and visited parks in the world. Furthermore, some modern parks are more harmonious with today’s society and show just how much life has changed. This is especially evident when looking at Millennium Park in Chicago, as a comparison to Central Park, which is 147 years older. Dimensions The size of an area demonstrates whether it’s accessible on foot and influences the type of usability. A space can be more usable if it can be walked and visited within an acceptable time, as a result it may include functions not adopted by bigger parks. Millennium Park and Central Park are two examples of large parks as they have an area of 24.5 acres (99,000 square meters) and 843 acres (3.41 square kilometers) respectively.

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千禧公园的鸟瞰图/Aerial view of Millennium Park. Credit: Ashley Diener

千禧公园可以在大约8分钟内从一端沿对角线走到另一端,因此市民和游客可以在不到几个小时的时间里探索它,这反映了它的现代风格。中央公园规模更大,一天之内无法步行游览整个公园。此外,它具有更自然的景观,显而易见它有更明确的用途和设计理念。由于中央公园借鉴了伦敦海德公园和巴黎布洛涅森林等欧洲大公园的设计灵感,例如贵族和君主常常在那里打猎,参加精英活动,享受乘坐马车。这个公园由自由排列的树木,灌木和宽阔的草地组成,就像一部分自然环境嵌入城市。中央公园始建于1857年,当时工业革命改变了这座城市。公民想要一个类似乡村的绿色空间来放松和呼吸新鲜空气,当时甚至允许人们在公园里放牧。在20世纪初,公园又增加了游乐场以及游泳池和其他娱乐设施。

Millennium Park can be walked diagonally from one extremity to the other in about 8 minutes, so citizens and tourists can explore it in less than a couple of hours, which reflects its modern style. Central Park is much larger and it isn’t possible to visit the entire park in a single day on foot. Additionally, it has a more naturalistic landscape and it’s evident as it was planned for a specific use and following a different philosophy. Reasons and Roots Central Park borrows inspiration from the great European parks such as Hyde Park in London and Bois de Boulogne in Paris, where the nobles and the sovereigns used to hunt, attend elite events, and enjoy carriage rides. This park is like a portion of nature embedded into the city with freely arranged trees, shrubs, and wide meadows. Central Park was dedicated in 1857, at a time when the Industrial Revolution had transformed the city. Citizens desired a green space resembling the countryside to relax and breathe fresh air, back then it was even allowed to graze sheep in the park. At the beginning of the 1900s, play fields were added, as well as swimming pools and other amenities.

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1901年在中央公园购物中心的下端/Lower end of mall at Central Park in 1901. Credit: CC BY 2.0

千禧公园于2004年投入使用,是当时市长理查德•戴利(Richard M. Daley)强烈追求的芝加哥未来设计的结果。这是对当代工程和建筑的致敬。其中,展馆由普利兹克奖得主弗兰克•盖里(Frank Gehry)设计。 千禧公园的主要景点也有很多选择。杰•普利兹克露天音乐厅(Jay Pritzker Pavilion)几乎占据了整个公园东侧,它拥有4000个固定座位和宽阔的草坪,可容纳7000人。西侧北面还有画廊和箭牌广场,以及千年纪念碑,让人想起希腊的门廊。在中央广场的中间是云门,一座由110吨钢材组成的雕塑,由英国艺术家安尼施•卡普尔(Anish Kapoor)设计,昵称为“大豆子”。最后,艺术家Jaume Plensa的另一个画廊和皇冠喷泉位于南部,通过其设计的两座巨型塔楼构成了公众与水之间的身体互动。

Millennium Park, dedicated in 2004, was the result of a design for the future of Chicago strongly pursued by then mayor, Richard M. Daley. It’s a tribute to contemporary engineering and architecture. The pavilion was designed by Pritzker Prize winner Frank Gehry. What to Do There are plenty of choices among the main attractions in Millennium Park. The Jay Pritzker Pavilion occupies almost the entire east side with its 4,000 fixed seats and vast lawn, which can accommodate 7,000 people. There is also the Gallery and Wrigley Plaza to the north of the west side, together with the Millennium Monument, which is reminiscent of a Greek portico. In the middle of the central square is Cloud Gate, a sculpture comprised of 110 tons of steel and nicknamed “The Bean” by British artist Anish Kapoor. Finally, another Gallery and Crown Fountain by artist Jaume Plensa are to the south, which promotes physical interaction between the public and the water through its two giant towers.

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皇冠喷泉/Crown Fountain. Credit: Serge Melki via CC

城市公园见证着城市的发展第6张图片

普利兹克大草坪/Pritzker Pavilion Great Lawn. Credit: Bob Segal

相比之下,中央公园是跑步者和喜欢户外运动的人们的天堂。高尔夫爱好者可以在大型绿色草地上活动,登山者可以爬上新兴的石板岩。人们也可以在预留的空地上玩棒球,在溜冰场滑冰,或者在欣赏奥纳西斯水库( Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir)时漫步穿过小径,同时野餐。著名的两个公园都有各自城市的特点。毫无疑问,他们为当地的建筑遗产做出了贡献,一个已有160年,另一个为13年。此外,两个公园都改善了居民的生活质量,并提供了有价值的旅游目的地。2016年,6000万人参观了中央公园,2000万人参观了千禧公园。此外,两者都增加了该地区的经济价值,特别是提升了相邻房产的价值。

In contrast, Central Park is a paradise for runners and those who enjoy outdoor activities. Golfers can play in big, green meadows and climbers can climb up emerging slate rocks. It’s also possible to play baseball in reserved spaces, skate on ice rinks, or simply wander through the paths and picnic while admiring the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir. Treasures Both parks are flagships to their respective cities. They undoubtedly contribute to the local architectural heritage, one for 160 years and the other for 13 years. Additionally, both parks improve the quality of life for residents and offer valued tourist destinations. Central Park was visited by 60 million people in 2016 and Millennium Park by 25 million. Moreover, both have increased the economic value of the area, especially the adjacent properties.

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中央公园的赫克歇尔游乐场/Heckscher Playground in Central Park. Credit: CC BY-SA 4.0

这不是古代与现代的比较。有很多公园有这样的特点,仅仅通过百科全书了解是不够的。这是两个代表其历史背景的公园的比较,并邀请您观察和了解您所游览的景点。如果您对其他公园感兴趣,可以探索澳大利亚克蓝本的澳大利亚花园和法国阿尔福维尔的大合奏公园。

特色图片:洛克菲勒中心的中央公园,纽约|Andrew Mace|2015年

This is not a comparison between ancient and modern. There are plenty of parks with such peculiarities that an encyclopedia wouldn’t be sufficient. It’s rather a comparison of two parks that represent their historical context and an invitation for you to observe and understand the landscapes you visit. If you’re curious about other parks, explore the Australian Garden in Cranbourne, Australia and The Grand Ensemble Park in Alfortville, France.

Featured image: Central Park from Rockefeller Center | New York, New York | Andrew Mace | 2015

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