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城市公园未来的发展趋势(一)第1张图片

玛吉戴利(Maggie Daley)公园/Maggie Daley Park | Image: Scott Shigley

城市公园:设计师的视角 - 第一部分
Urban Parks: Designers’ Perspective – Part I

由专筑网孙佳,李韧编译

“城市公园无法说谎。‘艺术家的概念’和效果图可以将生活图片放入拟议的社区公园或购物中心,设计语汇的合理化可以让用户感到欣喜,但在现实生活中,只有多样化的环境才更加自然,对生活的充分运用才更有实际的力量。“- 简•雅各布斯

*本文是该系列的第一部分。

城市公园的发展愈发迅速,人人都希望生活在高线公园旁,似乎在幻想着他们有机会为自己的城市命名,并且从中获益。高线公园这样的项目自身就是繁荣的代名词,其中集合了文化活力和创新意识。但是,当我们更深入地研究诸如高线公园等城市公园的发展现象时,表面的繁荣下会有哪些深层内涵呢?

要了解有关高线公园的更多信息,您必须通过亲身经历或阅读相关文章。而我们希望通过这篇文章来了解城市公园成功的核心因素。其吸引力来源于何处?为什么公园能够经久不衰?为此,我们联系了多位知名景观设计师和城市设计师,来了解他们对城市公园的看法,从他们的看法中,我们也许能够了解到城市公园的另一面,从而促进其未来的发展。

“You can neither lie to a neighborhood park, nor reason with it. ‘Artist’s conceptions’ and persuasive renderings can put pictures of life into proposed neighborhood parks or park malls, and verbal rationalizations can conjure up users who ought to appreciate them, but in real life only diverse surroundings have the practical power of inducing a natural, continuing flow of life and use.”– Jane Jacobs

*This article is part 1 of a 2 part article. You can find Part II here.
The urban park has become the object of fascination and desire of many cities across the nation and the world. Everyone wants their sleek version of the High Line. Outside onlookers fantasize of their chance to make a name for their city and reap the benefits of such a wild success story, both financial and social. It would be easy to assume that projects like the High Line hold in themselves the recipe for creating an assemblage of prosperity, cultural vitality, innovation, creativity, and in the end, success. But is that what we find beneath the surface when we more deeply examine the phenomenon of urban parks like the High Line?
To find out more about the High Line, you’ll have to visit the park itself or read another article. It was our interest at Land8 to get down to the core of what makes urban parks successful. What attracts users? What ensures the care and longevity of a park? To do this, we reached out to a variety of landscape architects, landscape designers, and urban designers to get their thoughts on urban parks. They weighed in on what helps to create these special places in the hearts of our cities to a point of success and lasting memory.

城市公园未来的发展趋势(一)第2张图片


我们的受访者是ASLA、PLA、Parks for People项目经理、公共土地信托基金负责人Courtney H. Landoll, PLA、ASLA、LEED AP BD + C,REALM Collaborative合作伙伴Carmine Russo Jr.,高级项目经理、Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates, Inc专业人员Ryoma Tominaga,PLA、高级助理、Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates,Inc专业人员Matthew Bird,以及ASLA、PLA、Rundell Ernstberger Associates专业人员Patrick Stout。

通过一系列提问,他们的回答可能只会改变您之前对城市公园的看法以及公园为城市带来的价值。本次采访的目的是鼓励在没有指导方向的情况下对城市公园进行公开思考和对话。虽然在一些回答中会有一些重复,但其中的一些细节仍然能够展现问题的本质,甚至还包含对当前一些挑战的回应。

Our respondents were Courtney H. Landoll, ASLA, PLA, Parks for People Project Manager, The Trust for Public Land; Carmine Russo Jr., PLA, ASLA, LEED AP BD+C, Partner, REALM Collaborative; Ryoma Tominaga, Senior Project Manager, Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates, Inc.; Matthew Bird, PLA, Senior Associate, Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates, Inc.; and Patrick Stout, ASLA, PLA, Rundell Ernstberger Associates.
A series of questions were provided to the group and their responses may just change how you previously thought about urban parks and the value that parks bring to a city. The purpose of this variety of questions was to encourage open thought and dialogue on urban parks with little guided direction. While common threads wove throughout their responses, variations therein, brought to the surface the deeper more important issues and challenged the notion that plug and play design concepts are responsible or even beneficial.

城市公园未来的发展趋势(一)第3张图片

主街广场/Main Street Square | Image: Rob Specht

您是否注意到城市公园的发展趋势?

“我注意到的趋势是抓住未充分利用的空间,并将它们改造为公园。这也许来源于当代公园形态的演变,它不再只是一片树木和绿色草坪,而是日常工作之余放松的场所。”- Tominaga

“就大城市而言,城市公园代表了社区设施,也是城市的象征。通过这个标志性设施让人们了解这座城市的本质。想想千禧公园(Millennium Park)和芝加哥的卢里公园(Lurie Garden),如果没有这些图片的引导,人们是否还愿意了解这座城市?”- Russo

“城市的快速发展似乎让人们逐渐边缘化,公园的分布并不平均,这对人们的健康无益。这些驱动因素也给现有的公园基础设施带来了负担,从而满足不同的需求。这些变化突如其来,有时金钱能够解决一些问题,但有些问题金钱则无法解决。” - Landoll


公园往往能够反映现有社会价值观,同时推动城市内部投资的方向。而这些投资通常会出现在公共领域,而且许多问题都会影响这些决策。虽然公园的模式各不相同,但这些趋势仍然无形存在,因此需要设计师和整个社区从长远、实际等方面去综合思考,怎样才能够更好地满足人们的愿望。而满足这些愿望又需要哪些需求?每座城市是否拥有统一的特征?设计在激活社区方面发挥了什么作用?

Have you noticed any trends in Urban Parks?
“The trend I noticed is capturing the opportunity for derelict and underutilized spaces and repurposing them for a park. This is possible today perhaps due to the definition of what a park has evolved into. It’s no longer just a green lawn with trees and planting, but a place of respite from the daily grind.” – Tominaga
“The trends in urban park design, particularly in our largest urban centers, is the creation of an iconic community amenity that is emblematic of the city. An identifiable brand that provides an instant vision in people’s minds of the essence of that city as a notable place to be. Consider Millennium Park and the Lurie Garden in Chicago, how could someone visit that city today without a picture under the Bean?” – Russo
“Rapid densification and gentrification are marginalizing and displacing people, creating park equity issues, which then impact health. These drivers also put a burden on existing park infrastructure to meet the need of new populations who may have different wants and needs. These demographic changes often happen at a rate we are ill-equipped to solve and while wealth abundance can provide financial resources, it also creates many challenges.” – Landoll

At the core, parks often become reflections of the values which are in place, driving the direction of the investments within the city. Priorities will often surface in the public realm and a multitude of issues influence this decisions. While we have trends that are emerging around things like tangible objects, (i.e. splash pads, beer gardens, etc.) trends also exist which are intangible in nature and call the designer and the community to look beyond the physical and require them to examine what the object is achieving and/or providing. What needs are being met or need to be met? Do unifying central identities need to be developed for a city or does the city need to restore forgotten places? What role does programming play in activating the community?

城市公园未来的发展趋势(一)第4张图片

Superkilen | Image: Iwan Baan

无论趋势如何,价值体系都存在于我们社会愿意接受的范围之内,同时我们也能够结合传统的方式。当前趋势中,我们需要将社会价值观和实体的感知融入设计方案中,这些将一种非常真实的社会学规范,但是,这样的方式在整个行业内褒贬不一。

什么不应该包括在城市公园之中?

“这个问题比较宽泛。每个场地都可能有其无法容纳的元素,但每座公园都应该能够增强用户体验和强调场所特征。”- Bird

“所包含的内容并不重要,重要的是内容的价值。例如,在一座小型城市公园中,根据人口统计,篮球场比网球场更加适用,同时一条小道更具价值,那么我们就可以通过林荫小径的方式构思路网,那么这个公园系统就能够为人们带来作用。”- Tominaga


It seems that no matter the trend, value systems exist that press at the boundaries of what our society is willing to accept and stretch us to consider alternatives to traditional approaches. These design exercises in current trends require us to place value either in a physical interpretation or in a perceived reality. These choices construct a very real sociological paradigm which is either met with glowing support or vehement opposition.

What should one not include in an Urban Park?
“This is difficult to say on a broad scale. Each site may call for unique elements that may be completely inappropriate at a site a block away. The real answer is that things which do not enhance the user experience or relate to the site itself should not be included.” – Bird
“It’s not about what not to include but rather having the correct value system in place to provide what is needed the most. For example, in a small urban park will find a basketball court more useful than a tennis court depending on the demographic. A trail network may be more valuable to connect a broken link to a larger trail system that offers refuge to arid areas that have little shade throughout the city.” – Tominaga


城市公园未来的发展趋势(一)第5张图片

贝尼托·华雷斯(Benito Juarez)公园/Benito Juarez Park | Image: Edison International

Stout和Landoll都认为公园要素的价值性,虽然大型开阔的混凝土广场和凹陷的圆形剧场的设计方式非常时尚,但就某个场地而言,这样的功能也许并不适用,甚至是对土地的浪费。

因此,设计师的意识至关重要,不仅要考虑公园的元素,还要考虑哪些元素对于功能空间真正有益。

虽然城市公园里有各种各样的元素,但哪些元素是不可或缺的呢?

“这取决于你所服务的社区。传统的白种人去公园锻炼身体,传统的拉丁人去公园与家人和朋友共度时光,所以没有通用的法则。除了基础知识之外,良好的设计策略确实可以提升公园的活跃程度。” - Landoll

“人们喜欢水,它以多种形式吸引着人们。那么我们就可以运用它来创造互动元素,或形成柔和的白色噪音,平静人们的内心。” – Stout

“我认为最重要的部分是功能自身。这可以是宏观或微观尺度,如在同一公园中可以有混合的功能,亦或是植物、材质中的混合肌理。”- Bird


Stout and Landoll both recognized the need to be mindful of the materiality and elements included. While at one time it was considered fashionable to design large expansive concrete plazas and sunken amphitheaters, these are now seen as undesirable and have even become associated with themes of vacancy and dereliction.
Awareness will play a large part not only in considering what elements to design into a park but which elements and programming are hindrances to creating successful spaces and valued public spaces.

While there are a variety of elements that one can have in an urban park, are there some essentials?
“It really depends on the community you are serving. Traditional white populations go to a park to exercise, traditional Latino cultures go to a park to spend time with family and friends, so there is no one size fits all. Beyond the basics, active programming can really help enliven a park while making it safe and inviting.” – Landoll
“People love water. It appeals to a variety of senses in numerous forms. It can create an interactive element for engagement or provide soft, white noise to calm one in a chaotic environment.” – Stout
“I think the essential part is the variety itself. This can be at a macro or micro scale, as in seeing a mixture of program in the same park, or seeing a blend of textures in the planting and material palettes.” – Bird


城市公园未来的发展趋势(一)第6张图片

Tarkington Park | Image: Dan Liggett

“为现在和未来的10至20年后的目标人群提供服务。这意味着它必须包容公众,即其功能必须适用于青少年等各个年龄段的人士。公园的设计并非刻意,例如相比起儿童专用游乐设施,多功能开放式草坪就具有更高的大众价值。”- Tominaga

多方面考虑是设计公园的关键要素。虽然一些公园具有特定用途,但许多城市空间却仍然面向整个社区而开放,因此需要更多考虑的是社区的功能性,并且让社区人们能够聚集于此。无论人们的兴趣点在哪里,公园功能的多样化能够很好地提升其使用效率。毕竟,这是大多数城市公园的设计重点,即满足社区的需求。

“Providing for the target audience of today and future generations 10-20 years from now. This means it has to be inclusive to the public. Accessibility, program for all types of youths, activities for animals, and spaces for children throughout range of age groups. A park should be intentionally designed for the unintentional activities. A flexible, multi-purpose open lawn, can provide more value to a park that reaches a larger audience compared to an amazing dedicated children’s play space. The key is balance.” – Tominaga
Designing for the unknown and the people are key elements for creating successful parks. While some parks are designed for specific uses and programs, many urban spaces need to have the ability to invite the community into its spaces. Designing spaces that allow for choice and expression of self are great ways to give back to a community and provide opportunities where they can come together no matter their personal interests or place of origin. Variety only increases the usability of each park. After all, that’s the point of most urban parks, to get people to visit and service the needs of the community.

城市公园未来的发展趋势(一)第7张图片

哈德逊公园大道/Hudson Park and Boulevard | Image: HYHK Alliance

成功的城市公园的核心是什么?

“重要的是要了解公园是社区的一部分。它们应该反映社区的本质,满足社区的实际需求,公园的成功取决于良好的规划。例如,如果一座城市缺乏经济适用房或毒品泛滥,那么公园就成为流浪者或毒品交易的家园,这极大地影响了他人对公园的使用。” - Landoll

“在物理意义上定义核心元素很难。人口统计、背景元素和社区特点都有助于营造强烈的地方感。公园或任何空间应该具有灵活性。周围的世界在不断发展,空间也应该具有强大的适应性。”- Stout

“我认为设计的成功要素在于体验。那么这就强调了设计过程,客户体验贯穿于项目的每个阶段。最初概念、公共宣传、价值定位、项目施工、场地维护,这些郭恒缺一不可。人们的体验感会为公园带来更多的访问量,增加进一步公共投资的可能性,更重要的是提高了居民的生活质量。”- Tominaga


What is core to designing a successful urban park?
“It’s important to understand that parks are part of the neighborhood fabric. They should reflect the communities they serve, serve their community’s actual needs (not what we think they need), and their success is dependent on good city/neighborhood planning. For example, if a city is lacking affordable housing or services related to substance abuse, parks can become a haven for the homeless or for drug activity, greatly impacting use of the park for others.” – Landoll
“It’s hard to define a core element in the physical sense. Demographics, contextual elements, and the community’s input all contribute to creating a strong sense of place. A park, or any space for that matter, should have flexibility it how it can be used. The world around us is constantly evolving and a space that can adapt becomes something that people identify with most passionately.” – Stout
“I would argue that one of the primary goals to designing a successful urban park is to instill a place that facilitates are memorable experience. This not only includes the finished product but the design process as well. The memorable experiences lie throughout all phases of design. From the initial concept, public outreach, defining what would provide the best value for the limited resources available on a project, construction, and continued maintenance of the site. A net positive experience among all constituents and the ends users will more often bring people back to the park and increase the likely hood of further public investment and more important increased quality of life.” – Tominaga


城市公园未来的发展趋势(一)第8张图片

高线公园/The Goods Line | Image: Florian Groehn

因此,多样化固然重要,但在设计规划阶段仍然不可掉以轻心。准确了解现有需求、场地要素和周围社区的潜在机会将对设计产生重大影响。设计能否成功在于是否能够表达社区的本质。另外,如果没有资金的投入,整个项目同样无法实施。

Cameron R. Rodman,助理ASLA,是斯图尔特公司的景观设计师,这是一家位于北卡罗来纳州夏洛特的多学科设计公司。

So while variety is good, a mindfulness needs to exist in the planning phase. Having an accurate awareness of the existing desires and the potential opportunities that exist in a site and the surrounding community will ultimately have great influence on the design. Success is found in revealing and empowering desires of the community. Without the input of those invested individuals, we end up with spaces which lack diversity and eventually fade.
Cameron R. Rodman, Associate ASLA, is a Landscape Designer at Stewart Inc., a multi-disciplinary design firm in Charlotte, NC.

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