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3D打印轻质混凝土天花板/苏黎世联邦理工学院
ETH Zurich makes lightweight concrete ceiling using 3D sand-printing

由专筑网王帅,李韧编译

苏黎世联邦理工学院(ETH Zurich)在一座试验性住宅中,设计了一款3D打印轻型混凝土天花板,这是他们的最新作品。

目前正在瑞士杜本多夫建造的DFAB住宅展示了五种以前在建筑中从未见过的数字建造方法,而混凝土智能板便是其中之一。

该结构设计经过计算,通过最少的材料承受最大的荷载,其自身重量不到普通混凝土板的一半。

底部模板由3D打印制作而成,有了这项技术,高度复杂结构的制造方式就变得和实心块一样容易。这也意味着在打印之前并不需要耗费过多材料。

A lightweight concrete ceiling with formwork 3D-printed from sand is among the innovations to feature in an experimental robot-made house built by university ETH Zurich.
The DFAB House, currently under construction in Dübendorf, Switzerland, showcases five digital building methods that have never before been seen in architecture, and the concrete Smart Slab is the latest addition.
The structure has been computationally designed to use only the minimal amount of material necessary to make it load-bearing, and is less than half the weight of usual concrete slabs.
The light weight form was enabled by using 3D sand printing to make the slab's underlying formwork. With 3D printing, highly complex structures are as easy to produce as a solid block — meaning extraneous material can be cut out of a design before it is sent to the printer.

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苏黎世联邦理工学院(ETH Zurich)希望通过这项创新技术,天花板的重量得以减轻。

苏黎世联邦理工学院的发言人表示:“(传统模板生产)材料消耗过大,碳排放当量大,与之相比,数字制造方法在这里可以发挥出重要作用,当组件经过优化后,可以通过最少的材料制造同样强度的结构。”

“在3D打印技术中,组件的几何复杂性并不重要,同时也不会形成额外的成本,这台打印机输入什么就打印什么。”

ETH Zurich hopes the innovation will draw the construction industry away from producing "the same solid ceilings over and over again".
"The disadvantage [of traditional formwork production] is excessive material consumption and implicitly, a big carbon footprint," said ETH Zurich. "Digital fabrication methods can make a key contribution here: components can be optimised, enabling the necessary stability with far less material."
"The geometric complexity of a component does not matter in 3D printing, nor does it cause any additional costs — the printer simply prints what it is told to."

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The Smart Slab的面积达80平方米,位于DFAB住宅的一层和地面层之间。它的总重约为15吨,包括装饰面层,其最薄处也只有20毫米。

该项目由建筑师Benjamin Dillenburger领导的研究小组和苏黎世联邦理工学院数字建筑技术研究所的副教授联合开发。

该项目也由工业设计专业人员合作完成。项目小组使用3D打印机制作折叠状模板,这种材料就像人造砂岩,上面喷涂了纤维增强混凝土。

事实上,混凝土可以直接由3D打印制作而成,例如BAM Infra建设公司与埃因霍温科技大学(Eindhoven University of Technology)设计的自行车桥,而现在,该混合工艺的一个主要优点是可以使用高性能纤维增强混凝土。

The Smart Slab covers 80 square metres between the ground and first floors of the DFAB House. In total it weighs 15 tonnes, and its ornamental, undulating design is just 20 millimetres at its thinnest point.
It was developed by a research group led by architect Benjamin Dillenburger, an assistant professor in Digital Building Technologies at ETH Zurich.
Working together with industry partners, the group used a 3D sand printer to produce the folding, dune-like formwork. The material is like an artificial sandstone, with fibre-reinforced concrete sprayed over the top.
While concrete can be directly 3D printed — and has been in structures like BAM Infra and Eindhoven University of Technology's cycling bridge — a key advantage of the hybrid process is that it allows for the use of this high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete.

轻盈的天花板如何制造?一台打印机搞定第3张图片

苏黎世联邦理工学院(ETH Zurich)认为这是“混凝土结构与3D打印设计的完美结合”。

研究小组使用了传统数控机床切割木材模具制造的二次模板为结构创造了整体网格。

研究小组还使用了定制软件设计了这两种模板,在保证形状尽可能薄的同时,也协调了照明和自动喷水系统的最佳尺寸和位置。

建筑师Mania Aghaei Meibodi是智能板(Smart Slab)项目的领导,他说:“我们没有做板坯,而是设计了程序,在传统工艺中,将所有内容与模拟规划协调起来并不可能,特别是在如此精确的情况下。”

而苏黎世联邦理工学院表示,这虽然只为DFAB住宅保留几厘米的高度,但是可以推测的是,在高层里这个数据就格外可观。

ETH Zurich describes the slab as combining "the structural strength of concrete with the design freedom of 3D printing".
A secondary formwork made using a more traditional mould of CNC-cut timber created an overarching grid for the structure.
The research group designed both formworks using a custom software that not only adapted the shape to be as thin as possible but also coordinated the best size and positioning for lighting and sprinkler systems.
"We didn't draw the slab; we programmed it," said architect Mania Aghaei Meibodi, a Smart Slab project lead. "It would not have been possible to coordinate all these aspects with analogue planning, particularly with such precision."
While ETH Zurich said this saves only a few centimetres in the DFAB House, it speculates that in a high-rise, it could mean fitting in a few extra floors.

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DFAF住宅从2017年开始施工,当时苏黎世联邦理工学院宣布将在Nest设计和建造这座三层楼高的住宅。这是一座模块化研究与创新建筑,由Empa材料科学与技术发展和Eawag水生研究组织主要负责。

它是国家研究能力中心(NCCR)数字制造项目的一部分。

现场使用的另一种技术是空间木材组装,该技术为机器人组装木屋框架,这些机器人效率极高。

The DFAB House has been in the works since 2017, when ETH Zurich announced it would design and build the three-storey residence at NEST – a modular research and innovation building operated by the Empa institute for material science and technology development and the Eawag aquatic research organisation.
It is part of the National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) Digital Fabrication project.
Another technology used at the site is Spatial Timber Assemblies, where wood house frames are assembled by robots that can work fast without colliding.

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项目信息:
主要研究人员:Benjamin Dillenburger, Robert Flatt, Joseph Schwartz
其他研究人员:Mania Aghaei Meibodi (项目领导), Mathias Bernhard, Andrei Jipa, Demetris Shammas, Rena Giesecke, Jesus Medina, Melina Mezari, Matthias Leschok, Timothy Wangler, Nicolas Ruffray, Marco Bahr
项目支持:Ana Anton, Patrick Bedarf, Philippe Steiner, Ioanis Fousekis, Lorenz Brunner, Leander Peper, Xijie Ma, Michael Lyrenmann, Philippe Fleischmann, Andreas Reusser, Heinz Richner, Eleni Chatzi, Vasileios Ntertimanis, Harmanci Yunus Emre, Andreas Wieser, Robert Presl, Eugenio Serantoni, Valens Frangez, Adi Grüninger

Project credits:
Leading investigators: Benjamin Dillenburger, Robert Flatt, Joseph Schwartz
Contributing researchers: Mania Aghaei Meibodi (Project lead), Mathias Bernhard, Andrei Jipa, Demetris Shammas, Rena Giesecke, Jesus Medina, Melina Mezari, Matthias Leschok, Timothy Wangler, Nicolas Ruffray, Marco Bahr
Support: Ana Anton, Patrick Bedarf, Philippe Steiner, Ioanis Fousekis, Lorenz Brunner, Leander Peper, Xijie Ma, Michael Lyrenmann, Philippe Fleischmann, Andreas Reusser, Heinz Richner, Eleni Chatzi, Vasileios Ntertimanis, Harmanci Yunus Emre, Andreas Wieser, Robert Presl, Eugenio Serantoni, Valens Frangez, Adi Grüninger

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