网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
以美国为例:高铁车站的设计应该考虑哪些建筑与城市因素?第1张图片

Courtesy of Flickr user Andrew Stawarz. ImageKing's Cross Station Concourse / John McAslan + Partners

美国高铁:遥不可及还是触手可及?
High Speed Rail in the US: Myth or Near-Future Possibility?

由专筑网李韧,吴静雅编译

在欧洲、亚洲,以及许多发达国家,高铁四通八达,非常方便,无论是商务出行还是休闲娱乐,人们都常常会选择高效的高铁,这个全线贯通的铁路交通网络可以让人们轻松及时并舒适地去往目的地。这些列车有时能以每小时350公里的速度运行,但速度并不是高铁的唯一要素,例如欧洲的火车站是城市历史文化的重要组成部分,这些交通建筑不仅仅承载着人们的出行目的,还为更大的集体提供广泛的服务;在许多新车站的建造与旧车站的翻修项目中,这些建筑同时还具有商业、娱乐、市民集散等功能。

随着美国加利福尼亚州和德克萨斯州的高速铁路系统逐步发展,城市规划者和设计师该通过何种方式让这些建筑项目在美国取得成功呢?

在美国的规划高速铁路时,当地社区成员和利益相关方团体在设计过程中十分理解高速铁路系统的高效性、舒适性,以及整体效益,这些特征在欧洲尤为明显。

但是,美国的情况却大不相同,我们常常会问到:“如何才能使高速铁路系统发挥作用?”从欧洲的情况我们可以学到许多东西,但是美国独特的城市文化、历史、物理特征需要一些针对性策略,因此,总结为以下三点需要考虑:

In Europe, Asia and much of the developed world, high speed rail is convenient and accessible. Whether for business or pleasure, travelers are served by an efficient and extensive rail network that connects passengers to the desired destination on time and with relatively little effort. Although these train systems can travel as fast as 350 kilometers per hour, speed is not the only important factor. Rail stations in Europe, for example, are an integral part of the historic urban fabric. These facilities are often perceived as civic destinations that play a fundamental role in the mobility system, providing a wide range of services for the larger collective; shopping, entertainment, commercial and civic uses are often paired with transit services as new stations are built and historic stations are retrofitted.
But as California and Texas embark on the development of high speed rail, how can urban planners and designers ensure the success of such systems in the US?
When planning for high speed rail in the US, many of the local community members and stakeholder groups that we engage in our design process understand the efficiency, comfort and overall benefits of high speed rail especially as it functions in Europe.
However, the American landscape is quite different, and one recurring question we are asked is: “How do we make it work here?” While there are many lessons we can learn from Europe, the unique culture, history and physical attributes of US cities require tailored strategies. Here are three to consider:

以美国为例:高铁车站的设计应该考虑哪些建筑与城市因素?第2张图片

Sacramento Valleys Station Master Plan. Image Courtesy of Perkins + Will

建立目的地

在进行车站设计之前,重要的是先理解城市的背景文脉。虽然欧洲的大多数高铁站都位于大城市的核心地区,但在美国却并非如此。基础设施的高成本和对私人建筑的影响等因素使得交通建筑都建造在城市的郊区,甚至建造于城市边缘地带。即使位于城市核心区域的车站,但由于缺乏功能多样性和密集的人口支持,其发展潜力则被大大削弱。高效、长距离的铁路系统是城市可持续发展的重要催化剂,同时也会对城市的经济发展做出贡献。高铁系统让人们重新构思许多美国城市的社会环境,同时有机会引入全新的以人为本而非汽车的新城市空间。

Perkins + Will事务所设计的Sacramento山谷车站的目的是建立功能齐全、性能优化的交通设施,同时也为城市建立全新的门户。车站区域的设计克服了场地周边环境的物理障碍,例如有北侧的现有铁路系统、I-5高架桥、5号大街立交桥,最终展示了城市的文化与特征。建筑师还将餐厅、艺术、公共集散空间和车站功能相结合,从而克服重重物理障碍,让人们能够聚集于此。

全新的开放空间系统和现有道路的扩建让人们能够更加便捷地来到车站场地、Old Sacramento历史地区、美国河流和道路。设计方案布局是跨越现有铁路线路的桥梁,将现有铁路体系、Sacramento山谷车站,以及铁路中心商业区连接在一起。规划公共区域和历史建筑再利用策略为社区的各项活动提供了适宜的场所,其中包括餐厅、咖啡厅、艺术展馆、农贸市场等等,整个车站区域也因此成为了市民活动的新去处。

项目总体规划结合了多种功能,其中包括就业、住房、当地与区域设施,而这些设施将利用邻近交通,形成安全且具有吸引力的城市环境。整体规划框架促进了车站区域和整座城市的全新发展。

Establish a destination
Before even designing the station, it is important to first plan for its context. While high speed rail stations all across Europe are, for the vast majority, at the heart of vibrant cities, in the US this is rarely the case. The high cost of infrastructure and the impact on private properties often pushes stations towards the outskirts of downtown and in some cases at the edge of the city limits. Even when the station is located within downtown the lack of a supportive mix of uses and population densities frequently undermines the potential of rail interventions. Highly efficient, long-range rail connectivity is a critical asset and a catalyst for sustainable urban development that can positively contribute to local economic growth. High speed rail provides an opportunity to rethink the urban environment of many American cities as well as a chance to introduce new urban spaces that are centered on people, not cars.
The design for Perkins + Will's Sacramento Valley Station aims to establish not only a functional and performing transit facility but a true gateway for the city as a whole. The new station area is designed to overcome the physical barriers surrounding the site such as the existing rail alignment to the north, the I-5 viaduct, and the 5th street overpass, and ultimately showcase the city’s culture and identity. By incorporating restaurants, art, and public gathering spaces into the design of the new station, we are able to overcome the physical barriers and bring people together.
A new system of open spaces and the extension of the existing street grids provide greater access to the site, the Old Sacramento historic district, the American River and trails. The proposed station layout acts as a bridge straddling the existing rail alignment connecting the historic Sacramento Valley Station to the Railyards Central Shops. A well programmed public realm and the strategic adaptive reuse of historic structures provide opportunities for community gatherings as restaurants, cafes, art galleries, farmers markets, etc. delivering a distinct sense of place that supports and celebrates the station as a new welcoming civic destination.
The master plan introduces a carefully balanced mix of uses such as jobs, housing, local and regional amenities that will leverage the proximity to transit and support a safe and engaging urban environment. This framework is instrumental in attracting new development both within and beyond the station area.

以美国为例:高铁车站的设计应该考虑哪些建筑与城市因素?第3张图片

BART Station Experience Design Guidelines. Image Courtesy of Perkins + Will

大众吸引力

如今,美国铁路服务与美国人民更习惯使用的的出行方式相竞争。汽车和飞机仍然是美国人出行的首选,为了让当前与未来的铁路服务取得成功,重要的不仅仅是确保其高效性,同时也要让铁路系统具有大众吸引力。

以汽车经销商为例,他们在向消费者推荐最新车型时,汽车广告会简要地描述其规格与性能,他们所销售的是一种独特的体验。那么同样地,在规划高铁系统的时,体验便成为了设计过程的核心部分。城市规划者和设计师们的任务是确保旅客能够以高效便捷的方式到达目的地,同时在这个过程中要保持有舒适的体验感受。美国的当前交通市场以汽车为主要导向,如果要让高铁系统打入市场,那么首先建立的便是用户体验,而这种体验并非只来源于单纯的建筑造型。

如果项目需要在各个阶段顺利完工,那么首先考虑跨学科策略,这种方法能够能够室内外的空间界限,结合诸如活跃性、公共空间、开放式地面层、建筑特征、标识系统等要素,同时需要把这些元素和车站空间及其周边环境连接起来。

清晰明确的设计方案是完成这些目标的重要步骤,诸如BART等交通部门也同样鼓励采取此类方案。

Attract an Audience
Today, US rail services compete with other modes of transportation that Americans are much more accustomed to using. Cars and airplanes play an undisputed role in the American mobility system. In order to make existing and future rail services successful, it is important to not only ensure efficiency, but also make rail travel appealing.
As consumers are presented with the latest model, car commercials briefly describe specifications and performance; what they are really sold on is a distinctive experience. Similarly, when planning for high speed rail, experience must be at the center of the design process. Urban planners and designers are tasked with making sure that the journey from origin to destination is efficient, convenient, and most of all pleasant. In order to create a competitive transit service that can break into a car-dominated US market, we must work to establish an appealing user experience that does not end at the station front door.
A cross-disciplinary approach is needed in order to deliver a project that successfully addresses each stage of the customer journey. This method leads to a design that blurs the lines between indoor and outdoor, letting elements such as mobility, public realm, active ground floor uses, identity, and wayfinding seamlessly extends into a continuous ground plane of activities serving the station and its surroundings.
Setting clear experience design guidelines is a fundamental step towards achieving this goal and transit authorities, such as BART, are incorporating this approach more frequently.

以美国为例:高铁车站的设计应该考虑哪些建筑与城市因素?第4张图片

Confidential US High-Speed Rail Station Area Plan. Image Courtesy of Perkins + Will

形成交通网络

最后,火车站最为重要的特征便是流动性,在欧洲的一些最成功站点,人们下了火车,便能无缝连接到诸如地铁等其他交通系统之中,这样能够更加便捷地将人们带往最终目的场所。高铁系统能够将人们运输至不同地点,减少了私人汽车的使用,同时让人们的旅途舒适畅通。但就美国而言,许多城市缺乏成熟的当地交通网络,而许多城市仍然以汽车为主要交通导向,这些都是高铁车站项目的主要挑战。因此在规划时,建筑师需要结合考量所有本地交通服务,将其与车站区域相结合,减少旅客们的多余选项,优化诸如步行、自行车等空间效率高的交通方式。

如今,美国正处在流动性改革之中,诸如Uber、Lyft,及其他共享平台等交通网络技术不断地冲击着人们的生活,如果管理得当,那么这些平台也许能够解决美国许多城市社区的诸多问题,结合考虑这一点,高铁车站便应该提升其自身的联合运输性能,从而为快速发展的交通系统提供相应的服务。美国的车站不仅能够、而且应当成为上班族、游客、当地社区居民的首要选择,同时应该建造于多功能城市环境的核心部分,因为在这样的环境中,其自身的建筑功能才能得到最大化利用。

Luca Giaramidaro是Perkins+Will事务所的联合城市设计师,为各种规模的项目进行设计规划工作,其中包括转换车站、多功能城市规划项目、多功能交通项目。Luca就职于加利福尼亚州,其项目地点遍布全美及国际,其中有亚洲、南美洲,以及中东地区。

Provide a Network
Ultimately, a rail station primarily requires strong mobility. As we step off the train in some of the most successful stations in Europe, we are immediately connected to a range of mobility options that will easily bring us to our final destination. High speed rail relies on the ability to effortlessly transition from regional to local transit, minimizing the need for private vehicles in order to cover the first and last segment of the journey. The lack of a mature local transit network and a prevailing car-centered culture are some of the main challenges of implementing rail infrastructure in the US. When planning for it, we need to ensure that all local transit services are integrated into the station area, minimizing conflicting options and prioritizing space-efficient modes of transportation such as walking and biking.
Today, the US is at the epicenter of a mobility revolution. Transportation network technologies, such as Uber, Lyft, and other ride-sharing platforms are radically disrupting the way we move and, if well regulated, they have the potential to solve endemic challenges of many communities across America. With this in mind, high speed rail stations should be elevated to multimodal transit hubs, capable of serving a fast-changing mobility ecosystem. Stations in the US can - and should - be new landmark destinations for commuters, visitors and local communities alike, placed at the core of successful, vibrant mixed-use urban environments that strategically leverage access to transit.
Luca Giaramidaro is an associate and urban designer at Perkins+Will, providing design, planning and programmatic services for a diverse range of projects, including transit stations, large-scale mixed use, infill and brownfield urban development, mixed use regeneration and transportation enhancement. Luca works in California, throughout the U.S. and internationally, including Asia, South America and the Middle East.

【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

新闻 (517 articles)


建筑 (9856 articles)


交通建筑 (264 articles)


美国 (1213 articles)


Perkins + Will (10 articles)


2018 (633 articles)