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你一定听过关于E-1027号住宅的历史往事第1张图片


艾琳•格雷,勒•柯布西耶和E-1027号住宅:一个关于建筑与丑闻的故事
Eileen Grey, Le Corbusier, and the E-1027 House: A Tale of Architecture and Scandal

由专筑网邢子,王帅编译

这篇文章最初发表在《都市》杂志上,题为《艾琳•格雷标志性的E-1027号住宅的肮脏传奇》。

可以说,艾琳•格雷(Eileen Grey)的E-1027号法国别墅并不像人们想象的那样迷人:它经受了勒•柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)的亵渎,经受了纳粹的射击练习,充当过毒窟和狂欢之地,并且几近荒废。然而,最近这座房子的未来看起来却更加乐观:Cap Moderne是一家致力于修复和开放建筑作为文化地点的非营利组织,他们最近发起了一项众筹活动来继续这栋建筑的修复工作。在过去的几年里,自然保护主义者主要致力于建筑中艾琳•格雷设计的家具的重现。最近的关注都集中在一个特殊的餐厅上。餐厅,包括整个房子是如何丢失了家具并且陷入年久失修的地步,这是一个漫长而充满曲折的故事。

This article was originally published by Metropolis Magazine as "The Sordid Saga of Eileen Gray’s Iconic E-1027 House."
It’s fair to say Eileen Gray’s E-1027 French villa hasn’t lived a charmed life: It has survived desecration by Le Corbusier, target practice by the Nazis, a stint as drug den and orgy destination, and near dereliction. However, of late, the infamous house’s future is looking more optimistic: Cap Moderne, a non-profit dedicated to rehabbing and opening the building as a cultural destination, recently launched a crowdfunding campaign to continue the building’s restoration. Over the last few years, the conservationists’work had focused on the recreation of the building’s Eileen Gray–designed furniture. The latest efforts focus on a particular dining alcove. How that alcove—and the entire house—lost its furniture and fell into disrepair is a long story, with many twists and turns.

你一定听过关于E-1027号住宅的历史往事第2张图片


这栋房子肯定有过乐观并且理想化的开端。格雷在1929年出版的《L'Architecture Vivante》杂志中写道:“一个只有为人类而建造的人才能在建筑中重新发现成就自我的乐趣,并将其扩展完善。”“即使是家具也应该融入建筑整体。”这栋别墅原本是为格雷和她当时的情人让•巴多维奇(Jean Badovici)所设计的一个安静的修养场所。让•巴多维奇是罗马尼亚建筑师、评论家以及《L'Architecture Vivante》的编辑,他对项目的设计做出了一部分贡献。

这栋别墅坐落在马丁崖岬上的一个白色长方体,是一座现代主义建筑。它采用了勒•柯布西耶(Le Corbusier)在1923年出版的开创性著作《走向新建筑》中提出的新建筑五点元素(混凝土桩、开放式平面、屋顶花园、水平窗户以及“自由”立面)。

然而,尽管柯布西耶呼吁内外开放,但隐私才是E-1027号住宅的主要目的。在外部,落地式手风琴窗向着地中海开敞,带来光线和视野,而滚动的百叶窗以及两条帆布则遮住了别墅内部的视线,从而也阻挡了强烈的午后阳光,并且勾勒出美丽的海滨景观。

The house certainly had optimistic—and idealistic—beginnings. “One must build for the human being, that he might rediscover in the architectural construction the joys of self-fulfillment in a whole that extends and completes him,” Gray wrote in the 1929 issue of L’Architecture Vivante. “Even the furnishings should lose their individuality by blending in with the architectural ensemble.” The villa was intended as a peaceful retreat for Gray and her then lover, Romanian architect, critic, and editor of L’Architecture Vivante, Jean Badovici, who had partially contributed to the project’s design.
The villa—essentially a white rectangle perched upon the Cap-Martin cliff face—is clearly a Modernist building. It adopts some aspects of Le Corbusier’s five points of new architecture (concrete piles, open plan rooms, a roof garden, horizontal windows and a “free” facade) which the Swiss-French architect had published in his seminal 1923 book Vers Une Architecture.
However, despite Corbusier’s call for openness within and without, privacy is a main objective of E-1027. On the exterior, floor-to-ceiling concertina windows open to the Mediterranean Sea, providing light and views, yet rolling shutters and two strips of canvas shield the villa’s interiors from being seen, thereby also blocking harsh afternoon sunlight and framing the seaside vista.

你一定听过关于E-1027号住宅的历史往事第3张图片


在内部,房子没有使用开放的平面。它的内部空间并没有立即被显露出来:房间是等待被发现的私人空间。例如,想要进入卧室或客厅兼卧室,就需要绕过一些拐角。此外,考虑到房子紧凑的面积(1400平方英尺)和许多房间,格雷非常有效地利用了空间。通常情况下,这种限制会闪现出巧妙的创新解决方案:打开的衣橱变成墙壁,客厅沙发变成床,整套橱柜以及其他定制家具要么嵌入,要么与房子的其他部分融为一体。

这种独创性最突出的例子就是“E-1027号桌子”。这是为格雷的妹妹设计的,这样她就可以在床上吃早餐而不会把面包屑弄到床单上,这是一件经典的现代家具。桌子由两个钢管圆环组成,其开口底座与床柱匹配;设计的高度也是可以调整的,所以桌子悬空于床上。

然而,对于格雷所做的工作,直到1967年约瑟夫•里克沃特(Joseph Rykwert)写的一篇的文章才给予了她应得的认可。而那时,这座房子已经完全被认为是巴多维奇甚至勒•柯布西耶的作品。

Inside, the house refrains from using an open plan. Its interior spaces aren’t immediately revealed: Rooms are private places waiting to be discovered. Entering either the bedroom or living room-cum-boudoir, for example, requires walking around a series of corners. Furthermore, given the house’s compact size (1,400 square feet) and many rooms, Gray was meticulously efficient with space. Such constraints, as is commonly the case, led to delightfully innovative workarounds: Wardrobes open to become walls, the living room sofa turns into a bed, and a whole host of cupboards and other bespoke furnishings are either embedded or intrinsically in tune with the rest of the house.
The most prominent example of this ingenuity is the “E-1027 table.” Designed for Gray’s sister so she could eat breakfast in bed without getting crumbs in the sheets, it is a classic piece of Modernist furniture. The table comprises two steel tube circles whose open base fits around a bed post; the design’s height is also adjustable so the table can hover over the bed.
For all the work done by Gray, however, it took an essay by Joseph Rykwert in 1967 to bring her deserved recognition. By that time, the house had been credited as entirely the work of Badovici and even Le Corbusier.

你一定听过关于E-1027号住宅的历史往事第4张图片


事实上,勒•柯布西耶是巴多维奇的好朋友,并且对E-1027号住宅很着迷。在格雷和巴多维奇于1932年分手后,巴多维奇继承了这所房子并经常与妻子待在这里。做为巴多维奇的客人,勒•柯布西耶违背了格雷的意愿,在墙上画了壁画。这位法裔瑞士建筑师甚至试图买下这栋房子,但以失败告终,他转而购买了附近的一处房产,并在那里建了一间小屋,名为假日小屋。

在第二次世界大战期间,这种情况继续恶化,当时德国士兵在E-1027号住宅的墙上练习射击。接下来出现的则是死亡。1965年8月27日,勒•柯布西耶的尸体被冲到下面的海岸上,他违背医生的叮嘱,在游泳后被淹死了。在那之后,住宅和周边区域因其国际意义而被宣布为现代遗址。然而,即使这样也没能挽救别墅的困境。

更多的死亡随之而来。1980年,E-1027号住宅的主人Marie-Louise Schelbert被发现死在苏黎世的公寓里。三天前,她的医生彼得•卡吉(Peter Kagi)偷偷顺走了几乎所有格雷的原创家具,并在苏黎世进行了拍卖。Schelbert死后,卡吉继承了这座房子,并利用它举办了一系列的享乐活动,尤其是毒品的狂欢。1996年,当他在客厅被谋杀时,这一切都结束了。

如今,这栋房子终于得到了应有的待遇。1999年,这座别墅被滨海音乐学院(一所文化音乐学院)买下,从那以后,又进行了几次修缮工作。最近的一次修缮是由Cap Moderne组织的,Cap Moderne成立于2014年,负责管理E-1027号住宅以及柯布西耶邻近的小屋。“我们已经采取了在许多保护方式中并不流行的立场,来重建那些被摧毁的东西,或多或少地重现1929年的情况,”Cap Moderne的受托人,专攻20世纪建筑艺术史教授Tim Benton这样表示。就在2006年,这栋别墅还处于荒废的状态,起居室和卧室的屏风仍旧破烂不堪。

In fact, Le Corbusier was a good friend of Badovici’s and was obsessed with E-1027. After Gray and Badovici split in 1932, Badovici inherited the house and often stayed there with his wife. Against Gray’s wishes, Le Corbusier, as Bodovici’s guest, painted murals on the walls. The French-Swiss architect even tried to buy the house but failed, instead purchasing property nearby where he built a small cabin, the Cabanon de vacances.
The degradation continued during World War II when German soldiers practiced their aim against E-1027’s walls. Actual death came next. On August 27, 1965, Le Corbusier’s body washed up on the shores below, having drowned after going swimming against his doctor’s orders. After that, the house and surrounding area were declared a “Site Moderne” due to their international significance. Even that, however, didn’t halt the villa’s plight.
More death was to follow. In 1980, E-1027’s then-owner, Marie-Louise Schelbert was found dead in her flat in Zurich. Three days prior, her physician, Dr. Peter Kägi had secretly snuck almost all of Gray’s original furniture out and auctioned it off in Zurich. When Schelbert died, Kägi inherited the house, using it host an array of hedonistic affairs, notably drug-fueled orgies. In 1996, this came to an end when he was murdered in the living room.
Now, finally, the house is being looked after. In 1999, the villa was bought by the Conservatoire du littoral (a cultural conservatory) and since then several efforts have been made to restore the house. The latest is by Cap Moderne, which was set up in 2014 to manage E-1027 as well as Le Corbusier’s adjacent cabin.“We have taken the position, which is not fashionable in many conservation courses, to reconstruct [that] which had been destroyed to more or less the 1929 situation,” says Tim Benton, a trustee of Cap Moderne and art history professor specializing in 20th century architecture. As recently as 2006, the villa was in a dilapidated state, the living room-boudoir screen wall was in tatters.

你一定听过关于E-1027号住宅的历史往事第5张图片


Benton指着家具说:“几乎所有的东西都会被重新制作。”Cap Moderne的目标是筹集到5万美元,法国政府则将一比一对等捐款。这笔钱将用于重新装修别墅的餐厅,包括一张带有内置电灯和软木塞的餐桌,用来保护盘子和玻璃杯,还有一个特制的柠檬容器(Menton柠檬曾经是当地的特产)。此外,协会还着重于重现格雷设计的独特的椅子,以及餐厅内可折叠的、打开凹槽就会把走廊变成酒吧的桌子。

Benton说:“这座住宅是现代晚期100座重要建筑之一,然而这座房子的室内设计却是世界上最重要的四大现代室内设计之一。这就是为什么我们要用同样的工具,同样的材料,同样的工艺来重新制作这些家具的原因。"

图片:Manuel Bougot

“Almost everything has, or is being, or will be redone,” Benton adds, pointing to the furniture. Cap Moderne aims to raise up to $50,000, with the French government matching donations dollar-for-dollar. The money will go towards refurnishing the villa’s dining alcove, including a dining table with an in-built electric light and cork top designed to protect plates and glasses, and a specially made lemon container (Menton lemons were once a regional specialty). Furthermore, the association has its eyes on recreating Gray’s Non Conformist chair and a fold-able table within the dining alcove that opens up to turn the corridor into a bar.
“Left empty, this is one of 100 important houses of the late Modern period,” says Benton. “But the interior is one of [the] four most important modern interiors in the world. This why we are remaking the furniture with the same tools, the same materials, the same processes as the originals.”

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