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儿童乐园设计项目——Monstrum
PLAYGROUD DESIGN——Monstrum

由专筑网亚森君,李韧编译

丹麦儿童乐园设计事务所Monstrum彻底改变了儿童乐园的单一功能状态,并创造了别具一格的社区儿童游乐空间。针对此项议题,事务所创始人Ole Barslund Nielsen向Kath Hudson讲述了在儿童乐园中设置标志性的巨熊构筑物与探险空间的必要性。

当前各个年龄层的居民进行户外活动的机会似乎越来越少。2016年,一项由英国政府投资的研究显示,孩子们在户外玩耍的时间已大幅减少,约有10%的孩子已经12个月没有去公园、森林或海滩了。或许科技的进步是造成此种现象的因素,但外出时间减少、对未知的恐惧及缺乏户外活动机会等才是主要的原因。

在这种情况下,设计一处可达性强、具有挑战性以及能激发人们运动意识的乐园就变得尤为重要了。Monstrum事务所的任务就是负责激活玩乐的区域,打造出充满想象力的空间,以时髦的色彩和精美的制作、超大型的动物构筑物引领大众开启冒险之旅。

该事务所的联合创始人Barslund Nielsen表示,他的工作就是创造一处叙事空间,激发游客的玩乐兴趣,给每个人都带来快乐。在乐园中设置的装置,不仅仅是用来玩耍的设备,它们也是雕塑,能为地区带来身份认同,比如瑞典Partille的一座小公园因其巨大的海狸而闻名,当地人就给它起了个绰号叫“Justin Biever”。

Danish playground designers Monstrum have revolutionised playgrounds, creating statement spaces which become landmarks for their neighbourhood. Founder Ole Barslund Nielsen speaks to Kath Hudson about giant bears and the need for risk
The opportunity for unstructured outdoor play seems to diminish with each generation. A 2016 study, funded by the UK government, revealed that time spent playing outside has shrunk drastically, and 10 per cent of children hadn’t been to a park, forest or beach for 12 months. Technology is partly to blame, but also time, fear and a shortage of opportunities play a part.
Given this situation, accessible, challenging and inspiring playgrounds are vitally important. Monstrum is on a mission to liven up play areas, creating wildly imaginative spaces that feature funky colours and beautifully crafted, oversized creatures which lead the way to adventures.
Co founder Barslund Nielsen says his job is to create spaces which tell a story, inspiring play and bringing smiles to both users and passers by. The installations are about more than just play equipment, they are sculptures which create an identity for an area: a small park in Partille, Sweden, has become famous for its giant beaver, nicknamed Justin Biever by the locals.

如何设计玩乐空间?来自Monstrum的经验之谈第1张图片

Ole Barslund Nielsen与Christian Jensen共同创立了Monstrum。两人在剧院布景工作时相识/Ole Barslund Nielsen founded Monstrum in 2003 with Christian Jensen. The two met when working in theatre scenography

你为何会选择儿童乐园这个设计方向?

2003年,当我还在剧院进行布景工作时,我受委托重新设计我儿子日托中心的游乐场,自那时起,我就意识到这就是我想做的工作方向,因为儿童乐园是艺术与建筑的完美融合。当时,所有的儿童乐园都很统一,没有人在意儿童乐园的叙事性。至此,我开始意识到,市场上对于设计创意还存在较大缺口。

Monstrum希望,人们在儿童乐园中每次都有不同的体验,同时儿童乐园也应该让每个经过它的人都能被吸引驻足。当然,这样的想法仅仅依靠秋千、滑梯和色彩搭配是实现不了的,我们坚信,还应该让儿童乐园具有故事性,无论故事的主题是鲜花还是海底世界,所讲述的故事都会加深人们对于乐园的感知和印象。当然故事本身也会赋予儿童乐园一个特征,比如,人们或许会说“到鹦鹉那儿去聚会”。

“失败和跌倒可能是件好事”

怎样的儿童乐园才是好场所?

儿童乐园必须同时满足适宜性与冒险性,且不同年龄段的小朋友应该有各自明确的玩乐区域。尚处年幼的小朋友十分需要安全感、父母在一旁的陪伴和一些适度的挑战。学龄儿童的乐园则需要满足可竞速、连续性以及某些幼儿暂时不适合使用的元素等条件,比如一个幼儿无法自由进出的较高的洞穴。

小孩子会从大孩子玩乐的技能和机会中受到启发,而大孩子会在每一次小小的胜利中发现自己的进步,从而激励他们变得更高、更强、更快。一个好的游乐场也会有风险。爬墙并不是一定要爬到山顶,而是要在爬的过程中享受攀爬的乐趣与刺激。所以,对小朋友们来说,失败和跌倒可能是一件好事。

你如何发展公司?

我们的营销策略相对被动,因为我们没有销售部和市场部。我们的作品就是我们的营销产品,我们的客户都认同丹麦的设计传统。

这种方法促使我们能够从一家小型事务所发展成为一家80%的儿童乐园产品都出口的公司。目前,我们与诸如中国、美国、英国、墨西哥、香港、俄罗斯等世界各地的客户都保持着良好的往来,当然我们也期望能够在将来有更大的作为。

景观设计师们也越来越重视儿童乐园,我们也开始受邀在项目初始阶段即开始进行设计工作,而不是等其他项目做完后再由我们收尾。这些改变都十分有益。

有没有突破性的项目?

在我看来,2015年在丹麦第二大城市和主要港口奥尔胡斯的Dokk1,就是这类突破性的项目。建筑师Schmidt Hammer Lassen希望我们创造一些标志性的东西。这所乐园是为一座大图书馆所设,因此我们就把它当做了整个项目最核心的部分来进行设计。我们在这座乐园里设置了许多关于自然、动物、风景、地质和文化的故事,比如东边是俄罗斯的熊、西边是美国的鹰、南边是丛林、北边是冰原等。

我最喜欢的是乐园里7米高的“大熊”,它是整个乐园的标志。孩子们可以爬上它的腿,走进它的身体,然后从它抱着的树干上滑下来。“老鹰”也很有趣,有很多绳子和可供攀爬的道具。丛林里有高高的草,这里有一条“中国龙”,“龙”身上有不同的元素,适合小孩子玩,还有一座“火山”,孩子们可以藏在里面。

“我们与客户共同合作开发出概念和故事,而这也让概念和故事更贴近本土风情”

上层是冰湖、下层是温泉的设计受到所有年龄段人群的喜爱,父母们很想和孩子们一起玩,但又苦于衣服会被弄脏,但在这里的话,这些担忧都将不复存在!

你如何处理一个新项目?

我们与客户共同合作开发出概念和故事,而这也让概念和故事更贴近本土风情。我们有30名建筑师和10名设计师,他们用手绘草图和3D模型来进行设计。

世界各地的发展进程大体上都是相同的,只是会有些微的不一样。例如,在迪拜,你必须考虑太阳光,但在美国,残疾立法意味着我们需要更多关注无障碍设计,以确保所有的孩子都能享受同样的玩耍乐趣。

你目前在做什么?

我们刚刚在北爱尔兰中标了一个非常不错的项目,叫做Gosford冒险乐园。

我们想要讲述一个关于Gulliver船长和Jonathan Swift、以及与他们相关的Gosford森林公园和Armagh的故事,通过融合学习、游戏和冒险三种体验为一体,我们希望创造一个能培养孩子想象力、并激发他们幻想的世界。

我们创造了不同尺度的场景,所以你可以从不同的角度看待这个故事。在其中一个场景中,你会看到小人国的人们绑住了Gulliver。而在另一个场景中,你就成为Gulliver本人,并与蜜蜂搏斗。稍后的其他场景中,你还将看到Jonathan Swift在威廉爵士的宅邸向Esther Johnson求爱。

How did you get into playground design?
When I was working in theatre set design in 2003, I offered to redesign the playground at my son’s daycare centre and realised this was what I wanted to do: it’s a wonderful combination of art and architecture. At the time, all playgrounds were very uniform, and no one was telling stories, so I realised there was a gap in the market for something creative.
Monstrum wants to make different experiences each time and to entice people as they walk by. It’s not just about swings and slides and colours; we believe there has to be a story, which conveys a feeling, whether it’s a flower playground, or an underwater scene. Our playgrounds create an identity for an area – people might talk about ‘meeting at the parrot’.

‘Failing and falling can be a good thing’
What makes a good playground?
Playgrounds must incorporate usability and adventure and have clearly defined areas for different ages. Very young children need security, proximity to parents and small challenges. School children need a playground with speed, consistency and elements which smaller children cannot use, such as a high cave which is difficult to get into.
Small children are inspired by looking at bigger children’s skill and opportunities and the bigger children measure their own progress in the small victories as they get higher, longer and faster. A good playground also has an element of risk. Climbing a wall is not about getting to the top but feeling the thrill in your stomach as you climb. Failing and falling can be a good thing.

How have you grown the company?
We have a passive marketing strategy, with no sales and marketing department. Our work is our marketing and our clients all buy into the Danish design tradition.
This approach has enabled us to evolve from a small company to one where 80 per cent of our playgrounds are exported. Currently, we’re having a really good time working around the world – China, US, UK, Mexico, Hong Kong, Russia – meeting bigger clients with bigger ambitions.
Landscape architects are also developing a better appreciation of the importance of playgrounds and we’re being invited to start work on projects at an earlier stage, as opposed to being saved a square of land at the end. That’s very rewarding.

Was there a breakthrough project?
I think it was Dokk1 in Aarhus, Denmark, in 2015. The architects, Schmidt Hammer Lassen, pushed us to create something iconic. It was for a big library, which we made the centre of the universe. To the east is a Russian bear, to the west is an American eagle, to the south, a jungle and to the north there are ice fields. The five play areas encompass numerous stories about nature, animals, landscapes, geology and culture.
My favourite aspect is the 7m-tall giant bear: he is the park’s icon. Children can climb up his leg, get inside him and then slide down the trunk he holds. The eagle is also fun with lots of rope and climbing opportunities. The jungle has high grass; there is a Chinese dragon with separate elements for smaller kids and a volcano which children can hide inside.

‘We work with the client to develop the concept and story, which reflects the locality’
The sea of ice lakes with springs underneath are really nice for all ages: parents tend to want to play with their kids but are scared of their pants getting dirty, so here they can play without losing their dignity!

How do you approach a new project?
We work with the client to develop the concept and story, which reflects the locality. We have 30 builders and 10 designers who develop the concept with hand sketches and 3D models.
The process is much the same the world over, with just a few differences. For example, in Dubai you have to take the sun into account and the disability legislation in the US means there is more focus on accessibility, to make sure all children have the same play opportunity.

What are you currently working on?
We have just pitched on a really nice project in Northern Ireland called the Gosford Adventure Playtrail.
We want to tell a story about Captain Gulliver and Jonathan Swift’s connection with Gosford forest park and Armagh, in a way which brings learning, play and adventure together as one experience, creating a world which captures kids’ imagination and fires their own fantasies.
We have created scenography in different scales, so you see the story from different perspectives. In one scene you see the Lilliput people tying down Gulliver. In another scene you are Gulliver himself fighting the bees. Later you are Jonathan Swift courting Esther Johnson at Sir William’s mansion.


针鱼餐厅——美国曼哈顿,2018年

如何设计玩乐空间?来自Monstrum的经验之谈第2张图片


“景观设计师Michael Van Valkenburgh讲述了哈德逊河上的海洋生物和港口改造的故事,所以我们想做一些东西来反映和诠释这条河里的动物。”

该乐园建在山上,有可供儿童攀爬和滑下来的斜坡,这也是它的优点之一。主要的元素是22米长的黄色和蓝色“针鱼”,它蜿蜒在海藻、蜗牛和系泊杆之间。这里还有一个大滑梯,向下连接着贝壳雕塑。“针鱼”的身体里有洞,像游戏室一样,小孩子可以在里面玩,可以爬过去,木板上有缝隙,可以往外看,也可以让父母往里看。”

The Needlefish,Manhattan, US 2018
“The landscape architects, Michael Van Valkenburgh, were telling the story of the marine life in the Hudson River and the transformation of the harbour, so we wanted to make something which reflected this and interpreted the fauna of the river.
A nice aspect of the playground is that it’s built on a hill, with slopes for climbing and sliding. The main element is the 22m yellow and blue needlefish which winds its way between seaweed, snails and mooring poles. There is also a large slide which rolls down to sculpted seashells. Inside the needlefish there are cavities, like playhouses, for small children to play inside and crawl through, with gaps in the boards to see out or for parents to look in.”

如何设计玩乐空间?来自Monstrum的经验之谈第3张图片

切尔西水边公园操场上的“针鱼”/The Needlefish at the Chelsea Waterside Park Playground


利塞伯格主题公园,丹麦 哥德堡,2016年

如何设计玩乐空间?来自Monstrum的经验之谈第4张图片

Monstrum创造了一个受水晶宫殿造型启发的攀爬框架/Monstrum created a Crystal Palace-inspired climbing frame

“这是一座充满冒险精神的游乐场,旨在充分利用这里的自然元素,强调花园的设计。他们创造了一座非常对称的维多利亚式花园,并要求我们设计同样风格的东西。我们与建筑师紧密合作,在过山车道下创造了一座游乐场,有很多可发挥的、好玩的东西。”

“我们设计了一座看起来像水晶宫的塔,其中有很多窗户,前面是白色的,后面是花朵,孩子们可以爬上去。这里有一座3D迷宫、一个通往屋顶的梯子,在那里他们可以从窗户往外看,两边都有滑梯,还有一座吊桥通往四个养着巨大金丝雀的鸟笼。”

Liseberg theme park,Gothenburg, Denmark, 2016
“This is a very adventurous playground and was part of Liseberg’s bid to make more of its natural elements and enhance its gardens. They created a very symmetrical Victorian garden and asked us to design something in the same style. We worked closely with the architects to create a playground, in the shadow of a rollercoaster, with numerous playing opportunities.
We made a tower which looks like Crystal Palace: with lots of windows and white on the front, dissolving at the back with flowers, which children can climb up. There is a 3D maze, a ladder to the roof where they can look out through the windows, slides coming out either side and a suspension bridge leading to four bird cages housing giant canaries.”


乐高屋游乐场比隆,丹麦,2017年

如何设计玩乐空间?来自Monstrum的经验之谈第5张图片

Monstrum在比隆新乐高屋的屋顶上设计了九个小操场/Monstrum designed nine small playgrounds on the roof of the new Lego House in Billund

“这是一个标志性的项目,直接与乐高设计师和建筑师合作,在新乐高屋的屋顶上创建游乐场,由BIG设计。我们与乐高合作产生了很多灵感,包括同样游戏与故事感受。”

“我们谈了很多,也有很多想法,但最终确定的主题是如何去乐高屋。因此,这九个游乐场都讲述着与交通有关的故事,例如,火箭被云层包围,孩子们可以骑着骆驼去看日落,被鲨鱼追赶的冲浪板,被海怪损坏的潜水艇,还有一片有小动物的森林。”

“这是非常成功的,孩子们会积极地从一个地方跑到另一个地方,以免错过一些神奇的体验。从时间上来说,这也是一个挑战,因为屋顶的位置带来了很多后勤方面的挑战。”

The Legohouse playground,Billund, Denmark 2017
“This was an iconic project to work directly with the Lego designers and architects to create playgrounds on the roof of the new Lego house, designed by BIG. We have lots of synergies with Lego including the same sense of play, and storytelling.
We had lots of talks and ideas but settled on the theme of how to get to the Lego House. So the nine playgrounds all tell stories involving transport: there is the rocket surrounded by clouds, a camel which children can ride into the sunset on, surfboards being chased by a shark, a submarine which has been damaged by a sea monster, and a wood with small woodland animals.
It is very successful: the children dash from place to place afraid they will miss out on something. It was challenging in terms of time scale and the rooftop location threw up many logistical challenges.”

如何设计玩乐空间?来自Monstrum的经验之谈第6张图片

乐高屋游乐场以旅行为主题,成为灵感来源/The Lego House playgrounds took the theme of travel as their inspiration

如何设计玩乐空间?来自Monstrum的经验之谈第7张图片


如何设计玩乐空间?来自Monstrum的经验之谈第8张图片


如何设计玩乐空间?来自Monstrum的经验之谈第9张图片

丹麦Aarhus的 Dokk1火山/The Volcano at Dokk1 in Aarhus, Denmark

如何设计玩乐空间?来自Monstrum的经验之谈第10张图片


如何设计玩乐空间?来自Monstrum的经验之谈第11张图片

一只大熊守卫着奥尔胡斯的港口。这座游乐场是Schmidt Hammer Lassen的Dokk1图书馆项目的一部分/A giant bear watches over Aarhus’s harbour. The playground is part of Schmidt Hammer Lassen’s Dokk1 library project


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