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50 Years After the Moon Landing: 15 Architecture Projects for Life in Space

由专筑网小R,王雪纯编译

7月20号是阿波罗11号登月的50周年纪念日,这艘飞船于1969年7月16日离开地球,4天后登月成功,这是人类历史上的里程碑,不断激励我们对航空技术的探索。

通过3D打印机、高度发展与自动化施工技术,人们开始想象在太空中建房子,以下是15个典型建筑概念项目案例:

This past July 20th was the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 Mission, which departed Earth on July 16, 1969 and touched down on the moon 4 days later. This moment marked a milestone for humanity and, to this day, makes us reflect on how technological progress is bringing us ever closer to life beyond planet Earth.
With the help of 3D printers, highly developed and fully automated constructive technology, we have compiled a selection of 15 architectural projects that demonstrate that life on the moon and beyond is closer than we've ever imagined.


月球上的建筑

居住月球 / 福斯特建筑事务所

福斯特建筑事务所在2012年与欧洲航天局(ESA)共同合作,开发了一个名为“居住月球”的项目,建筑师研究设计了太空住宅区域,可以住进4个人。在方案中,建筑师利用3D打印技术在月球的南极建造了住宅,因为这里有着充足的阳光照射。

Architecture for Living on the Moon
LUNAR LIVING / Foster + Partners

In collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), in 2012 Foster + Partners presented a project titled "Lunar Habitation," a space residence developed through study and experimentation that could house up to four people. With their proposal, the architects behind the project explore the possibility of using 3D printing to construct housing at the Moon's south pole, where sunlight permanently shines.

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Image Cortesía de Foster & Partners

月亮村落 / SOM

“月亮村落”项目由欧洲航天局(ESA)和麻省理工学院(MIT)共同开发,该项目是一个人类住宅区,它具有一定的持久性,同时能够自给自足,是人类位于月球上的居住场所。这个项目于2019年提出,由SOM建筑事务所规划、设计、开发。

MOON VILLAGE/ SOM
Developed in collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the Moon Village project was established as the first human settlement that, through emphasizing durability and self-sufficiency, could be the first permanent human settlement on the Moon. This multidisciplinary project, to be presented in 2019, will be planned, designed, and developed by SOM.

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Image © SOM / Slashcube GmbH

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Image © SOM / Slashcube GmbH


测试实验 / Monika Lipinska, Laura Nadine Olivier and Inci Lize Ogun

“测试实验”项目是“Moontopia”国际设计大赛的获奖项目,这个空间同样能够自给自足,人们可以在此居住、工作与研究。美国航天局的评审团从数以百计的作品中将它挑选而出,评审团由专业建筑师、学者、设计师共同组成。这座建筑可以通过3D打印的方式制作而成,并且能够进行后期的装卸,从而满足迁徙的需求。

TEST LAB / Monika Lipinska, Laura Nadine Olivier and Inci Lize Ogun
The Test Lab project is the winner of the "Moontopia" international design contest and stands out as self-sustaining lunar settlement, designed as a place for living, working, and research. Out of hundreds of entries, it was chosen by a jury of spacial architects, academics, and designers from NASA. The structure's design allows it to expand on completely on its own by using an auto-assembly method of 3D printing, enabling the gradual colonization of the Moon over time.

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Image Cortesía de Eleven Magazine

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Image Cortesía de Eleven Magazine


MOMENTUM VIRIUM in L1 / Sergio Bianchi, Jonghak Kim, Simone Fracasso, Alejandro Jorge Velazco Ramirez

“Momentun Virium”项目的地理位置非常特殊,既然月亮是一颗卫星,它也有着完整的表面,人们也许有能够在此生活的那一天,因此在设计方案中,建筑师将建筑放置在月球的轨道之上,通过电梯将这座太空城市和月球表面连接起来,整个项目充满了诗意与科幻质感。

The Momentun Virium Project is distinguished by its interesting placement. Understanding that the Moon is a natural satellite and that its integrity should not be obstructed by human constructions, the architects behind the project proposed placing their structure in Moon's orbit instead of on its surface. An elevator would link this space-city with the lunar surface below, providing a sensible and elegant solution that combines poetry and science fiction.

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Image Cortesía de Eleven Magazine

15个太空项目,迁居宇宙离我们有多远?第8张图片

Image Cortesía de Eleven Magazine


MODULPIA / Alessandro Giorgi, Cai Feng, Siyuan PanEsteban Analuiza


“Modulpia”项目具有模块化特征,这座建筑能够随着时间的流逝而进行有机地伸展,这里有植物供应氧气,并且分解二氧化碳,同时还能够进行自我的食物补给,另外通过灰水净化系统供应饮用水,表达了生物的再生概念。建筑师在这个项目中应用了一个名为“Weair-Phelan”的结构体系,构成了具有延伸特征的景观体系,让人们以经济、可持续的方式生活在月球之中。

With modular characteristics, Modulpia is a structure that could organically expand itself over time and supply its own food by using plants that would provide oxygen and dispose of CO2 while also providing drinking water through greywater purification -- embodying the concept of bio-regeneration. By using a structural system called Weair-Phelan, the project proposes to generate an expandable landscape that would allow us to inhabit the Moon using relatively economical, sustainable, and simple means.  

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Image Cortesía de Eleven Magazine

15个太空项目,迁居宇宙离我们有多远?第10张图片

Image Cortesía de Eleven Magazine


月亮绿洲 / Edward Chew

“月亮绿洲”项目就如同一个“生态避难所”,其设计目的就是重新联系月球上的居民和地球上的自然环境,建筑师关注植物的应用,来解决月球上植物缺乏的问题,从而改造恶劣的环境。

LUNAR OASIS / Edward Chew
Lunar Oasis defines itself as a "biophilic sanctuary" that aims to reconnect the Moon's inhabitants with Earth's nature by focusing on vegetation as a way to combat the Moon's sterile landscape, thus supporting us in one of the most hostile environments known to humans.

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Image Cortesía de Eleven Magazine

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Image Cortesía de Eleven Magazine


大气层 / Stephanie Stiers

就空间而言,“大气层”是规模最小的月球项目。建筑师Stephanie Stiers以“太空旅行”为设计出发点,设计了一套可移动的空间装备,该装备主要满足使用者的生存需求。这个项目关注于月球上的临时逗留,参观者可以在既定的路线上进行探索。

THE AEROSPHERE / Stephanie Stiers
Dimensionally speaking, “The Aerosphere”  is the smallest project out of all the proposals aiming to have us living on the Moon. It's based on a refuge that focuses on the possibility of "space tourism." With this idea in mind, Stephanie Stiers designed a transportable suit that acts as life support and satisfies all of the wearer's needs. This project focuses on a temporary and nomadic stay on the moon, allowing participants to explore the Moon using predetermined touristic routes.

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Image Cortesía de Eleven Magazine

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Image Cortesía de Eleven Magazine



火星上的建筑

火星科学城 / BIG + Mohammed bin Rashid Space Center

该项目的设计团队由BIG建筑事务所联合工程师、科学家、设计师共同组成,这些专业人员来源于Mohammed bin Rashid太空中心,项目开发于2017年,目的是构思一座模拟火星生活的城市,研究人员们研究了能够抵抗火星辐射与热量的设计策略。这座名为“火星科学城”的项目由3D打印技术施工而成,利用Emirati沙漠中的沙子来建造,构成了实验性生活场所,研究团队会将在此居住1年。

Architecture for Life on Mars
MARS SCIENCE CITY / BIG + Mohammed bin Rashid Space Center

Designed by a team of engineers, scientists, and designers from the Mohammed bin Rashid Space Center in association with BIG, this project, presented in 2017, aims to create a city that simulates living conditions on Mars. By doing so, they will research and test building strategies that will withstand the radiation and heat on Mars. The city, called Mars Science City, will be built using 3D printing that will use sand from the Emirati desert, creating an experimental living space that the team will inhabit for a year.

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Image Cortesía de Dubai Media Office

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Image Cortesía de Dubai Media Office


MARSHA / AI Space Factory


AI SpaceFactory设计的“Marsha”是“美国宇航局百年挑战”设计竞赛的获奖方案。该项目使用了3D打印技术和机器窗户安装技术,通过各种材料建造而成,这些材料由提取于火星岩石中的玄武岩和生物塑料。该项目与人们息息相关,塑造了当代太空建筑的新形象,注重空间的宜居性。

The Marsha prototype, from AI SpaceFactory, is the winning proposal from the "NASA Centennial Challenge." Built using 3D printing technology and incorporating robotically installed windows, the project experiments with different building materials like basalt fiber extracted from Martian rocks and bio-plastic. Marsha challenges the image of architecture in the Space era, focusing on highly livable spaces as they relate to us Earth-dwellers.

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Image © AI SpaceFactory and Plomp

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Image © AI SpaceFactory and Plomp


火星案例研究 / OPEN Architecture事务所 + 小米

“火星案例研究”项目于2018年开发,是火星居住生活的极简化原型。在这个项目中,OPEN建筑事务所将技术与建筑相结合,构思了理想化的居住形态。另外,该项目还应用了小米的各项电子设备,构成综合性产品,优化空间与资源。建筑能够通过电子设备而产生的热量、冷凝水而进行再循环,再通过集成式生态系统回收能源、水,以及空气,尽量减少资源的消耗。

MARS CASE / OPEN Architecture + Xiaomi
Presented in 2018, Mars Case  is a minimalist living prototype for inhabiting Mars. Through this project, OPEN Architecture visualizes the ideal house, combining technological perfection with design and architecture. MARS Case integrates Xiaomi's individual electronic appliances into a synthesized product, optimizing the available space and resources. Through the re-circulation of heat, condensation, and other secondary products generated by every electronic device, the house recycles energy, water, and air through an integrated ecosystem, minimizes the consumption of resources.

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Image © WU Qingshan

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Image © WU Qingshan


火星殖民 / ZA Architects

德国ZA建筑事务所通过“火星殖民”项目设计了一个巨大的地下隧道网络。建筑师利用机器人技术,在火星上开凿了大型的孔洞,在玄武岩之中通过地下冰川的利用供应水和氧气。

MARS COLONIZATION / ZA Architects
German firm ZA Architects, through the Mars Colonization project proposes to build a massive underground network of tunnels to begin populating the red planet. Through technology and robotics, they would first carve out large caverns in the planet's basaltic rocks to later insure the oxygen and water supply through the production of an underground glacier in a basalt processing plant.

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Image © ZA Architect

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Image © ZA Architect


火星栖息地 / 福斯特建筑事务所

2015年,福斯特建筑事务所公布了其月球生活项目,并且在美国航天局投资的一项竞赛中,该事务所提出了火星上的模块化住宅项目。“火星栖息地”项目目的是开发半自动化、预先编程居住场所,而该场所主要由机器人建造完成。这个项目同样应用了3D打印系统,其中能够容纳4名宇航员的基本生活。另外,这些住宅由火星上的岩石建造而成,在宇航员到达之前,建筑将能够配置完成。

MARS HABITAT / Foster & Partners

In 2015, after the presentation of their project for living on the Moon and during a contest sponsored by NASA, Foster & Partners proposed a modular residence made for life on Mars. Mars Habitat is a plan to develop a settlement built by semi-autonomous, pre-programmed robots. By using a 3D printing system, it will develop robust living modules that will be able to house up to 4 astronauts. On top of that, these residences will be built from Mars' own rocks. The robots will be configured and sent before the astronauts arrive.

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Image Cortesía de Foster & Partners

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Image Cortesía de Foster & Partners


冰屋 / SEArch + Clouds AO

“冰屋”项目是“3D打印栖息地挑战”项目的获胜方案,该竞赛由美国航天局主办。在这个项目中,Space Exploration建筑事务所和Clouds建筑工作室利用了火星当地材料、3D打印技术,并用冷冻水来保护居住者免遭辐射的影响。“冰屋”利用了冰块来过滤阳光的直射,整个项目以在火星生存为基础。

ICE House / SEArch + Clouds AO
The project ICE House stands out as the winner of the “3D Printed Habitat Challenge” sponsored by NASA. Here, using native martian materials and 3D printing, SEArch (Space Exploration Architecture) and Clouds AO (Clouds Architecture Office) use frozen water as a crucial element to protect the hypothetical residents from radiation. Using ice's ability to filter the sun's rays, ICE HOUSE prioritizes life on Mars, distinguishing itself from the many projects that opt to cover up their prototypes.

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Image © Clouds AO y SEArch

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Image © Clouds AO y SEArch


火星乌托邦 / IDEA Architecture 工作室

该项目由IDEA建筑工作室的西班牙建筑师Alberto Villanueva主要负责,“火星乌托邦”项目利用火星表面的材料和菌体,构成能够承受极端天气条件的结构空间,人工搭载小型大气层,让人们能够居住于此。设计方案中,建筑师将生物发光细菌用作有机溶液,从而在火星上产生光线。

MARS UTOPIA / IDEA Architecture Office
Spanish architect Alberto Villanueva from the IDEA Architecture Office, with his Mars Utopía project, proposes using materials from Mars' own surface and mycelium from fungus, an element known for its structural qualities and its ability to tolerate extreme conditions, to create a small atmospheric layer over the planet to make it habitable. His proposal also includes bio-luminescent bacteria as an organic solution to generate light on the planet.

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Image Cortesía de Alberto Villanueva

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Image Cortesía de Alberto Villanueva



太空中的漂浮建筑

ANALEMMA塔 / Clouds AO

Clouds AO建筑工作室曾经尝试利用火星上的冰层,而在这个项目中,建筑师尝试了漂浮在5000公里的太空之中的建筑。这个设计方案目的是在太空中建造摩天大楼,它能够与地球的自转共同使用轨道的周期。建筑漂浮于空气之中,因此建造地点不受限制,在建造完成后再运送到特定的位置。

Architecture Suspended in Space
ANALEMMA TOWER - Clouds AO

The architecture studio Clouds AO, which we mentioned earlier for its design utilizing Martian ice, also has a proposal for an innovative building suspended 5000 km in the air. The hypothetical project hopes to implement skyscrapers in a geo-synchronized orbit, sharing their orbital period with the Earth's rotation. Being suspended in air, they could be built anywhere in the world and afterwards transport themselves to their atmospheric resting place.

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