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古老工业用地的现代化新功能丨荷兰ENCI采石场景观改造第1张图片


Recovery of the ENCI Quarry

由专筑网胡婧宜,小R编译

荷兰古老的ENCI采石场已经为荷兰提供了一个多世纪的水泥。经过景观修复,采石场现在已经成为了植被覆盖的水景公园。

The anthropic landscape of the ENCI quarry which supplied the Netherlands with cement for more than a century has been restored in the form of a large peri-urban park with spaces evoking water and vegetation.

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场地现状

1926年开始运营的ENCI采石场规模惊人,形成了圣彼得山上独特的人造景观,现已被列为千禧年自然遗址。采石场以其地下洞穴中绵延150公里的工业构造闻名,这种独特的形式形成了罕见的生物群落。但由于挖掘的规模以及造成的污染,采石场运作期间一直受到当地市民的抵制。

Previous state
The ENCI quarry, in operation since 1926, has supplied the Netherlands with cement for more than a century. The excavation, remarkable for its size, has created a unique artificial landscape which has now been transformed into an impressive natural reserve. The site of the quarry is Mount Saint Peter, one of the few peaks standing out on the flat Dutch countryside. Thanks to its outstanding natural attributes, it has now been listed as a Natura 2000 site which is remarkable for its visible industrial formation within a system of underground caves of some 150 km in length. This has led to unique geological discoveries and has favoured the existence of biotopes that are very unusual for the country.
If the quarry generated work and income, its relationship with the citizens of Maastricht was tense from the very start owing to the huge scale of the excavation, the question of permissible emissions, and transport of products.

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设计目标

2008年,采石场所属公司与政府达成协议,将他们的采石权限限制在十年以内,逐步恢复采石场的生态环境,并将其转变为公共场所。因此,采石生产于2018年结束且部分向公众开放。考虑到采石场丰富的生物多样性及场地壮观的工业景观,公共空间和自然保护的结合成为了设计重点。随着改造的进行,项目引发了关于生态、可持续发展、污染治理如何与旅游相结合的讨论。

Aim of the intervention
In 2008 the company, the city of Maastricht and the Province of Limburg came to an agreement which limited quarrying rights to ten more years with the aim of working towards ecological recovery of the quarry and its transformation into a place for leisure activities. Accordingly, quarrying ended in 2018 and, one year beforehand, some parts had been opened up to the public. The reason for converting it into a public space was the extraordinary industrial landscape of the site together with the biological diversity of its surrounds. An iterative approach was adopted in order to learn, through the phases, how to carry out a project of creating public spaces without conflicting with the natural reserve. As the work proceeded, it stimulated intense debates between different interest groups over such basic issues as ecology, accessibility, pollution, work, and tourism.

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项目描述

项目分成三个主要的部分,并且分三个阶段分别开发,分别是采石场、过渡区和商业园区。观景平台用于提供观察早期变化的俯瞰视角以及进入矿区的通道。第一阶段,采石场充满了水,形成湖泊以保持矿区内湿度。矿区内一半是干旱贫瘠的石灰石,可以促进稀有植物和昆虫的生长,另一半是高原,几条水系形成了湿地生态系统。第二阶段的设计以过渡区为中心,是人群密集活动和采石场隔离区之间的过渡,设计灵感来源于采石活动,引用了石头的元素和质地。就地势形成的道路以及排水形成的水景塑造了微地形。第三阶段商业园区于2019年开始建造,将成为提供建设材料并使用新能源的园区。

Description
The project has three main parts, which have been developed in separate phases: the quarry, the transition zone, and the business park. A lookout platform was designed to offer views of the early changes and also to provide access to the place. In the first phase, the quarry was filled with water to create a lake to keep the zone damp. While half the area has dry, nutrient-poor limestone soil which encourages the growth of rare plants and the presence of insects, the other half is a system of plateaus where several watercourses form a wetlands ecosystem. The design of the second phase, centred on the so-called transition zone, an intermediate area between the business park of intensive use and the quietness of the quarry habitat, is inspired by the techniques, elements and textures of quarrying activities. A micro-topography is thus created by means of paths that draw attention to geological and spatial effects as well as a drainage system with hot- and cold-water fountains. The final phase, the business park, which is to begin in 2019, will be a campus devoted to construction materials and forms of renewable energy.

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项目评价

采石场是一种一直引发各界争议的生产区域,如果没有采石场,很多地质发现和古生物学发现就不可能实现。当园区于2017年首次开放时,远超设想的游客数量造成了一定自然环境的破坏,设计时应当考虑到这一情况以便在未来进行更好的管理。用Hannah Arendt的话说,当个体和组织的行为结合在一起时,公民的价值才能得到更好的体现。

Assessment
The quarry has been and continues to be a place giving rise to intense debate. A range of groups including environmentalists, entrepreneurs, neighbourhood associations, geologists, palaeontologists, and historians have spoken out for different positions and interests, often clashing but sometimes with mutual benefits. For example, many of the geological and paleontological discoveries would never have been made without the quarrying industry extraction. When the precinct was opened to the public for the first time in 2017 the large numbers of visitors brought about an imbalance between the envisaged symbiosis between people and nature, a situation that required a review of the design for better management in future. However, despite differences of opinion among the groups participating in the development of the project, their concerns have been taken into account in the physical intervention, thus making the quarry a true public space. A space where, to paraphrase Hannah Arendt, citizens become visible when independent and joint actions are combined.

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古老工业用地的现代化新功能丨荷兰ENCI采石场景观改造第11张图片


城市:马斯特里赫特
国家:荷兰
项目开始时间:2008年
开工时间:2015年
工作结束:2020年
项目管理:Stichting Ontwikkelingsmatschappij ENCI gebied/ENCI Heidelberg/Natuurmonumenten/Gemeente Maastricht/林堡省
施工单位:Knols Project b.v./Habenu VD Kreeke/Janssen Group
面积:70000平方米
费用:5000000欧元
开发商:Stichting Ontwikkelingsmaatschappij ENCI gebied
作者:Rademacher de Vries Architects
合作者:Stichting Ontwikkelings Maatschappij ENCI Gebied ENCI Heidelberg Natuurmonumenten Stichting Sint Pietersberg Adembenemend

CITY: Maastricht
COUNTRY: Netherlands
BEGINNING OF THE PROJECT: 2008
BEGINNING OF WORK: 2015
END OF WORK: 2020
PROJECT MANAGEMENT: Stichting Ontwikkelingsmaatschappij ENCI gebied / ENCI Heidelberg / Natuurmonumenten / Gemeente Maastricht / Province of Limburg
CONSTRUCTOR: Knols Project b.v. / Habenu-VD Kreeke / Janssen Group
AREA: 70,000 m2
COST: 5,000,000 €
DEVELOPER: Stichting Ontwikkelingsmaatschappij ENCI gebied
AUTHORS: Rademacher de Vries Architects
COLLABORATORS: Stichting Ontwikkelings Maatschappij ENCI Gebied ENCI Heidelberg Natuurmonumenten Stichting Sint Pietersberg Adembenemend

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