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沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第1张图片
© Lorena Darquea

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第2张图片
© Daniel Moreno Flores

这个项目始于对一个概念性挑战的确认,这个挑战构成了形成该提议的灵感:当所有的自然环境提供有趣的(和类似的)视野时,怎样的鸟瞰台才会有吸引力? 这是由于这样的事实,即该项目位于活火山口顶部的边缘,有一个湖在它的内部,沿其周围产生了多个观看周围景色的观景点。


From the architect. This Project starts with the acknowledgment of a conceptual challenge which structures the idea that generates the proposal: Which characteristics could an overlook have to be attractive even when all its natural surroundings offer interesting (and similar) views? This is due to the fact that the project is located in the top edge of the crater of an active volcano that has a lake inside of it, which creates multiple viewing opportunities along its surroundings.

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第3张图片
© Lorena Darquea

由于其地理位置的特殊性——基洛托阿火山口及其内部的湖泊,使得该地方已成为厄瓜多尔日益普及的旅游景点。该项目坐落在安第斯山脉,它在基多以南170公里。它的海拔高度是3974米,火山口的直径大约有3公里。由于水中的矿物质,在火山口里的湖泊具有鲜明的绿松石色,这也是这个景点的主要特色。这个地区所在的生态系统是安第斯帕拉莫,因此,其周围的植被包括小草,特有的灌木和小乔木。所有的这些元素都为这里的美丽景观增添了不少色彩。


Because of its geographical peculiarities, the Quilotoa Crater and its Lake have become a touristic site of growing popularity in Ecuador. Located in the Andes, this elevation is 170 km south of Quito. Its altitude is 3974 meters above sea level, and the diameter of the crater is approximately 3 km. Due to the minerals present in its water, the lake in the crater has a distinctive turquoise colour that is the main characteristic of this site. The ecosystem of this area is an Andean páramo, therefore its surrounding vegetation includes low grasses, endemic shrubs and small trees. All these elements add to create a landscape of restrained beauty.

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第4张图片
© Lorena Darquea

该地区一直居住着厄瓜多尔高原的土著居民,主要以农业为生产方式。最近的居民是赞巴瓦,然而,也有一些分散的社区群体住的距湖更近的位置,自古沙拉拉就是与火山有联系的社区之一,并且其居民已经开始了旅游企业,提供住宿,餐饮服务,同时为参观者参观景点提供向导。


The area has been traditionally inhabited by indigenous populations of the Ecuadorian highlands, who have a mainly agricultural way of subsistence. The closest settlement is Zumbahua; however, some small scattered communities live closer to the lake. Shalalá is one of the communities that have ancient ties to the Volcano, and their inhabitants have started a touristic venture to offer accommodation, restaurant service and guided visits to the attractions of the area.

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第5张图片
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沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第6张图片
© Lorena Darquea

厄瓜多尔旅游部门回应社区的提议,为他们提供旅游基础设施设施:一个在火山口的边缘的鸟瞰台,以及连接鸟瞰台和旅游综合区主要区域的小径。该部门旨在支持社区的商业,帮助社区成员通过参与旅游业来增加他们的收入。


The Ecuadorian Tourism Ministry responded to the initiative of the community by providing them with complementary infrastructure to their touristic facilities: an overlook in the top edge of the crater and the footpath to connect it with the main area of the touristic complex. The Ministry aimed to support the venture of the community helping its members to increase their income through their involvement in the provision of touristic services.

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第7张图片
© Lorena Darquea

这个鸟瞰台计划设置在火山口的上边缘,其主要目的是建造一个结构,从而游客可以在这里不间断地欣赏周围景色并且可以安全地游走于悬崖边缘。然而,上面所提到的概念性的挑战依然存在,鸟瞰台所在位置的景色与火山口边缘的其它景色有着相似的视角。因此,分析的重点是这个鸟瞰台可以提供怎样的体验才可以使它成为该区域有兴趣的景观点。


The overlook is planned to settle in the superior edge of the crater, its main objective is to create a structure that allows the uninterrupted observation of the surroundings where the users can safely reach border of the cliff. However, the conceptual challenge explained above remains, where the site chosen for the overlook has a very similar view to the rest of the border of the crater. Therefore, the analysis is focused on what other experiences could the overlook offer to become an interest point in the area.

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第8张图片
© Daniel Moreno Flores

该项目传达的目的是基于创造机会使游客在鸟瞰台看到的景色不同于火山口的其它任意一点。游客的体验是通过一个从火山口边缘延伸并凌驾于悬崖之上的平台,使游客体验在景色中“飞”,几乎眩晕的感觉。同时,创建一个被动式的观景方式,用户免受其它因素的干扰,能够有片刻的思考和反省。


The response that this project delivers is based on creating opportunities for the visitor to see the landscape in different ways than from any other point in the crater. The experience of the user is enriched through the creation of a platform extending from the edge of the crater over the cliff looking to give the visitor the opportunity to “fly” over the landscape producing an almost vertigo like sensation. At the same time, a space for passive viewing is created, where the user is protected from the elements and is able to have a moment of contemplation and introspection.

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第9张图片
剖面图

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第10张图片
© Daniel Moreno Flores

为了给游客提供这些相反的,但是相辅相成的体验,产生了远远超出火山口边缘的上部平台,并且,在其正下方顺着自然坡度的看台提供了游客休息和享受自然景观的地方。这些简单,但清晰的建筑语言,让游客有机会享受与火山口其余部分不同的体验。


The attempt to provide these opposite, but complementary experiences for the user results in the creation of a structure which comprises of an upper platform that extents further beyond the border of the crater, and, directly underneath, bleachers that follow the natural slope where users have the opportunity to rest and enjoy the natural landscape. These simple, but clear, architectonic gestures give the visitor the opportunity to have a different experience than what could be found in the rest of the crater.

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第11张图片
© Daniel Moreno Flores

离散但宏伟美丽的景观,需要严谨的结构来响应,才能使鸟瞰台和周围景观融为一体。简单的形式和材料的统一使用,给予了该景点相同的审美品质。鸟瞰台的设计元素是由一个内部钢桁架系统组成,元素的表皮是用木头建造,而木头的纹理和颜色都与其所处的景观有关。


The discrete but magnificent beauty of the landscape, demand the architectonic response to be austere, in an attempt to merge itself with the surrounding landscape. A simple form and the uniform use of materials give the intervention the same aesthetic qualities than of the site. The element is composed of an internal steel truss system and the skin of the element is built with wood which locates the intervention within the chromatic palette and texture of the landscape.

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第12张图片
© Lorena Darquea

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第13张图片
© Daniel Moreno Flores

边界是安全的主要因素,同时应对周围景观有一个清晰的视点。因此,玻璃是鸟瞰台开放边缘采用的唯一材料。连接到鸟瞰的小径由石块形成边缘,并且在小径上铺满砂石,这是为了创造一个不改变景观的自然本色,但适宜步行的表面。现在设计的每一个步骤都在尝试修改不和谐的部分,因此,整个结构被设计成可拆除的,以便在未来不再需要时随意移除。


The border features are to be elements of safety, while allowing a clear view of the surroundings. Therefore, glass is the only material used in the open ends of the overlook. The footpath that connects to the overlook is built with stone edges and filled with gravel, looking to mark a defined route and to create a walkable surface without altering the natural qualities of the landscape. Every gesture in the intervention attempts not to modify the current harmony present in the site, for this reason, the entire structure is designed to be easily dismantled and removed if in the future is no longer needed.

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第14张图片
© Lorena Darquea

鸟瞰台建成以来,社区的旅游活动已经有了明显的增加。此外,其社区人员从事鸟瞰台的维护,并致力于保持其良好的使用状态。这可以被定性为所在国家,社会和设计师的措施已达到预期结果的成功案例。


Since the creation of this overlook, there has been a noticeable increase in the touristic activity in the community. Additionally, its members have engaged in the upkeep of the intervention and are committed to keep it in good conditions. This could be qualified as a successful case where the interventions of the State, the community and the designers have reached the expected outcome.

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第15张图片
© Lorena Darquea

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第16张图片
© Lorena Darquea

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第17张图片
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沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第18张图片
平面图

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第19张图片
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沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第20张图片
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沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第21张图片
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沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第22张图片
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沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第23张图片
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沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第24张图片
细节

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第25张图片
细节

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第26张图片
细节

沙拉拉火山口鸟瞰台/ Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez + Javier Mera Lun......第27张图片
© Lorena Darquea

建筑设计:Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez, Javier Mera Luna, Daniel Moreno Flores
位置:厄瓜多尔Zumbahua
面积:616.0平方米
年份:2013年
摄影:Lorena Darquea, Daniel Moreno Flores
合伙人:Manuel Galárraga, María Paz Villagomez, Diana Callejas, Christian Rea, Natalia Dueñas, Juan Carlos Cisneros
结构工程师:Guillermo Gómez
施工:Gabriela Cevallos
设计:Francisco Suárez

Architects: Jorge Javier Andrade Benítez, Javier Mera Luna, Daniel Moreno Flores
Location: Zumbahua, Ecuador
Area: 616.0 sqm
Year: 2013
Photographs: Lorena Darquea, Daniel Moreno Flores
Collaborators: Manuel Galárraga, María Paz Villagomez, Diana Callejas, Christian Rea, Natalia Dueñas, Juan Carlos Cisneros
Structural Engineer: Guillermo Gómez
Construction: Gabriela Cevallos
Design: Francisco Suárez

出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。
编辑:罗晓茜,刘汁
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