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来自专筑编辑罗晓茜,许航的报道
1项目说明:
通过一系列的再生设计技术以及特别措施,以减缓雨水的流动,被水泥堵塞的河流和恶化的城郊地区已被改造成一个全国著名的湿地公园,成为全市的重要组成部分并为广泛的生态基础设施计划提供多种生态系统服务,包括雨水管理、水净化、原生栖息地的恢复,以及创造一个建立可聚会的景色优美的公共空间。

1 Project Statement
Through a series of regenerative design techniques, particularly measures to slow down the flow of storm-water, a channelized concrete river and a deteriorated peri-urban site have been transformed into a nationally celebrated wetland park that functions as a major part of the city-wide ecological infrastructure planned to provide multiple ecosystem services, including storm-water management, water cleansing, and recovery of native habitats, as well as a creation of a cherished public space for gathering and aesthetic enjoyment.

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2项目陈述
2.1目标与挑战
贵州六盘水是一个在20世纪60年代中期建立起来的工业城市,以其凉爽的高原气候而著称,城市被石灰岩的山丘环抱,母亲河——水城河穿城而过。城市人口密集,在60平方千米的土地上,居住了约60万的人口。作为改善环境的重要举措之一,市政府委托景观设计师制定一个整体方案以应对城市所面临的多项挑战,包括:

urtesy of Turenscape
2 Project Narratives
2.1 Objectives and Challenges
Liupanshui, known for its cool plateau climate, is an industrial city built in mid 1960s in a valley surrounded by limestone hills, with the River Shuichenghe running though it. With an area of 60 square kilometers, the city is densely inhabited by a population of 0.6 million. As an element of a major campaign of environmental improvement the city government commissioned the landscape architect to develop a holistic strategy to address multiple serious problems including:

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水污染:作为建于冷战时期发的主要重工业城市之一,六盘水以煤炭、钢铁和水泥行业为主导产业。因此,长久以来,民众长期受到空气和水污染的困扰。数十年来,从工业烟囱排出的污浊空气中的颗粒物沉积在周边的山坡上,并随着雨水径流被带入河流,来自山坡上农田的化学肥料以及散落的居民点的生活污水也一同随地表雨水径流汇入了水体。


1)        Water pollution: As one of the major heavy industrial cities built during the cold war period, Liupanshui has been dominated by coal, steel and cement industries. Consequently, the citizens have suffered with the resulting by air and water pollution for a long time.  From the industrial chimneys, decades of air pollution deposits fell onto the surrounding slopes and washed into the river along with the storm-water that also carries the chemical fertilizer runoffs from the farm land on the slopes and  sewage from the scattered settlements on the slope;
1)

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(2)洪水和雨涝:由于坐落在山谷之中,该城市在雨季容易受到洪水和涝灾的危害,而由于多孔石灰岩地质,到了旱季又易遭受干旱灾害。所以,季节性雨水的滞蓄和利用非常重要。

(3)母亲河修复:20世纪70年代,为了解决洪涝问题,水城河被水泥渠化。从此,原来蜿蜒曲折的母亲河变成了混凝土结构的、死气沉沉的丑陋河沟,其拦截洪水及环境修复的功能也丧失殆尽。同时,渠化的河道将上游的雨水直泄入下游河道,引发了下游更为严重的洪水问题。

2)        Flood and storm-water inundation: Situated in the valley, the city is subject to floods and storm-water inundation during the monsoon season, but also severe drought in the dry season due to the porous limestone geology;
3)  Recovery of the mother river:Channelization of the River Shuichenghe was carried out in the 1970s as a solution to inundation and flooding. The channel transmitted the storm-water from upstream but caused even more severe flooding problems downstream. Hence, the former meandering mother river became an ugly concrete, lifeless ditch and its capacity for flood retention and environmental remediation was totally lost;

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(4)创建公共空间:由于城市人口激增,导致了城市休闲和绿色空间的不足。曾经作为城市福音的水系统已经变成城市废弃的后杂院、垃圾场和危险的死角。因此,在人口密集的社区与生态修复后的绿色空间之间建立起人行通道极其必要。

Courtesy of Turenscape
4)        Creation of public space: Recreation and green spaces are inadequate due to the population explosion in the city. The water system that was once a blessing to the city has become a deserted backyard, garbage dump and the dangerous backside of the city. Pedestrian access to a restored green space system is badly needed in such a densely populated community.

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这一设计的关键技术在于减缓来自山坡的水流,建造一个以水过程为核心的生态基础设施来保存和改善雨洪管理,使水成为重建健康生态系统的活化剂,提供自然和文化服务,使这个工业城市变为宜居城市。

Courtesy of Turenscape
The strategy is to slow the flow of water from the hillside slopes and create a water-based ecological infrastructure that will retain and remediate the storm-water, and make water the active agent in regenerating a healthy ecosystem to provide natural and cultural services that transform the industrial city into a livable human habitat.

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2.2设计策略
六盘水明湖湿地公园项目占地90公顷,是该城市规划的综合生态基础设施建设的第一期工程,也是其至关重要的组成部分。

2.2 Design Strategy
The submitted Liupanshui Minghu Wetland Park project, 90 hectares (222 acres) in size, is the first phase and a major part of the comprehensive ecological infrastructure project planned for the city by the landscape architect.

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为了构建完整的生态基础设施,景观设计师同时关注水城河流域和城市本体两方面。首先,河流串联起现存的溪流、坑塘、湿地和低洼地,形成一系列蓄水池和不同承载力的净化湿地,构建了一个完整的雨水管理和生态净化系统,一个绿色海绵体系。这一方法不仅最大限度地减少了城市的雨涝危害,而且保证雨季过后仍然有水流不断。第二,拆除渠化河渠的混凝土河堤,重建自然河岸,使河岸恢复生机,使河流的自净能力大大提高。第三,建造包括人行道和自行车道的连续公共空间,增加通往河边的联接通道。这些绿道将城市休憩和生态空间一体化。最后,该项目结合滨水区开发与河流生态修复。生态基础设施促进了六盘水的城市更新,显著提升土地价值,增强城市活力。

For the overall ecological infrastructure, the landscape architect focused both on the Shuicheng River drainage basin and the city. Firstly, existing streams, wetlands, and low-lying land are all integrated into a storm-water management and ecological purification system linked by the river, forming a series of water retention ponds and purification wetlands with different capacities. This approach not only minimizes urban flooding but also increases the base flow to sustain river water flow after the rainy season. Secondly, the concrete embankment of the channelized river was removed. A natural riverbank was restored to revitalize the riparian ecology and maximize the river’s self-purification capacity. Thirdly, continuous public spaces were created to contain pedestrian and bicycle paths increasing access to the riverfront. These corridors integrate the urban recreation and ecological spaces. Lastly, the project combines waterfront development and river restoration. The ecological infrastructure catalyzes urban renewal efforts in Liupanshui, significantly increases land values, and enhances urban vitality.

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作为六盘水生态基础设施的主要项目之一,明湖湿地公园位于水城河上游区域,现状场地中,有被垃圾和污水污染的湿地区域,有废弃的鱼池及管理不善的山坡地,垃圾遍地、污水横流。作为生态基础设施的示范项目,项目设计的第一步就是重建生态健康的土地生命系统,包括改善雨水水质,恢复原生栖息地,建造通向高品质开放空间的游憩道,最终促进整个城市的发展。为实现这些目标,工程包括了以下的特定公园元素:

As one of the major projects included in the ecological infrastructure of Liupanshui,  the Minghu Wetland Park features ecological restoration of the upper stream section of the channelized river. Minghu Wetland Park was created on a site composed of deteriorated wetland patches, abandoned fish ponds and strips of mismanaged corn fields. Its pre-development condition was dominated by garbage dumps and polluted water. As a demonstration of the ecological infrastructure project, this first phase project was designed using all of the tactics for rebuilding ecological health leading to the recovery of biodiversity and native habitat, retention and water quality improvement of storm-water, and public access to high quality open space, and finally a catalyst for urban development. The specific park elements that achieve these objectives are listed below.


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(1) 移除混凝土河堤,创建两个生态区域。其中之一用以扶植生长在洪水区的原生植物,另一区域则用以为其他河床植被创造良好的生长条件。沿河建造曝气低堰,以增加水体含氧量,促进富营养化的水体被生物所吸收。



(1) The concrete river embankment was removed to create two ecological zones. One encourages native vegetation to grow within the flood zone and the other establishes conditions for emergent vegetation in the riverbed. Aerating cascades were created along the river to add oxygen that fosters bio-remediation of the nutrient-rich water..

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(2)建造梯田湿地和陂塘系统,以削减洪峰流量,调节季节性雨水。梯田的灵感来源于当地的造田技术,通过拦截和保留水分,使陡峭的坡地成为丰产的土地。它们的方位、形式、深度都依据地质因素和水流分析而设定。根据不同的水质和土壤环境,种植了乡土植被(主要采用播种的方式)。这些梯田状栖息地减缓了水流,水中过盛的营养物质成为微生物和植物生长所需养分来源,从而加快了水体营养物质的去除。


(2)        Terraced wetlands and retention ponds were created to reduce peak water flow and regulate the seasonal rainwater. The terraces are inspired by the local farming techniques that catch and retain water and transform steep slopes into productive fields. Their positions, forms and depths were based on geographic information and a water flow analysis. Native vegetation was planted (mostly sown) to establish associations adapted to the various water and soil conditions. These terraced habitats slow the flow of water and speed nutrient removal from the water by microorganism and plant species that use excess nutrients as resources for rapid growth.

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(3)人行道和自行车道沿着水系铺展,在湿地梯田之间形成网络。设有大量座椅、凉亭和观光塔的休息平台融入设计的自然系统中,便于所有人进入,促进了学习、娱乐和景观审美体验,并设计了一个环境解说系统以帮助游客理解这些地方的自然和文化含义。场地中最具标志性的建筑物是暖色的彩虹桥,它与当地常见的凉爽湿润天气形成对比。这座长堤连接中心湿地(湖)的三岸,创造出令人难忘的散步及聚会的场所。这里迅速成为了备受当地民众和远近游客喜爱的社交和休闲环境。

Courtesy of Turenscape
(3)        Pedestrian paths and bicycle routes are overlaid on the green spaces along the waterways and form a circuit around and between the wetland terraces. Resting platforms with abundant seats, pavilions and a viewing tower are integrated into the designed natural system for universal access. This fosters learning, recreational and aesthetic landscape experiences. An environmental interpretation system was designed to help visitors understand the natural and cultural meaning of the places. Clearly, the most iconic built artifact is a warm-colored rainbow bridge, in contrast with the frequently cool and damp climate. This causeway connects three sides of the central wetland (lake), creating unforgettable walking and gathering places. These have quickly become favored social and recreational environments of the citizens and attract visitors from near and far.

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通过这些景观技术,衰退的水系统和城市周边的废弃地被成功转变为高效能、低维护的城市前厅。它巧妙地调蓄雨水、净化地表污水、修复原生栖息地,并吸引了广大的居民和游客。2013年它被正式评定为“中国国家级湿地公园”。


urtesy of Turenscape
Through these landscape techniques, the deteriorated water system and peri-urban wasteland has been successfully transformed into a high-performance and low maintenance municipal front yard. It beautifully regulates storm-water, cleans contaminated water, restores native habitats for biodiversity, and attracts residents and tourists. It was officially designated as a National Wetland Park in China in 2013.

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建筑设计:土人景观顾问有限公司
地点:中国贵州省六盘水
设计团队:栾博、黄刚闫斌、单美娜、郑军彦、凡新、李世征、拜真、安建飞、陈琳、游宏凯、曹业奇、邓彰、杨晔、李悦、刘德华、白洁、任轶珍、刘拓、宋旭、张小峰、曹军营、张晋丰
主创设计师:俞孔坚
摄影:土人景观顾问有限公司
Architects: Turenscape
Location: Liupanshui, Guizhou, China
Design Team: Bo Luan, Bin Yan, Gang Huang, Junyan Zheng, Meina Shan, Xin Fan, Shizheng Li, Lin Chen, Zhen Bai, Yu Zhang, Jianfei An, Hongkai You, Yin Liu, Yeqi Cao, Zhang Deng, Ye Yang, Yue Li, Yizhen Ren, Xu Song, Dehua Liu, XIaofeng Zhang, Jie Bai, Jinfeng Zhang, Tuo Liu, Junying Cao
Design Lead: Kongjian Yu
Photographs: Courtesy of Turenscape


本文来源于:http://www.archdaily.com/
via: 罗晓茜,许航

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