来自专筑编辑罗晓茜，许航的报道1 Project Statement
Through a series of regenerative design techniques, particularly measures to slow down the flow of storm-water, a channelized concrete river and a deteriorated peri-urban site have been transformed into a nationally celebrated wetland park that functions as a major part of the city-wide ecological infrastructure planned to provide multiple ecosystem services, including storm-water management, water cleansing, and recovery of native habitats, as well as a creation of a cherished public space for gathering and aesthetic enjoyment.
urtesy of Turenscape
2 Project Narratives
2.1 Objectives and Challenges
Liupanshui, known for its cool plateau climate, is an industrial city built in mid 1960s in a valley surrounded by limestone hills, with the River Shuichenghe running though it. With an area of 60 square kilometers, the city is densely inhabited by a population of 0.6 million. As an element of a major campaign of environmental improvement the city government commissioned the landscape architect to develop a holistic strategy to address multiple serious problems including:
1) Water pollution: As one of the major heavy industrial cities built during the cold war period, Liupanshui has been dominated by coal, steel and cement industries. Consequently, the citizens have suffered with the resulting by air and water pollution for a long time. From the industrial chimneys, decades of air pollution deposits fell onto the surrounding slopes and washed into the river along with the storm-water that also carries the chemical fertilizer runoffs from the farm land on the slopes and sewage from the scattered settlements on the slope;
2) Flood and storm-water inundation: Situated in the valley, the city is subject to floods and storm-water inundation during the monsoon season, but also severe drought in the dry season due to the porous limestone geology;
3) Recovery of the mother river:Channelization of the River Shuichenghe was carried out in the 1970s as a solution to inundation and flooding. The channel transmitted the storm-water from upstream but caused even more severe flooding problems downstream. Hence, the former meandering mother river became an ugly concrete, lifeless ditch and its capacity for flood retention and environmental remediation was totally lost;
Courtesy of Turenscape
4） Creation of public space: Recreation and green spaces are inadequate due to the population explosion in the city. The water system that was once a blessing to the city has become a deserted backyard, garbage dump and the dangerous backside of the city. Pedestrian access to a restored green space system is badly needed in such a densely populated community.
这一设计的关键技术在于减缓来自山坡的水流，建造一个以水过程为核心的生态基础设施来保存和改善雨洪管理，使水成为重建健康生态系统的活化剂，提供自然和文化服务，使这个工业城市变为宜居城市。Courtesy of Turenscape
The strategy is to slow the flow of water from the hillside slopes and create a water-based ecological infrastructure that will retain and remediate the storm-water, and make water the active agent in regenerating a healthy ecosystem to provide natural and cultural services that transform the industrial city into a livable human habitat.
2.2 Design Strategy
The submitted Liupanshui Minghu Wetland Park project, 90 hectares (222 acres) in size, is the first phase and a major part of the comprehensive ecological infrastructure project planned for the city by the landscape architect.
为了构建完整的生态基础设施，景观设计师同时关注水城河流域和城市本体两方面。首先，河流串联起现存的溪流、坑塘、湿地和低洼地，形成一系列蓄水池和不同承载力的净化湿地，构建了一个完整的雨水管理和生态净化系统，一个绿色海绵体系。这一方法不仅最大限度地减少了城市的雨涝危害，而且保证雨季过后仍然有水流不断。第二，拆除渠化河渠的混凝土河堤，重建自然河岸，使河岸恢复生机，使河流的自净能力大大提高。第三，建造包括人行道和自行车道的连续公共空间，增加通往河边的联接通道。这些绿道将城市休憩和生态空间一体化。最后，该项目结合滨水区开发与河流生态修复。生态基础设施促进了六盘水的城市更新，显著提升土地价值，增强城市活力。For the overall ecological infrastructure, the landscape architect focused both on the Shuicheng River drainage basin and the city. Firstly, existing streams, wetlands, and low-lying land are all integrated into a storm-water management and ecological purification system linked by the river, forming a series of water retention ponds and purification wetlands with different capacities. This approach not only minimizes urban flooding but also increases the base flow to sustain river water flow after the rainy season. Secondly, the concrete embankment of the channelized river was removed. A natural riverbank was restored to revitalize the riparian ecology and maximize the river’s self-purification capacity. Thirdly, continuous public spaces were created to contain pedestrian and bicycle paths increasing access to the riverfront. These corridors integrate the urban recreation and ecological spaces. Lastly, the project combines waterfront development and river restoration. The ecological infrastructure catalyzes urban renewal efforts in Liupanshui, significantly increases land values, and enhances urban vitality.
作为六盘水生态基础设施的主要项目之一，明湖湿地公园位于水城河上游区域，现状场地中，有被垃圾和污水污染的湿地区域，有废弃的鱼池及管理不善的山坡地，垃圾遍地、污水横流。作为生态基础设施的示范项目，项目设计的第一步就是重建生态健康的土地生命系统，包括改善雨水水质，恢复原生栖息地，建造通向高品质开放空间的游憩道，最终促进整个城市的发展。为实现这些目标，工程包括了以下的特定公园元素： As one of the major projects included in the ecological infrastructure of Liupanshui, the Minghu Wetland Park features ecological restoration of the upper stream section of the channelized river. Minghu Wetland Park was created on a site composed of deteriorated wetland patches, abandoned fish ponds and strips of mismanaged corn fields. Its pre-development condition was dominated by garbage dumps and polluted water. As a demonstration of the ecological infrastructure project, this first phase project was designed using all of the tactics for rebuilding ecological health leading to the recovery of biodiversity and native habitat, retention and water quality improvement of storm-water, and public access to high quality open space, and finally a catalyst for urban development. The specific park elements that achieve these objectives are listed below.
(1) The concrete river embankment was removed to create two ecological zones. One encourages native vegetation to grow within the flood zone and the other establishes conditions for emergent vegetation in the riverbed. Aerating cascades were created along the river to add oxygen that fosters bio-remediation of the nutrient-rich water..
(2) Terraced wetlands and retention ponds were created to reduce peak water flow and regulate the seasonal rainwater. The terraces are inspired by the local farming techniques that catch and retain water and transform steep slopes into productive fields. Their positions, forms and depths were based on geographic information and a water flow analysis. Native vegetation was planted (mostly sown) to establish associations adapted to the various water and soil conditions. These terraced habitats slow the flow of water and speed nutrient removal from the water by microorganism and plant species that use excess nutrients as resources for rapid growth.
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(3) Pedestrian paths and bicycle routes are overlaid on the green spaces along the waterways and form a circuit around and between the wetland terraces. Resting platforms with abundant seats, pavilions and a viewing tower are integrated into the designed natural system for universal access. This fosters learning, recreational and aesthetic landscape experiences. An environmental interpretation system was designed to help visitors understand the natural and cultural meaning of the places. Clearly, the most iconic built artifact is a warm-colored rainbow bridge, in contrast with the frequently cool and damp climate. This causeway connects three sides of the central wetland (lake), creating unforgettable walking and gathering places. These have quickly become favored social and recreational environments of the citizens and attract visitors from near and far.
urtesy of Turenscape
Through these landscape techniques, the deteriorated water system and peri-urban wasteland has been successfully transformed into a high-performance and low maintenance municipal front yard. It beautifully regulates storm-water, cleans contaminated water, restores native habitats for biodiversity, and attracts residents and tourists. It was officially designated as a National Wetland Park in China in 2013.
Location: Liupanshui, Guizhou, China
Design Team: Bo Luan, Bin Yan, Gang Huang, Junyan Zheng, Meina Shan, Xin Fan, Shizheng Li, Lin Chen, Zhen Bai, Yu Zhang, Jianfei An, Hongkai You, Yin Liu, Yeqi Cao, Zhang Deng, Ye Yang, Yue Li, Yizhen Ren, Xu Song, Dehua Liu, XIaofeng Zhang, Jie Bai, Jinfeng Zhang, Tuo Liu, Junying Cao
Design Lead: Kongjian Yu
Photographs: Courtesy of Turenscape