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统一的建筑理论,第14章节第1张图片

由专筑网朱王倩,卢荣姝编译

我们以电子版的一系列连载发布了Nikos Salingaros的著作--《统一的建筑理论》,免费提供给世界各地的学生和建筑师。在本书线上版本的最后一张—第14章中,塞林格以详细叙述他2012年秋季在圣安东尼奥的德克萨斯大学教学时用本书教导学生的效果作为总结。如果你错过了,一定要在这里看一看前几期。

We have been publishing Nikos Salingaros’ book, Unified Architectural Theory, in a series of installments, making it digitally, freely available for students and architects around the world. In Chapter 14, the final chapter of the online version of the book, Salingaros concludes by recounting the effect that the teachings included in his book had on students in a class he taught at the University of Texas at San Antonio, during the Fall Semester of 2012. If you missed them, make sure to read the previous installments here.

结论

课程结束时,学生们告诉我,他们已经学会了很多东西,这些内容对建筑的理解至关重要,但几乎从未在其他建筑学课程中教过。更准确地说,过去学生被告知了关于成功设计的各种因素的重要性——基址、周围建筑、适应区域、装饰(或者排除它)、不同结构尺度之间的关系、比例、树木和绿地等,但从没教过如何管理它们。现在,这些因素通过学习它们为何被从我们的生态系统和自然流程中提出而被纳入设计考虑。

Conclusion
At the conclusion of this course, the students told me that they had learned a great many things that are crucial to an understanding of architecture, but which are hardly ever taught in other architecture courses. To be precise, students had previously been told about the importance of various factors to the success of a design—site, surrounding architecture, regional adaptation, ornament (or rather excluding it), the relationship among distinct structural scales, proportions, trees and green areas—but were never taught exactly how to manage them. Now, those factors were taken into account by learning why they arise out of our own biology and natural processes.

一个整体的实用概念是连通性:在开放空间之间、结构间、结构中的不同尺度之间、用户和建筑之间等等。它是连贯设计的基础工具。然而,连接性通常被认为是巧合——设计的意外效果——或作为结构和形式的附属。学生通过我们关于系统复杂性的讨论以一种新的方法理解连接性,其中每个部分依赖并适应于其他各个部分,使系统可以作为一个整体运作。

An overall useful concept was connectivity: between open spaces, between structures, between different scales of a structure, between user and building, and so on. It is a basic tool for coherent design. Yet, connectivity is usually considered coincidental—an accidental effect of your design—or as secondary to structure and form. Students understood connectivity in a new way through our discussion of system complexity, where each part depends upon and adapts to every other part so that the system can work coherently as a whole.

至于装饰,现在看来要比只是视觉上漂亮更重要:见12章“装饰和人类的智慧”。装饰与所有尺度上的形式相关—最终回归到好建筑(对健康有益的建筑)的强烈连接性特征上。装饰与热爱生命的天性息息相关,这对于一些学生是最有吸引力的,最终他们在这个过程中理解有用的概念:见10章“本能:我们在生物形式上的种属”。他们对于本能往往忽视许多通常关注完全不同问题的设计感到特别不安。由于对大自然的热爱在生活质量上的差别这么大,因此它被集成到设计上来。

As far as ornamentation, it now appeared to be much more important than just something pretty to look at: see Chapter 12 “Ornament and Human Intelligence”. Ornamentation is linked to patterns on all scales—ultimately going back to the intense connectivity characteristic of good architecture (that is, good for our health). And ornament is tied to Biophilia, which for some students was the most striking and ultimately useful concept they learned in this course: see Chapter 10 “Biophilia: Our Evolved Kinship To Biological Forms”. They were especially disturbed that Biophilia usually goes unnoticed in a lot of designs that pay attention to totally different concerns. Since Biophilia makes such a big difference in the quality of life, it has to be integrated into designs.

总之,学生表达了一个新发现的力量来用客观的标准判断一个建筑,不必依靠什么是“正确的”模糊的概念。现在可以使用一套通用的原则和标准,如亚力山大的十五个属性,判断一个建筑的魅力独立于任何集团的意见:见11章“亚力山大的十五个基本性质”。学生们回忆过去碍于权威不得不默认导师对于项目的评价时的场景,即使他们认为这是错误的。但这种观点没有被解释;作为从属方,不得不接受,这是非常令人沮丧的。学生没有从这种互动中学习。

All in all, students expressed a newly-found power to judge a building using objective criteria, no longer having to rely on vague notions of what is “correct”. It is now possible to use a set of universal principles and criteria, such as Alexander’s Fifteen Properties, to judge a building’s attractiveness independently of any group’s opinion: see Chapter 11 “Alexander’s Fifteen Fundamental Properties”. Students recalled occasions in the past when they had to acquiesce to an instructor’s appraisal of a project, even when they felt that it was wrong, simply because of the power of authority. But such opinions were never explained; they just had to be accepted by the subservient party, which was terribly frustrating. The student learned nothing from such interactions.

特别要告诉大家的是,参加这个课程前,他们就已经由彼得艾森曼在他与克里斯托弗亚力山大辩论的论点所诱惑,单现在却可以从不同的角度来看问题。他们在自适应体系结构的基础上发展出一个新的人类情感的提升,而这正是亚力山大强调。同时,他们更好地理解了建筑风格的演变和建筑设计背后的理论。他们对尊重生命的变革过程有了有一个更深的了解。

Particularly telling was the admission that, before taking this course, they would have been seduced by Peter Eisenman’s arguments in his debate with Christopher Alexander, but now saw things in a different light. They had developed a new appreciation of human feeling as the basis of adaptive architecture, and this is what Alexander emphasized. At the same time, they understood the evolution of architectural styles and the theories behind building design much better. They got a deeper glimpse into the process of innovation that respects factors essential to life.

学生们被建筑实践作为实证科学过程的预测所鼓舞。将生物学的概念运用到自己的作品中,例如单个零部件的设计目的、有机形式的演变、通过适应的创新、通过反馈的选取等,这种新的思维方式,在作为艺术家个人表达的抽象艺术与作为人类使用的建筑之间建立起一个明确的区别。学生们说他们以前真的为创新的形式而激动万分,包括那些看起来“有机”,但现在知道形象并不重要,转而寻找趋于结构的适应过程。“好”的建筑,既美观又实用,而且有益身心。

The students were excited by the prospects of practicing architecture as an empirical, scientific process. Taking concepts from biology and applying them to their own work, for example the design purpose of individual parts, the evolution of organic form, innovation through adaptation, selection through feedback, etc. This new way of thinking establishes a clear difference between abstract art as a personal statement by the artist, and architecture for human use. Students said that they would previously get really excited by innovative forms, including ones that looked “organic”, but now know that the image is not important, and instead look for the adaptive process leading to the structure. “Good” architecture is both beautiful and functional, and makes a person psychologically and physically well.

除了在ArchDaily介绍的章节,印刷版的《统一建筑理论》包括一些更深入的研究话题、案例研究和进一步的支持证据。

In addition to the chapters presented here on ArchDaily, the printed version ofUnified Architectural Theory includes some arguments explored in more depth, case studies and further supporting evidence.  

出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。


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