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无论它美与丑、无论你爱与恨,它们都在那里第1张图片
Original photograph © Denise Scott Brown

9个奇怪又奇妙的“动物”建筑
9 Weird and Wonderful Architectural "Ducks"

由专筑网李韧,韩平编译

它们的存在是有原因的。

罗伯特•文丘里和丹尼斯•斯科特•布朗在《向拉斯维加斯学习》一书中提出那些直接将建筑形式表达出来的建筑[ 1 ],比如当时设计的“鸭子”。这里没有建筑隐喻,它们的功能与外在形态一致。像拉斯维加斯或澳门地区则运用建筑形态来表明自己的身份与地位。虽然这些建筑运用了后现代时期的奇怪造型,但在现代,仍然还是会出现“鸭子”般的建筑形态(如芝加哥苹果店最近的MacBook屋顶)。它们是有趣的?俗气的?或是丑陋的?无论美丑,“鸭子”都存在于我们的建筑历史之中。下面是9个奇怪而奇妙的建筑案例,你爱与不爱,它们都在那里:

They exist for a reason.
Coined by Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown in Learning from Las Vegas, “Ducks” are buildings that project their meaning in a literal way [1]. No architectural metaphors here - they are exactly what they look like. Many emerged alongside interstate highways, a lone doughnut or dinosaur punctuating the road trip across America. Places like Las Vegas and Macau have built their identity in the kitsch and literal language of architecture – with the duck a strong contributor. Though they get relegated to one of the weird forays of the postmodern era, ducks still make current-day appearances (like the Chicago Apple Store’s recent Macbook roof). Are they fun, kitschy, or just plain ugly? Love them or hate them, ducks have a light-hearted presence in our architectural history. Below are 9 weird and wonderful examples of buildings that make no apologies for being exactly what they are:


1、大鸭子/美国,纽约长岛

无论它美与丑、无论你爱与恨,它们都在那里第2张图片
Image via Wikimedia (public domain)

罗伯特•文丘里1972年的著作《向拉斯维加斯学习》中创造了这个术语“鸭子”。这个建筑于1931年由一个名叫Martin Mauer的农夫所建,主要用于售卖鸭子和蛋,这座建筑以其不同寻常的形状和优越的地理位置吸引了不少顾客。该建筑初步建于纽约沿河的一条繁忙街道上,在最终选址在6km以外的佛兰德小镇之前,这只鸭子甚至还被移动到各处。这个长得像不倒翁的建筑几乎完全由铁丝网和混凝土制成,后来主要用作储藏室。除在文丘里文章里名垂千古,这只大鸭子还于2008年被列入美国国家史迹名录,从此在建筑史上有了一席之地。

1. Big Duck / Long Island New York, USA
The one that started it all, Robert Venturi coined the architectural term “duck” from this precedent in his 1972 book Learning from Las Vegas. Built in 1931 by duck farmer Martin Mauer, the structure was designed to sell (you guessed it) ducks and eggs, with its unusual shape and prime location attracting many customers. Initially built along a busy street in Riverhead NY, the duck enjoyed a nomadic life moving several times before settling 6km down to the small town of Flanders, Modelled after a Pekin duck, the roly-poly proportioned building was built almost entirely from wire mesh and concrete to make room for a gift store. Apart from being immortalized through Venturi’s writing, the Big Duck made architectural history by landing a spot on the USA’s National Register of Historic Places in 2008.


2、厕所先生之家/韩国,水原

无论它美与丑、无论你爱与恨,它们都在那里第3张图片
Image via wef.org

这座建于2007年的二层420平方米的房子原本是为韩国水原市前国会议员Sim Jae-Duck所建,他的绰号是“厕所先生”,Sim致力于改善国内厕所的状态。他曾在会议上说过“厕所也是一个拥有文化的中心居住场所”。整个建筑于2009年Sim去世后用于纪念他的毕生追求,建筑用管道与彩图钢板建成,暗喻厕所的白色陶瓷,这原本是他的私人住宅,而后被改造成一个厕所博物馆,主要用于展览与收藏,还可以开展为发展中国家的公共浴室集资的各项活动。这座建筑里有四个洗手间,甚至有一个地板到天花板的玻璃,在按动按钮之后能够变得不透明。

2. Mr. Toilet House / Suwon, South Korea
The two-story, 420 square meter house was originally built in 2007 for Sim Jae-Duck (fittingly named), former congressman and mayor of the Suwon province of South Korea. Nicknamed “Mr. Toilet” for his career-defining pursuit, Sim was devoted to improving the state of restrooms in the country. “The toilet is also a central living place that possesses culture," he said at an assembly. The house is a literal monument to Sim’s eccentric quest of beautifying the restroom – with stairways following the movement of pipes and a painted steel exterior alluding to the white ceramics used in toilets. After Sim’s death in 2009, the private home was transformed into a toilet museum, with exhibitions, collections, and activities dedicated to funding public bathrooms in developing countries. Looking for the restroom? The building has four – one even featuring floor-to-ceiling glass that turns opaque at the push of a button.


3、Haines鞋屋/美国,宾夕法尼亚

无论它美与丑、无论你爱与恨,它们都在那里第4张图片
Image via visitpadutchcountry.com

鞋子商人Mahlon Haines曾经说过:”我要建这样的房子”。因此鞋屋诞生了,这是1948年Haines的商业广告形式。这座建筑有5层楼高,上面的楼层以前租给了夫妇,现在还举办建筑展览。这所房子的鞋头部分是客厅,鞋跟部分则是厨房,一家冰淇淋店则位于鞋面。

3. Haines Shoe House / Hallam Pennsylvania, USA
Shoe salesman Mahlon Haines reportedly approached the building’s architect with a boot and said: “build me a house like this”. The Shoe House was born; built by as a form of advertising for Haines’ business in 1948. The 25 foot-tall building is 5 stories high, with upper floors previously rented out to couples and now hosts building tours. The house is planned with its living room at the toe, the kitchen at the heel and living quarters running up the ankle of the boot. An ice-cream shop is also located in the shoe’s instep.


4、狗狗公园客栈/美国,爱达荷州

无论它美与丑、无论你爱与恨,它们都在那里第5张图片
© Wikimedia user Graystock licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

该建筑由艺术家Dennis Sullivan、Frances Conklin所设计,于2003年开业,是世界上最大的犬形建筑。室内以犬为主题,整个建筑类似美国传统的“路边建筑”,这些汽车旅馆是美国文化中根深蒂固的一部分(这与文丘里提及的后现代“鸭子”相类似)。这个建筑十分奇特,也可以举办不同的展览。

4. Dog Bark Park Inn / Idaho, USA
The two-bedroom B&B was designed and built by artists Dennis Sullivan & Frances Conklin, opening in 2003 as the world’s largest beagle-shaped building. With a canine-themed interior, the building is a quirky addition to America’s “roadside architecture” – popular in the early days of automobile vacation trips that formed a deep-rooted part of America’s culture (Many of these overlaps with the postmodern “ducks” that Venturi mentions). The beagle building gets quirkier, also hosting a museum for chainsaw artists (think painted timber sculptures of different dogs).


5、茶文化博物馆/中国,湄潭

无论它美与丑、无论你爱与恨,它们都在那里第6张图片
Image via skyrisecities.com

该博物馆于2010正式建成,是世界上最大的茶壶,高达78米,直径达24米。建筑完全就是个茶壶外观,5000多平方英尺(400多平方米)的博物馆是一个最“写实”的建筑。湄潭的茶叶历史悠久,素有“中国绿茶之乡”的美称。随着中国将尽量少设计“奇奇怪怪的建筑”的要求,我们很高兴看到这个建筑加入古怪作品的行列。

5. The Museum of Tea Culture / Meitan, China
Officially the erected as the world’s largest teapot in 2010, the museum rises to a height of 78 meters with a diameter that stretches as wide as 24 meters. A building entirely devoted to teapots, the 5,000-plus square foot museum is one of the most “duck-like” buildings both in design and program, taking literally to the next level. Meitan possesses a rich history surrounding tea - known as the hometown of Chinese green tea. With China deciding to steer away from “weird buildings” we’re glad to see this quirky addition make it in time.


6、Chiat/Day/Mojo公司总部(盖里)/美国,加利福尼亚

无论它美与丑、无论你爱与恨,它们都在那里第7张图片
© Flickr user ikkoskinen licensed under CC BY 2.0

不仅仅是解构主义,这肯定也是个怪诞的作品。这个Chiat/Day/Mojo公司总部,盖里设计了一个望远镜作为入口。这个后现代风格的建筑以其不寻常的风格和混杂的材料而闻名。十年后,谷歌宣布他们将租赁这座房屋作为办公场所的扩大区域,这个望远镜现在则作为他们威尼斯办公室的入口。

6. Chiat/Day Building by Frank Gehry / Venice, California, USA
Not deconstructivist, but still curvy – this is definitely one of the architect’s weirder works. Frank Gehry designed these binoculars as an entrance to his more Gehry-like Chiat/Day commercial building (behind) in 2001. The postmodern-style building is known for its unusual mishmash of different architectural styles and materials. Ten years later, Google announced they would be leasing the building as part of their Los Angeles expansion – the binoculars now serving as an entryway to their Venice offices.


7、Wolfartsweier幼儿园/德国

无论它美与丑、无论你爱与恨,它们都在那里第8张图片
Image via karlsruhe.de

这个建筑于2011年由艺术家Tomi Ungerer和建筑师Ayla Suzan Yöndel设计建造,这个可爱的幼儿园的细节设计已经超越了它的隐喻。建筑由混凝土和金属板构成,两层空间可以让自然光通过圆形的“眼睛”窗户进入室内,建筑的入口是一只巨大的猫,它的腹部是上课的地方,可爱的造型,绿色的“毛发”屋顶和滑梯形“尾巴”使建筑保持了它的游戏精神。

7. Kindergarten Wolfartsweier / Karlsluhe, Germany
Designed and built in 2011 by artist Tomi Ungerer and architect Ayla Suzan Yöndel, this adorable kindergarten goes beyond metaphor in its details. Clad in concrete and metal, the two-floor building allows natural light to flood inside through its round window “eyes”. Though the idea of entering through the mouth of a giant cat and having class in its belly sounds creepy - an endearing façade, green “fur” roof and tail-shaped slide ensure the building stays true to its playful spirit.


8、Cabazon恐龙/美国,加利福尼亚

无论它美与丑、无论你爱与恨,它们都在那里第9张图片
Image via Wikimedia taken by Wikimedia user Jllm06 (public domain)

从20世纪60年代开始,这个巨型恐龙就被雕塑家Claude K. Bell放在路边吸引路人来到他的汽车旅馆(现已关闭)。第一只恐龙“Dinny”于1975年建立,随后在1981年,第二只恐龙Mr-Rex也建成了,Dinny运用的是附近公路上的各种废弃材料,是钢框架和金属网格为基础构架。Bell原来还打算再建一只“猛犸”,但最终未能实现。1988年Bell死后,他的财产被出售,现在则用于投资博物馆和礼品店。

8. Cabazon Dinosaurs / California, USA
Started in the 1960s, the giant dinosaurs were intended as roadside attractions by the sculptor Claude K. Bell (see 4) to attract customers to his Wheel Inn Restaurant (now closed). The first - named “Dinny” was built over a period of 11 years by 1975, with “Mr-Rex” added later in 1981. Bell created Dinny out of salvaged material from the neighboring highway: with a steel framework and an expanded metal grid forming its shape, before being covered in coats of “shotcerete” spray concrete. A wooly mammoth was also intended to be built but was never realized. After Bell’s death in 1988, the property was sold and is now used to host a creationist museum and gift shop.


9、Longaberger总部大楼/美国,纽瓦克

无论它美与丑、无论你爱与恨,它们都在那里第10张图片
© Wikimedia user Barry haynes licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0

随着“鸭子”的走红,这个隆加伯格篮子大楼是又一具象建筑新作品。作为该公司最畅销产品的具体体现,这个180000平方英尺(约16722平方米)的大楼于1997年开业。该公司的创始人Dave Longaberger原本考虑的是所有的分公司都遵循篮子状的形式,但只有这个公司总部是在他临死之前完成的作品。如今这里已无人居住,甚至在2014年停止缴纳房产税。可悲的是这个著名的“篮子”并没有潜在的买家,它就此没落。

9. Longaberger Building Headquarters / Newark, USA
Along with the Big Duck, the Longaberger basket building is a fixture in novelty architecture. Built as the literal embodiment of the company’s best-selling product, the 180,000 square foot building opened in 1997. The company’s founder Dave Longaberger had originally wanted all companies to follow a basket-like form, but only the headquarters was completed prior to his death. Nowadays has been tragically left unoccupied, with Longaberger ceasing to pay property taxes for the property in 2014. Sadly the famed basket has been left empty and languishing on the property market, with no potential buyers. A long and complicated foreclosure process is underw


[ 1 ] Frederick, Matthew “我在建筑学院学到的101件事”
[1] Frederick, Matthew "101 Things I Learned in Architecture School"



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