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城市“细胞”与城市发展第1张图片

城市“细胞”的布局如何影响街区的功能与成功
How the Layout of Urban "Cells" Affects The Function and Success of Neighborhoods

由专筑网朱王倩,李韧编译

随着城市地区的发展,每个城市都形成了独特的结构逻辑。这种结构通常构思于特殊的基础之上,在分析和比较城市的表现时,人们并不常使用诸如“大都市”和“街区”这样的专业术语。为了寻求新的分析工具,Robin Renner在他的新书《城市现状:城市的分析与特点》中设想了一个基于解剖学的分类系统。通过使用卫星图像和个人体验的走访分析,来对全球各个城市地区进行深入调查,城市提供深入了解如何最好地组织交通网络和街道景观,从而促进形成健康的都市环境。

Renner的分析范围非常宏观,从跨越国界的大都市到城市主干道之间的小空间,他将后者称之为“城市细胞”。作为居民居住的主要单位,“城市细胞”对于定义城市的性质和效率时很重要。它们不仅由物理属性所定义,还来源于其内部发生的行为。以下是Renner在书中分析“城市细胞”的案例。

As urban areas develop, each city forms a unique structural logic. With this structure usually conceived on an ad-hoc basis, political terms such as “metropolitan area” and “neighborhood” are not always useful when analyzing and comparing the performance of cities. In a quest for new analytical tools, Robin Renner has devised an anatomically-based classification system in his new book Urban Being: Anatomy & Identity of the City. Through a thoughtful investigation of existing urban areas from around the globe using satellite images and personal experiences, Urban Being offers an insight into how transportation networks and streetscapes can be best organized to promote a healthy metropolitan environment.
Renner’s analysis ranges from macro-regions that can even cross country borders to the defined spaces between arterial roads in cities, which he calls "urban cells." As the neighborhoods and units in which inhabitants reside, urban cells are important when examining the identity and efficiency of a city. They are defined by both their physical properties and the actions that take place inside of them. Below is a small sample of how Renner analyzes urban cells from the book.


细胞结构

城市细胞的形态取决于两个主要因素:地形和交通。例如位于巴西的里约热内卢和阿姆斯特丹的运河,不同的地形条件产生了不同密度的细胞。例如,在洛杉矶,高速公路和道路网格被称为主要的动脉,这些主要的网络将城市压缩成中心,并在外围不断扩展,从而形成大型的住宅单元。反过来,这些形式会对单元中通常承载的建筑类型和功能产生影响。

Cell Structure
The form of an urban cell depends on two main factors: topography and transportation. Topographical conditions such as the mountains of Rio De Janeiro and canals of Amsterdam have created cells of varying densities. In Los Angeles for example, the network of highways and roads—referred to as main arteries—grids the city in such a way that compresses the center and expands in the periphery to form large residential cells. These forms, in turn, have an effect on the types of buildings and functions that are typically hosted in these cells.


街区细胞

城市“细胞”与城市发展第2张图片
Courtesy of Robin Renner

最小类型的城市细胞为街区细胞,这是一条由主要交通动脉包围的单独地块。由于高密度的汽车和行人交通,高层写字楼通常集中在这些区域。这些细胞拥挤繁杂,它们的这些特性阻碍了如居住和餐饮等需求安静氛围的项目的发展。洛杉矶、墨尔本、台北和上海等大型城市的金融区都是街区细胞的典型案例。

Block Cell
The smallest typology of urban cells is the block cell, which is a singular block surrounded by main traffic arteries. Due to high automobile and pedestrian traffic, high-rise office buildings typically concentrate here. The bustling nature of these cells discourages the development of quieter programs such as living and dining. Examples of block cell sub centers are the financial districts in Los Angeles, Melbourne, Taipei, and Shanghai.


线型细胞

城市“细胞”与城市发展第3张图片
Courtesy of Robin Renner

当一条主要干道被分成两条单行道时,就会产生一条狭窄的行人通道,这便是线性细胞。汽车交通的效率愈发缓慢,而公共交通的发展则愈发快速,线性细胞已成为商业中心的主要形式。科帕卡巴纳便是一个线性细胞的典型例子,这里一直是巴西里约热内卢购物胜地。

Linear Cell
A linear cell is often created when a main artery is divided into two one-way streets, causing more narrow and pedestrian-friendly avenues. Along with factors such as slow automobile traffic and strong public transportation, linear cells are important commercial hubs. Copacabana is an example of a linear cell that has long been utilized as a destination for shopping in Rio de Janeiro.


中心细胞

城市“细胞”与城市发展第4张图片
Courtesy of Robin Renner

城市中最大的细胞是中心细胞。这个细胞通常是城市的中心起源。中心细胞的行人交通密度最高,因此在这里通常设有大量的商店和餐馆。由于在这些细胞中经常不允许汽车等基础设施的通行,因此公共交通在这里便起着重要的作用。例如斯图加特和慕尼黑这样的城市就拥有强大的中央细胞,从而将商业基础设施和行人连接起来。

Central Cell
The largest cell in the nucleus is the central cell. This cell is often the origin of the city and in the physical center. Central cells have the highest density of pedestrian traffic, therefore housing a large concentration of stores and restaurants. Since these cells have often divested of automobile infrastructure, public transportation plays an important role in the movement of people towards the center. Cities such as Stuttgart and Munich have strong central cells that connect commerce and pedestrians.


细胞功能

细胞的使用方式也可以确定其规模和交通模式。细胞功能则具有更多的特征,其中包含基本的生活设施以及其他众多不同功能,如公园和商业。优先考虑行人可及性的细胞一般都包含住宅,而拥有大量车辆的细胞则更利于商业和工业的发展。

Cell Function
The way in which a cell is used is can also determine its size and traffic pattern. Cell functions can range from offering only the basic conditions for living to including more diverse uses such as parks and commerce. Cells with a priority on pedestrian accessibility typically feature residential housing, and cells with heavy automobile traffic favor business and industry.


居住细胞

城市“细胞”与城市发展第5张图片
Courtesy of Robin Renner

成功的住宅单元的特点是其内部具有缓慢的交通条件,这里还有行人步道,也有着树木覆盖率极高的公园,周边的超市、学校等基础配套设施大大提高了细胞内的居民生活质量。虽然住宅小区应该具有相对安静的居住环境,但它不应该与城市的其他功能部分完全隔绝。其连接主要通过主干道和公共交通中心提供。Renner将住宅单元的理想尺寸范围定为400米到800米,居住细胞的典型案例有墨西哥城的Polanco和圣地亚哥的Providencia。

Residential Cell
Successful residential cells feature slow interior traffic that allows for pedestrian-focused streets. Trees, centrally located parks, supermarkets, and schools increase the quality of life for residents in this cell. Although the residential cell should provide a quiet living area, it should not be completely disconnected from the rest of the urban nucleus. This connection is provided primarily through the arterial main roads and the public transportation centers found along them. Renner defines the ideal size for residential cells to be between 400 meters and 800 meters based on examples such as Polanco in Mexico City and Providencia in Santiago.


工业细胞

城市“细胞”与城市发展第6张图片
Courtesy of Robin Renner

大型中心细胞连接着高速公路、铁路或河流,因此有利于工业的发展。历史上,一座城市的发展成功与否,一直与工业出口量密切相关,因此,工业发展是城市的一大重要因素。Renner说,每个工业细胞应当具有便利的公共交通,这样工人就可以缩短通勤时间,减少人们对私家汽车的依赖。加拿大Edmonton的石油和天然气企业是工业细胞的典型案例,它因邻近火车轨道而形成的工业网络。

Industrial Cell
Due to their access to highways, railroads, or rivers, large central cells are conducive to industry. The growth of a city has been historically tied to the success of its industrial exports and is still a vital factor in its strength. According to Renner, public transportation should be introduced into industrial cells so that workers can have a shortened commute and be less reliant on cars. Edmonton’s oil and gas enterprise is an example of an industrial cell that formed through its proximity to train tracks.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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