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两位摄影师联手,为你展示镜头下的格鲁吉亚苏联建筑第1张图片
Image © Roberto Conte

来自摄影师Roberto Conte和Stefano Perego镜头下的格鲁吉亚苏联建筑遗产
Georgia's Soviet Architectural Heritage Captured by Photographers Roberto Conte and Stefano Perego

由专筑网李韧,朱王倩编译

格鲁吉亚共和国的过去充满了动荡和斗争。格鲁吉亚因其为Joseph Stalin的诞生地而闻名于世。这个国家的历史从未平静过,但其国家的历史遗迹却让我们感到惊艳。

格鲁吉亚残存的苏联地标建筑风格独特,介于传统与现代之间。意大利摄影师Roberto Conte 和Stefano Perego将格鲁吉亚的苏联建筑遗产通过相机捕捉下来,在下面的文章中与大家分享。

The Republic of Georgia’s past is defined by turbulence and a struggle for identity. A former republic of the USSR, Georgia is perhaps best known as the birthplace of Joseph Stalin. The nation's history has been anything but calm, and remnants of the architectural past provide a glimpse into the nation that was.
The country's remaining Soviet landmarks give Georgia an air of being caught between the past and the present. Italian photographers Roberto Conte and Stefano Perego capture this in their photo series, Soviet Architecture Heritage in Georgia, with a compilation of photos that highlights the existing Soviet heritage in Georgian architecture today.

两位摄影师联手,为你展示镜头下的格鲁吉亚苏联建筑第2张图片
Image © Stefano Perego

追溯到公元一世纪,现代格鲁吉亚首都第比利斯是欧亚草原上的重要贸易点,也是伟大的丝绸之路的先驱。该地区周围环绕有蒙古、波斯、奥斯曼帝国,因为第比利斯地区的主要信仰是基督教,所以由于宗教原因,他们常常受到周边伊斯兰人的入侵[ 1 ]。到十八世纪末,这里已变成废墟。

Dating back to the 1st century, the modern-day Georgian capital, Tbilisi, existed as an important trading point on the Eurasian Steppe Route, a precursor to the Great Silk Road. Mongol, Persian, and Ottoman empires surrounded the area, and because Tbilisi was also the Christian outpost in the region, the city repeatedly suffered from invasions by their hostile Islamic neighbors [1]. By the late 18th century, the capital was in ruins.

两位摄影师联手,为你展示镜头下的格鲁吉亚苏联建筑第3张图片
Image © Roberto Conte

1921年,俄罗斯干涉第比利斯,并切断格鲁吉亚的伊斯兰联系,从此,这片领土便成为了苏联的管辖范围。建筑风格便成为苏联控制人们意识形态的关键工具,第比利斯市的总体规划、古迹和建筑都具有浓厚的苏联特点。

In 1921, Russians intervened in Tbilisi and cut Georgia’s Islamic ties, declaring the fragile nation as a Soviet state. Architecture became one of the Soviets' key tools to exercise their ideology. The city of Tbilisi was regulated by masterplans, and monuments and buildings glorifying the Soviet Union surfaced on every street corner.

两位摄影师联手,为你展示镜头下的格鲁吉亚苏联建筑第4张图片
Image © Stefano Perego

虽然苏联在1991年解体,但他们的纪念碑幸存了下来,这是对苏维埃政权的纪念,并代表了该国家的主要建筑风格。从那之后,格鲁吉亚又恢复了原来脆弱、不稳定的状态,这个国家从俄罗斯的管辖中脱离,形成一个独立的国家,这是一个艰难的过程。内战和政治罢工浪潮席卷了该地区,国家状态多次在废墟与重建之间转换[2]。

Although the Soviet Union fell in 1991, their monuments survived. Constant reminders of the country’s Soviet past remained and populated the country's built environment. After the fall, Georgia reverted to being a weak, unstable state. The country struggled through the arduous process of seceding from Russia and forming an independent nation. A wave of civil wars and political strikes swept through the area and left the country, once again, in ruins [2].

两位摄影师联手,为你展示镜头下的格鲁吉亚苏联建筑第5张图片
Image © Roberto Conte

今天,格鲁吉亚仍然有许多苏联建筑分散在各处。Conte和Perego为了寻找这些粗野主义和俄罗斯构成主义的作品走遍了格鲁吉亚。虽然这个国家一直在以现代风格为建设目标,但这两位意大利摄影师认为,格鲁吉亚的苏维埃建筑是这个国家的重要特征。许多格鲁吉亚苏维埃建筑都被摧毁了,然而,其他保存下来的建筑也被改造得面目全非。

Today, remnants of a Soviet-occupied Georgia are still scattered throughout the country. Conte and Perego traveled throughout Georgia to locate these Brutalist and Constructivist landmarks. Although the country has tried to modernize and forget the past, the Italian photographers view Georgia’s Soviet architecture as an important feature of the country’s urban landscape. Many examples of Georgia's Soviet architecture, including Andropov's Ears, have been destroyed. Others remain, however, and have been renovated to take on a new form.

两位摄影师联手,为你展示镜头下的格鲁吉亚苏联建筑第6张图片
Image © Stefano Perego

Conte和 Perego运用他们镜头下的作品,让人们关注到苏联建筑的表现主义,由Berdzenishvili设计的Marneuli雕像、俄罗斯和格鲁吉亚的友谊纪念碑等建筑遗迹都具有这些特点。人类形体也出现在许多苏联公共建筑的壁画上,如工业技术学院礼堂或考古博物馆。

Conte and Perego use their images to bring attention to the expressionist style apparent in the country’s Soviet architecture. This can be seen in the use of human forms in the statue by Berdzenishvili in Marneuli and Russian Georgian Friendship Monument near the Georgian border. Human forms also appear in murals painted on the side of many Soviet public buildings, such as the Auditorium of the Industrial Technical College or the Archeological Museum.

两位摄影师联手,为你展示镜头下的格鲁吉亚苏联建筑第7张图片
Image © Roberto Conte

考古博物馆有一个不规则的、几乎呈圆形的平面。这是许多格鲁吉亚苏维埃建筑的共同点,在Rituals的Djorbenadze宫殿中也具有这些特点。

The Archaeological Museum also exhibits the use of an almost circular plan. This was a common design decision in many examples of Georgian Soviet architecture and can also be seen at the Djorbenadze’s Palace of Rituals.

两位摄影师联手,为你展示镜头下的格鲁吉亚苏联建筑第8张图片
Image © Stefano Perego

苏联时期的一个重要里程碑是伊比利亚(Iberia)酒店。该建筑建于1967年,后来由格鲁吉亚建筑师G. Chakhava和Z. Jalghania改建为Radisson Blu酒店,改建之后,这座大楼的外观完全改变了。

这两位摄影师对于Ministry of Highway Construction项目特别感兴趣。这个项目是一个融合历史传统的建筑,其中融合了格鲁吉亚的传统屋顶、新陈代谢派风格特点,以及El Lissitzky的水平天际线,该建筑在近期也将通过修复与改建,从而用作格鲁吉亚银行总部。

An important Soviet landmark was the Iberia Hotel. Constructed in 1967, it was later transformed by Georgian architects G. Chakhava and Z. Jalghania. The building's exterior was completely altered and today is being used as a Radisson Blu Hotel.
The pair was especially interested in the Ministry of Highway Construction. This particular project was the culmination of a fusion of several architectural influences of the Georgian past—traditional Georgian architecture roofs, metabolist utopias, and the horizontal skyscrapers of El Lissitzky. The structure has also been restored and converted—today, it serves as the Bank of Georgia's headquarters.

两位摄影师联手,为你展示镜头下的格鲁吉亚苏联建筑第9张图片
Image © Roberto Conte

虽然格鲁吉亚共和国努力发展现代社会,但Conte和Perego仍然选择展示过去。粗野主义和俄罗斯构成主义的纪念碑,仍然是格鲁吉亚的重要组成部分,并且也代表了这个国家漫长历史中的一个片段。这些历史遗留下来的文物则作为纪念物,反映了苏维埃时期的城市发展状况。

Although the Republic of Georgia strives to advance to modern society, Conte and Perego choose to highlight the past. The Brutalist and Constructivist monuments which continue to occupy much of Georgia’s landscape offer a brief glance into a small part of the nation's long history. The fragments which remain serve as reminders and reflections of the urban conditions of the Soviet era.

两位摄影师联手,为你展示镜头下的格鲁吉亚苏联建筑第10张图片
Image © Stefano Perego

参考文献:
1、Shavishvili, Nick. "View from Tbilisi."《建筑评论》第213刊,总第1275刊 (05, 2003): 32
2、同上

References:
1.        Shavishvili, Nick. "View from Tbilisi." The Architectural Review 213, no. 1275 (05, 2003): 32
2.        Ibid.

两位摄影师联手,为你展示镜头下的格鲁吉亚苏联建筑第11张图片
Image © Stefano Perego

两位摄影师联手,为你展示镜头下的格鲁吉亚苏联建筑第12张图片
Image © Roberto Conte


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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