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想了解世界最高建筑的测量方法吗?别犹豫,点进来第1张图片

从左到右依次是:纽约新世贸大厦、哈利法塔、台北101、上海塔/From left to right: One World Trade Center, image © James Ewing; Burj Khalifa, image © Wikimedia user Donaldytonglicensed under CC BY-SA 3.0; Taipei 101, image © Wikimedia user peellden licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0; Shanghai Tower, image © Gensler/Shen Zhonghai.

10种不同测量摩天大楼高度的方法
The 10 Different Ways to Measure a Skyscraper's Height

由专筑网芮万里,李韧编译

在出现AutoCAD或者Revit这些辅助软件之前,我们是如何来确定建筑的真实高度?我们应该将尺寸线定位在哪里?测量摩天大楼的历史可以追溯到1885年,当时的芝加哥家庭保险大楼将自己称作是世界上的第一高层,但是高层建筑联合委员会,也就是后来的世界高层建筑与都市人居学会(CTBUH),成立于1969年。

许多人认为CTBUH是高层建筑权威机构,该结构所得出的高层建筑高度数据在世界范围内的运用最为广泛。

然而,CTBUH并不是唯一测量建筑高度的唯一组织,全球建筑信息数据“Emporis”同样也能够测量建筑高度。

这两个组织提供了10种不同测量摩天大楼高度的方式,我们将两者提出的方法进行了如下总结。

How do we determine the actual height of a building? Where do we place the dimension line? The history of measuring skyscrapers dates back to 1885, way before AutoCAD or Revit dimensions, when the Home Insurance Building in Chicago was among the first to boast of being the world's tallest building, but the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)—or the Joint Committee on Tall Buildings, as it was originally called—wasn’t formed until 1969.
Recognized by many as the foremost authority on tall buildings, the CTBUH is often cited in determining the world’s (or country’s or city’s) tallest building.
However, the CTBUH is not the only organization with a stake in measuring buildings; the global building information database Emporis is also a major player.
Between them, these two organizations provide 10 different ways to determine a skyscraper's height, which we have summarized below.


CTBUH的测量方法

CTBUH主要提供了三种方式来测量摩天大楼,并且这些所有的测量方法都以外部楼面完成面的高度到最低地面层入口的高度作为它们测量的范围。

CTBUH Measurement Methods
CTBUH recognizes three ways to measure a skyscraper, all of which use the level of the finished floor outside the lowest ground level entrance as their baseline.

想了解世界最高建筑的测量方法吗?别犹豫,点进来第2张图片

via CTBUH

1. 建筑顶部测量法

这是测量建筑高度的常规方法。

建筑的顶部高度包括结构或装饰高度,例如尖顶或者女儿墙,但是并不包括技术设备的高度。

功能性技术设备有可能按照需求产生不同变化,例如旗杆、天线或者是标识标牌。

通过建筑顶部测量法来确定的高层建筑的高度,往往会引发一切争议,因为人们对于建筑顶部以及“功能性技术设备”的定义也许会有所不同。

1. Architectural Top
This is the most common way to measure a building.
The architectural top of a building includes any building structure or ornaments, like spires or parapets, but it does not include what the CTBUH considers “functional-technical equipment.”
Functional-technical equipment is anything that may be subject to change, such as a flagpole, antennae, or signage.
The architectural top method is used to determine the world’s tallest buildings, although due to the subjectivity of what is "architectural" and what is merely "functional-technical equipment," it can sometimes lead to some controversy.

想了解世界最高建筑的测量方法吗?别犹豫,点进来第3张图片

via CTBUH

2. 最高楼层测量法

要将楼层算作是可用于测量的最高楼层,该楼层的设计必须满足为人们定期提供合法居住空间的要求。

因此机械设备空间不能被计算在内。这一测量方法也应用于计算建筑的层数。

2. Highest Occupiable Floor
To count as the highest occupiable floor, it must be a conditioned space designed for people to legally inhabit it on a regular basis.
Mechanical spaces don’t count. This measurement is taken to the floor level.

想了解世界最高建筑的测量方法吗?别犹豫,点进来第4张图片

via CTBUH

3. 建筑顶端测量法

建筑的顶端无论从材料还是功能上看,往往都可能会是建筑的最高点。

例如,威利斯大厦的屋顶层高达1451英尺(约442米),但是如果利用顶端测量的方法来计算,它的高度就会达到1729英尺(约527米)。

3. The Tip
The tip of the building is the highest possible point, no matter its material or function.
For example, Willis Tower’s architectural top is the roof level at 1,451 feet (442 meters) but its tip measures in at 1,729 feet (527 meters).

想了解世界最高建筑的测量方法吗?别犹豫,点进来第5张图片

via CTBUH

Emporis的测量方法

除了上述三种方法,全球建筑信息数据“Emporis”也定义了其他几种测量建筑高度的方式。

为了更加便捷地提供建筑数据,Emporis通过它们的标准建立了不同的建筑高度测量方式。

通过一些测量方法可以得到精确真实的数据,然而还有一些测量方法能够在无法获得精确数据的情况下对建筑高度进行估算。

大多数测量方法只提供建筑物内部的测量数据,而不是测量整个建筑的总高度。

Emporis同样在许多测量方式中使用了不同的基准:CTBUH的基准是从建筑最低层的入口开始计算,而Emporis则使用了建筑与地面接触的最低点,而不是以地面和楼层的关系来作为基准。


4. 估算建筑高度

为了估算一栋建筑的建筑高度,Emporis也许会根据已知的列表数值来进行测算。

例如,对于某栋建筑的结构的近似高度,Emporis会考虑参考在位置和用途上同被测建筑相似的建筑的楼层高度来对其进行估算。


5. 利用楼面到天花板的高度进行测量

这种测量方法具有主观性。Emporis的数据库将会提供楼面到天花板的距离。

一栋建筑的高度可以通过计算各层楼板顶面到天花板高度的总和来进行估算,然而这种估算方法非常粗略。


6. 楼板高度测量法

Emporis提供的另外一个测量建筑的方法是通过计算两个相邻楼板顶面之间的高度,从而对建筑高度进行估算。

为了估算整个建筑的总高度,楼板与楼板之间的测量方法比楼面到天花板的测量方法更加精确,因为它所测量的是两个楼层之间的空间。


7. 主要屋顶测量法

拥有标志性屋顶的建筑可以使用这种方法进行测量,相当于是测量它们主要的屋顶层。这种测量方法的测量对象不适用于顶层公寓或是塔楼。


8. 观景台测量法

通过测量基准层到向外开放的观景台的高度来确定建筑高度。就像Meganom在曼哈顿设计的豪华超高层摩天大楼中的一样。观景台往往是最高的室外观景空间。


9. 观景层测量法

不同于观望台,观景层的高度是建筑中最高的室内观景空间。人们可以试着回想一下2016年世博会安塔利亚高塔中的360度观景层。


10. 屋顶测量法

屋顶的高度是建筑立面的最高部分。该测量方法的测量对象并不包括建筑顶部的尖顶或是女儿墙,但是同屋顶测量法相比较而言,这种方法包括了顶层公寓或者是塔楼。

除了上述方法,仍然有许多方法来测量建筑的高度,但是最终你采取的方法取决于你想要获得的信息。毕竟先了解自己的目的再采取恰当的方式才能测量出合适的结果。

Emporis Measurement Methods
In addition to the three methods above, global building information database Emporis defines several other ways to determine a building’s height.
In order to easily provide building data, Emporis defines different categories of information through their standards.
Some are designed for factual accuracy, whereas others are used to provide estimates when no more accurate data can be found.
Still more are designed to provide internal measurements of a building, rather than determining the building's overall height.
Emporis also uses a slightly different baseline for many of its measurements: while the CTBUH uses the floor level at the lowest entrance, Emporis uses the lowest point at which the building meets the ground, regardless of its relationship to floor levels.

4. Estimated Architectural
In order to estimate a building’s architectural height, Emporis may calculate the height based on a list of known values.
For example, the structure’s approximate height taking into account floor heights of buildings with a similar location and usage.

5. Floor-To-Ceiling
This is pretty self-explanatory. Emporis' database provides the median distance from floor-to-ceiling.
The height of a building may be estimated (very roughly) by calculating the sum of measurements from the top of the floor plate to the ceiling for each level.

6. Floor-To-Floor
Another example in which Emporis provides a median measurement for a building, floor-to-floor height calculates the space between the top of two adjacent floor plates.
For estimating total height, floor-to-floor is more accurate than floor-to-ceiling, since it factors in the space in between levels.

7. Main Roof
Buildings with significant roof levels can use this method to measure up to their primary roof plate. This measurement does not include penthouses or turrets.

8. Observation Deck
From the base level to the open-to-air observation deck. An observation deck is defined as the highest exterior viewing space, like the one Meganom designed for a supertall luxury skyscraper in Manhattan.

9. Observation Floor
Unlike the observation deck, the observation floor height is the highest indoor viewing space. Think of the 360-degree observation floor designed for the Expo 2016 Antalya Observation Tower.

10. Roof
The roof height is the highest exterior portion of the buildings shell enclosure.This does not include spires or parapets like the architectural top does, but for buildings with a "main roof," it does include rooftop penthouses or pavilions, unlike the main roof measurement.

There are many ways to define a building's height. But ultimately the method you pick depends on what information you are looking for. The goal should lead you to the right building measurement method.


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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