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11个关于测量的小技巧,你掌握了吗?第1张图片
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建筑师的11个测量技巧
11 Nifty Measuring Hacks for Architects

由专筑网李韧,杨帆编译

无论你是否相信,建筑师也与其他任何人一样,每件事都有捷径与技巧,无论是在办公室还是在施工现场,建筑师都有完成任务的一套小窍门。以下是11个对你帮助极大的测量技巧。

Believe it or not, architects are just like everyone else! They love a shortcut in their tool belt to accomplish a task. Whether it's in the office or out in the field, all architects have a handful of tricks up their sleeves. The following are ten measuring hacks you can introduce to your daily routine. You can thank us later.

11个关于测量的小技巧,你掌握了吗?第2张图片
Courtesy of Aric Gitomer Architect

1、这个房间有多大?

建筑师有个通病,那就是身处在某个空间时,无论是候诊室还是参观,他们都会不自禁地开始思考,这个房间到底有多大?建筑师通常从自身的尺度感和一些装饰细节考虑,最常见的方法便是计算瓷砖数量,一般来说,这些瓷砖的尺度都是2英尺*4英尺(0.6米*1.2米),或2英尺*2英尺(1.2米*1.2米)。


2、这座建筑有多高?

尺度线索其实很多,不只是瓷砖。在建筑外立面上,建筑师也可以通过计算砖块、墙板来计算建筑高度,通过这种方法,建筑师可以大致了解建筑的开窗高度和整体高度。因此如果要估算尺寸,建筑师只需要拍一张照片,便可以完成这项任务。

1. How Big is This Room?
An architect will typically be sitting in a space whether it be a doctor’s waiting room or a restaurant (it doesn’t matter what the space is!) and ponder how big it is. The architect will typically look for a visual clue to do their calculations. The most common and easy one is to count the ceiling tiles. These tiles are typically 2ft x 4ft or 2ft x 2ft and are easily counted while sitting during their wonderment.

2. How Tall is This Building?
Visual clues are everywhere! Not just in the ceiling. On the exterior of the building, an architect can count bricks, siding exposure or masonry units and easily calculate the height. Whether it is a window opening or the overall height with minimal information it can be done. With one incremental measurement, an architect will take a photo and back at the office count away!

11个关于测量的小技巧,你掌握了吗?第3张图片
Courtesy of Aric Gitomer Architect

3、人体尺度

首先,建筑师要了解自己的身体尺寸,例如,有的人的脚长为12英寸(约30厘米),那么,这样便可以通过脚步来测量地板尺寸。建筑师通常都了解自己的步距和手臂跨度。一位建筑师表示,他在钱包里放了一张索引卡,其中包含了他的各项身体数据。


4、网格垫

在建筑设计的过程中,建筑师通常会使用网格垫来限定草图的尺寸,网格不仅能够保证建筑师画出的线条横平竖直,还能够作为比例工具,从而让建筑师画出尺寸相对正确的草图作品。大多数情况下,网格垫的比例约为1:8或1:4。

3. Body Parts
Know your physical body measurements! Luckily, for this architect, my foot is exactly 12 inches which makes it easy to calculate floor measurements in one-foot increments one step at a time. Architects typically know their own stride, the span of arms, etc. One architect told me he keeps an index card in his wallet with his fingertip to fingertip spread eagle, thumb tip to index tip, height, stride, elbow to middle fingertip and a few other measurements!

4. The Grid Pad
An architect typically uses a grid pad in the field to complete a survey or create a sketch. The pad is not just to ensure the architect’s lines are straight. They are actually using the designated incremental grid as a proportion tool to measure. Most pads come in 1/8” or ¼” increments.

11个关于测量的小技巧,你掌握了吗?第4张图片
Courtesy of Aric Gitomer Architect

5、地基宽度

如果你仔细浏览过施工图,你会发现基础宽度尺寸通常以0、4、8结尾,这是因为混凝土砌块的宽度一般为16英寸(约40厘米),因此这种尺寸便于施工人员的施工,从而有效地减少施工步骤。


6、.0833333333

建筑师常常要与其他专业人员讨论图纸,而不同的专业有不同的测量步骤与单位,工地工程师总是以英尺为测量单位(并非英寸),因此,如果建筑师要更好地与工地施工人员协调,最好将原有的英寸乘上0.0833333,从而转化为英尺。例如,4英寸*0.083333=0.33英尺,这很合理,因为1英尺的三分之一约为4英寸。

5. Width of the Foundation
If you ever took a look at a set of construction documents you may notice the foundation widths usually measure in a dimension that ends in 0”, 4” or 8”. The reason for this is because a typical concrete block is 16” in width and when you lay them out those dimensions will allow the mason to use a half or full block and minimize cutting.

6. .0833333333
Architects are always coordinating their drawings with their consultants’ whether Electrical, Mechanical, Structural or Site Engineers. The Site Engineer always has their dimensional nomenclature in feet (no inches!). So if an architect wants to coordinate the building elevations’ numbers with the site plans information the architect must convert the feet/inch by multiplying the inch component by .0833333. So, for instance, a 4” dimension multiplied by .0833333 equals .33’. This makes sense since 4 inches equals one-third of a foot.

11个关于测量的小技巧,你掌握了吗?第5张图片
Courtesy of Aric Gitomer Architect

7、英亩该如何计算?

每个建筑师都知道数字43560!据说这是一个奇数(但实际上它是偶数)。为什么建筑师会熟悉这个数字呢?如果建筑师正在绘制场地总平面,CAD程序能够自动算出所绘制区域的总面积,此时的计算单位为平方英尺,为了把这个总面积单位换算成英亩,建筑师只要将总面积数据除以43560即可。


8、十进制算法

建筑师最喜欢的十进制数字是:125、25、375、5、625、75和875。你也许会不可思议,因为没有人会喜欢小数点。可是,当建筑师将数据输入CAD时,输入十进制数字要方便得多。以上数字可对应以下分数: 1 / 8、3 / 8、¼、½、5 / 8、¾ 和7 / 8。

7. How Many Acres is That?
Every architect knows the number 43,560! That is such an odd number (well actually it is an even number). So why does an architect know this number? If the architect is drawing a site plan his/her cad program will typically list the area of the drawn property in square footage. To convert this number into acres the architect simply divides by 43,560!

8. Decimal Equivalents
An architect has favorite decimal numbers and they are; 125, .25, .375, .5, .625, .75 and .875. You may be saying that’s crazy, who has favorite decimal numbers? Well, when an architect is inputting data into a cad drawing to draw it is much easier to type in the decimal equivalent. The above list corresponds with the following fractions; 1/8, ¼, 3/8, ½, 5/8, ¾ and 7/8.

11个关于测量的小技巧,你掌握了吗?第6张图片
Courtesy of Aric Gitomer Architect

9. Division

如果一个建筑师正在进行手绘工作,那么建筑师会比较希望通过轻松的方式划分每个房间,因此,他们最喜爱的工具是三角板。但是如果一个大空间的尺寸为9.7英尺,你想把它等分成5个房间,怎么才能以最高的效率完成这项工作?此时你可以拿着三角板,把零刻度放在房间的一端,另一端则对应相应能够被5整除的刻度,然后将刻度总长分为5份,分别做上标记。例如刻度总长为10英尺,那么你就每2英尺做上标记,然后接下来的工作便会轻松很多。如果建筑师找不到三角板了,那么也可以用橡皮筋来完成这件事,但是事先要在橡皮筋上画上相应的分割点,然后就可以完成接下来的工作。


10、运用你随身携带的物品

如果你发现你手边的其他物品,比如钞票,那这会为你减少许多工作量,每张钞票的尺寸都是固定的,你可以运用钞票来投机取巧地完成测量工作。


11、运用工程师的计量单位:¼” = 1’-0”

如果你正在绘制¼” = 1’-0”的图例,同时你想快速地画出16”,此时,你可以运用1” = 30’这个规律,此时你便会发现,每个10’都等于1’-4”。

9. Division
If an architect is drawing by hand, (many actually still do this!), and the architect wants to easily divide a room into even spaces a favorite tool is the architect’s triangular scale. But let’s say the room is 9’-7” wide and you want to divide it into five equal spaces what can you do to make that an easy task? You take your scale and place it over the drawing at an angle so that one end is at zero and the other end is at a number easily divided by 5 and tick off the increments. So if you put the scale at an angle so one end is 10 feet you would tick off every two feet! Let’s say the architect has a messy desk and cannot locate his scale (happens all the time) you can do this trick with a rubber band. Tick off equal segments on the rubber band and then stretch it out.

10. Know What’s in Your Pocket (or Bag)
It’s great if you are aware of other items that you typically have handy, such as a dollar bill. Did you know a dollar bill or any other US denomination scales 49 feet by 21 feet at 1/8” = 1’-0” scale? Or an 8 ½” x 11” sheet of paper comes out to 34 feet by 44 feet at ¼” = 1’-0” scale.

11. Use Your Engineer’s Scale for ¼” = 1’-0” Drawings!
If you are drawing in ¼” = 1’-0” and you want to tick off 16” spacings in a hurry grab your engineer’s scale flip it to the 1” = 30’ side and you will see that every 10’ is equal to 1’-4”. Great for laying out those floor joists!


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

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