网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第1张图片

AD经典:耶鲁大学美术馆
AD Classics: Yale University Art Gallery / Louis Kahn

由专筑网李韧,蒋晖编译

路易•康(Louis Kahn)于1947年加入了耶鲁大学建筑学院,二战之后,耶鲁大学建筑学院的院长是建筑大师George Howe,该院还有诸如康、菲利普•约翰逊(Philip Johnson)、约瑟夫•亚伯斯(Josef Albers)等现代主义代表人物在此任教,因此学院的发展逐渐从美术方向转向了先锋主义。在1950年学校要求将艺术、建筑、艺术历史专业合并在一座新建筑之中时,一座现代主义风格的设计方案便应运而生。[1]该项目于1953年完成,在路易•康的耶鲁大学美术馆建筑中包含有展厅、教室、办公场所,同时,这也是康的建筑生涯中第一个重要突破。

Yale University’s School of Architecture was in the midst of pedagogical upheaval when Louis Kahn joined the faculty in 1947. With skyscraper architect George Howe as dean and modernists like Kahn, Philip Johnson, and Josef Albers as lecturers, the post-war years at Yale trended away from the school’s Beaux-Arts lineage towards the avant-garde. And so, when the consolidation of the university’s art, architecture, and art history departments in 1950 demanded a new building, a modernist structure was the natural choice to concretize an instructional and stylistic departure from historicism.[1] Completed in 1953, Louis Kahn’s Yale University Art Gallery building would provide flexible gallery, classroom, and office space for the changing school; at the same time, Kahn’s first significant commission signaled a breakthrough in his own architectural career—a career now among the most celebrated of the second half of the twentieth century.

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第2张图片

当时学校对这座美术馆和设计中心有着明确的要求,为此,康设计了开放式阁楼——这个空间既可以用作教室,也可以用作展览。[2]康的最初构想是通过中央服务空间来满足学校的需求。这个服务空间包含有楼梯、卫生间,以及公共部分,从而能够在这个空间的两侧形成连贯的实用场所。再后来,人们将这个理念区分为“服务”与“被服务”空间,这也是路易•康作品中的常见处理手法。[3]耶鲁大学校友兼教师Alexander Purves认为:“这样的排布方式明确地区分了建筑的主要功能与次要功能,同时二者相辅相成,相互呼应。”[4]这样一来,展览空间和教学区域则被放在了同一个水平空间之中,其下部则是一些公众使用的区域。总的来说,康并没有把那些附属设施放置于角落,则是直接将它们设置于中央,在他的建筑中,每个空间都非常重要。

The university clearly articulated a program for the new gallery and design center (as it was then called): Kahn was to create open lofts that could convert easily from classroom to gallery space and vice versa.[2] Kahn’s early plans responded to the university’s wishes by centralizing a core service area—home to the stairwell, bathrooms, and utility shafts—in order to open up uninterrupted space on either side of the core. Critics have interpreted this scheme as a means of differentiating “service” and “served” space, a dichotomy that Kahn would express often later in his career.[3] As Alexander Purves, Yale School of Architecture alumnus and faculty member, writes of the gallery, “This kind of plan clearly distinguishes between those spaces that ... house the building's major functions and those that are subordinated to the major spaces but are necessary to support them.”[4] As such, the spaces of the gallery dedicated to art exhibition and instruction are placed atop a functional hierarchy, above the building’s utilitarian realms; still, in refusing to hide—and indeed, centralizing—the less glamorous functions of the building, Kahn acknowledged all levels of the hierarchy as necessary to his building’s vitality.

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第3张图片

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第4张图片

在中央核心的部分,康采用了空间框架的概念。他和长期合作伙伴Anne Tyng共同创造,设计灵感来源于富勒的几何形式。Tyng在宾夕法尼亚大学学习时,师从富勒门下,同时在耶鲁大学的执教生涯里,康也一直与富勒保持着联系。[5]在富勒几何形式的影响下,康和Tyng为耶鲁大学美术馆构思了极具表现力的空间元素——混凝土四面体天花板形式。建筑结构工程师Henry A. Pfisterer说道:“一个连续的平面元素与开放空心四面体的顶端相结合,并且连接至下方三角平面的角点上。”[6]实际上,这种三维四面体系统非常强大,能够支撑无柱的开放工作空间,同时,多边形形式也应用于展览馆面板的安装接口之中。

Within the open spaces enabled by the central core, Kahn played with the concept of a space frame. He and longtime collaborator Anne Tyng had been inspired by the geometric forms of Buckminster Fuller, whom Tyng studied under at the University of Pennsylvania and with whom Kahn had corresponded while teaching at Yale.[5] It was with Fuller’s iconic geometric structures in mind that Kahn and Tyng created the most innovative element of the Yale Art Gallery: the concrete tetrahedral slab ceiling. Henry A. Pfisterer, the building’s structural engineer, explains the arrangement: "a continuous plane element was fastened to the apices of open-base, hollow, equilateral tetrahedrons, joined at the vertices of the triangles in the lower plane.”[6] In practice, the system of three-dimensional tetrahedrons was strong enough to support open studio space—unencumbered by columns—while the multi-angular forms invited installation of gallery panels in times of conversion.

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第5张图片

虽然康在该项目中运用的结构系统非常先进,但他仍然没有丢弃对于光影的追求,这一理念来源于他对传统宗教建筑的观察与思考。康与施工团队密切合作,设计出能够在四面体内部运行的电路管道系统,该系统让光线能够从空腔中扩散而出,[7]柔和的光芒不断地渲染出传统教堂的意向,这座美术馆的设计灵感也来源于10世纪哥特式教堂。[8]

Though Kahn’s structural experimentation in the Yale Art Gallery was cutting-edge, his careful attention to light and shadow evidences his ever-present interest in the religious architecture of the past. Working closely with the construction team, Kahn and Pfisterer devised a system to run electrical ducts inside the tetrahedrons, allowing light to diffuse from the hollow forms.[7] The soft, ambient light emitted evokes that of a cathedral; Kahn’s gallery, then, takes subtle inspiration from the nineteenth-century neo-Gothic gallery it adjoins.[8]

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第6张图片

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第7张图片

对于三角形混凝土天花板,康是这样说的:“它十分美丽,同时也兼具电力功能。”[9]建筑既是雕塑,也是结构形式,这样的理念同样被运用在美术馆的其他区域,例如,中央楼梯位于一个空心的清水混凝土圆柱之中,就其形态与功能而言,这座楼梯似乎在暗示着类似功能的农业谷仓。在楼梯的上方放置了一个装饰混凝土三角形,在其周围环绕着一系列的窗户,这使得建筑拥有了更加深刻的传统历史建筑气息。在这个圆柱空间中,水磨石楼梯也以三角形的形态出现,这是对美术馆天花板形式的呼应。[10]这座楼梯“让人们更愿意去使用它”,康希望游客和学生发自内心地渴望呆在这座建筑中,他甚至用“生活”与“呼吸”来描述建筑的适应性功能和那个独特的通风系统,而这些空间均位于混凝土四面体之中。[11][12]

Of the triangulated, concrete slab ceiling, Kahn said “it is beautiful and it serves as an electric plug.”[9] This principle—that a building’s elements can be both sculptural and structural—is carried into other areas of the gallery. The central stairwell, for example, occupies a hollow, unfinished concrete cylinder; in its shape and utilitarianism, the stairwell suggests the similarly functional agricultural silo. On the ceiling of the stairwell, however, an ornamental concrete triangle is surrounded at its circumference by a ring of windows that conjures a more elevated relic of architectural history: the Hagia Sophia. Enclosed within the cylinder, terrazzo stairs form triangles that mimic both the gallery’s ceiling and the triangular form above.[10] In asserting that the stairs “are designed so people will want to use them,” Kahn hoped visitors and students would engage with the building, whose form he often described in anthropomorphic terms: “living” in its adaptability and “breathing” in its complex ventilation system (also encased in the concrete tetrahedrons).[11][12]

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第8张图片

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第9张图片

由于在建筑结构和天花板与楼梯美学上的成功表达,人们对于耶鲁大学美术馆的关注更多地集中在其内部。但是,路易•康对于建筑外立面的用心依旧没有减弱。建筑的西立面和北立面均运用了玻璃,而南部则运用了大面积的砖石,这样让光线能够从砖石的缝隙之中进入建筑。[13]在这座美术馆之中,建筑西部的前侧对应着学校道路,另外在周边Weir Hall院落的一侧设置有花园立面。[14]康对于传统元素的迷恋仍然在通过现代主义的语言进行表达。

Given the structural and aesthetic triumphs of Kahn’s ceiling and stair, writing on the Yale Art Gallery tends to focus on the building’s elegant interior rather than its facade. But the care with which Kahn treats the gallery space extends outside as well; glass on the west and north faces of the building and meticulously laid, windowless brick on the south allow carefully calculated amounts of light to enter.[13] Recalling the European practice, Kahn presents a formal facade on York Street—the building’s western frontage—and a garden facade facing neighboring Weir Hall’s courtyard.[14] His respect for tradition is nevertheless articulated in modernist language.

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第10张图片

这座建筑已经足够精致,但是在材料的应用方面却有一些不切实际。窗户的形态似乎破坏了建筑立面的完整性。在2006年,Ennead Architects通过现代材料对其进行了修复,替代了原有的窗户,并且更好地整合了建筑的气候系统。这个项目同样颠覆了许多实验性理念,例如运用石膏隔墙来覆盖窗户、墙体、谷仓式楼梯。[15]这座建筑的精确修复工程为美国现代主义建筑的复原奠定了很高的标准,同时也开启了耶鲁大学校园建筑的现代化复兴之路。

Despite their visual refinement, the materials used in the gallery’s glass curtain walls proved almost immediately impractical. The windows captured condensation and marred Kahn’s readable facade. A restoration undertaken in 2006 by Ennead Architects (then Polshek Partnership) used modern materials to replace the windows and integrate updated climate control. The project also reversed extensive attempts made in the sixties to cover the windows, walls, and silo staircase with plaster partitions.[15] The precise restoration of the building set a high standard for preservation of American modernism—a young but vital field—while establishing the contentiously modern building on Yale’s revivalist campus as worth saving.[16]

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第11张图片

立面虽然经过了修复,但路易•康所塑造的内部空间仍然非常成功,毕竟,这是一座完全为使用者而设计的建筑。游客们可以在柔和的灯光下欣赏艺术作品,学生们能够在康为他们量身打造的空间中开始建筑的学习生涯。在建筑四层的工作室中渡过过无数个小时的学生Purves认为,在这个空间中学习的学生“能够明显感受到康对于某些细部的挣扎与坚持,并且最终呈现出非常完美的结果”。建筑评论家Paul Goldberger曾经也在耶鲁大学学习了近十年,他所提出的评价与学生们的感受相类似,那便是“这个空间的美并非一蹴而就,而是来源于日积月累的切身感受,好的东西总能够历久弥新”。

Even with a pristinely restored facade, Kahn’s interior still triumphs. Ultimately, it is a building for its users—those visitors who, today, view art under carefully crafted light and those students who, in the fifties, began their architectural education in Kahn’s space. Purves, who spent countless hours in the fourth-floor drafting room as an undergraduate, maintains that a student working in the space “can see Kahn struggling a bit and can identify with that struggle.” Architecture critic Paul Goldberger, who studied at Yale a decade after Kahn’s gallery was completed, offers a similar evaluation of the building—one echoed by many students who frequented the space: “its beauty does not emerge at first glance but comes only after time spent within it.”

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第12张图片

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第13张图片

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第14张图片

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第15张图片

大师作品分析:耶鲁大学美术馆第16张图片

参考文献
1、Loud, Patricia Cummings and Michael P Mezzatesta.《路易•康的艺术博物馆》,由杜克大学出版社和杜克大学艺术博物馆联合出版发行,1989年,P52-57
2、Loud, 59
3、Purves, Alexander.耶鲁大学美术馆公报(2000年):“路易•康的耶鲁大学美术馆”,P108
4、Ibid
5、Loud, 68
6、Kahn, Louis and Boris Pushkarev. Perspecta 3 (1955年):“形式与秩序”,P51
7、Loud, 73
8、Loud, 54
9、Loud, 82-83
10、Purves, 111
11、Loud, 84
12、Kahn, 49
13、Purves
14、Loud, 80
15、Loud, 91
16、DesBrisay, Lloyd.“耶鲁大学美术馆的翻新:建筑保护的重要时刻”, ArchDaily 2018年1月19日
17、Goldberger, Paul. The Kenyon Review 31 第四版(2009年秋季刊),P23

建筑设计:路易•康
地点:美国 纽黑文
项目时间:1953年
摄影:Samuel Ludwig

References
1.        Loud, Patricia Cummings and Michael P Mezzatesta. The Art Museums of Louis I. Kahn. Durham, NC: Published by Duke University Press in association with the Duke University Museum of Art, 1989. 52-57.
2.        Loud, 59.
3.        Purves, Alexander. “The Yale University Art Gallery by Louis I. Kahn.” Yale University Art Gallery Bulletin (2000): 108.
4.        Ibid.
5.        Loud, 68.
6.        Kahn, Louis and Boris Pushkarev. “Order and Form.” Perspecta 3 (1955): 51
7.        Loud, 73.
8.        Loud, 54
9.        Loud, 82-83.
10.        Purves, 111.
11.        Loud, 84.
12.        Kahn, 49.
13.        Purves
14.        Loud, 80.
15.        Loud, 91.
16.        DesBrisay, Lloyd. "The Renovation of Louis Kahn's Yale University Art Center: A Significant Moment for Architectural Preservation." ArchDaily. January 19, 2018.
17.        Goldberger, Paul. “Challenge and Comfort.” The Kenyon Review 31, no. 4 (Fall 2009):23.

Architects:Louis Kahn
Location:1111 Chapel St, New Haven, CT 06510, USA
Project Year:1953
Photographs:Samuel Ludwig


出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。

【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

建筑 (9255 articles)


文化建筑 (984 articles)


美术馆 (154 articles)


耶鲁大学 (11 articles)


路易斯·康 (20 articles)


现代主义风格 (17 articles)


2018 (306 articles)