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在历史遗迹面前,我们应如何思考当代社会问题?第1张图片


V&A博物馆在威尼斯建筑双年展上展出了罗宾汉花园遗址
V&A unveils huge section of demolished Robin Hood Gardens at Venice Architecture Biennale

由专筑网王帅,邢子编译

在今年的威尼斯建筑双年展上,V&A博物馆把一个野兽派住宅搬运到意大利,参观游客将有幸漫步在伦敦罗宾汉花园的“天空的街道”。

作为罗宾汉花园展览的展示品:这个倒置的废墟是1974年由建筑师Alison和Peter Smithson建造的著名野兽派庄园的一套公寓的正面,而现在已经被拆的只剩一半了。

结构的各个部分由Arup工程设计的复杂的脚手架系统固定。这样,双年展的游客就可以爬上其中一条凸起的人行道,这是设计的一个亮点。

Visitors to the Venice Architecture Biennale can walk the "streets in the sky" of London's Robin Hood Gardens, as the V&A museum has shipped a huge chunk of the brutalist housing estate to Italy.
As the showpiece of the exhibition Robin Hood Gardens: A Ruin in Reverse, the fragment is the facade of one flat from the famous brutalist estate, which was built by architects Alison and Peter Smithson in 1974, but which is now midway through demolition.
The various elements of the structure are held in place by a complex scaffolding system, devised by Arup engineers. This makes it possible for biennale visitors to climb up onto one of the raised walkways that were a key feature of the design.

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在威尼斯建筑双年展上,V&A博物馆展示了罗宾汉花园废墟的一部分/The V&A is showing part of the demolished Robin Hood Gardens at the Venice Architecture Biennale

在2017年12月,罗宾汉花园在开始拆除前不久,V&A宣布将收购其中的一部分,也是这次展出的内容之一,专门为威尼斯双年展而作。博物馆还把所有的部件重新组装成一套一居室的公寓。

目前还没有公布这个废墟会何时向公众开放。但是建筑物已经安装了准备开放时使用的模块化家具,以及混凝土的结构和外观装饰。

The V&A announced that it was acquiring part of Robin Hood Gardens shortly before demolition started in December 2017. As well as this section, which was extracted specifically to exhibit in Venice, the museum has also taken all the components to reassemble an entire one-bedroom flat.
It has not been announced when this larger fragment will be revealed to the public. But it will contain the modular furnishings installed when the building first opened, as well as the concrete structure and facade.

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混凝土面板安装在由Arup工程设计的脚手架系统上/The concrete facade pieces are mounted onto a scaffolding system devised by Arup engineers, shown here while still under construction

罗宾汉花园由两块混凝土板砌成,位于一个宽阔的花园的对面。这条宽阔的人行道被Smithson一家描述为“天空的街道”。这是为了追忆伦敦传统的梯田式住宅的街道生活。

Swan房屋协会正在拆除位于伦敦的这栋建筑,从而为建造新的住宅项目做准备。尽管此前很长一段时间,有很多著名建筑师要求把这座建筑作为遗产保留。

Robin Hood Gardens was made up of two concrete slab blocks, arranged on opposite sides of an expansive garden. The broad walkways, described as streets in the sky by the Smithsons, were intended to foster the same street life of London's traditional terraced houses.
It is being demolished to way for a new housing development by Swan Housing Association, despite a long campaign to have the building heritage-listed, supported by many famous architects.

在历史遗迹面前,我们应如何思考当代社会问题?第4张图片

脚手架设施使得双年展游客可以爬上著名的“天空的街道”/The installation allows biennale visitors to climb up onto the building's famous "streets in the sky"

该展览位于双年展的Arsenale地区,旨在探讨和质疑这些建筑遗产能否为未来的社会住房提供新的模式。

策展人Olivia Horsfall Turner和 Christopher Turner解释说:“罗宾汉花园(RobinHood Gardens)一案之所以引人注目,因为它体现了大胆的住房供应愿景,但是在建成不到50年后就被拆除了。”

“在罗宾汉花园的废墟中,我们想再次审视Smithson夫妇最初的理想,并询问他们如何才能启发人们对当前社会住房的思考。”

策展人们小心地试图避免“崇拜”混凝土结构。所以展览还包括一系列的照片和电影,提供一些在历史的不同阶段关于这座建筑的看法。

This exhibition, located in the Arsenale area of the biennale, aims to explore the legacy of the estate and question whether or not it offers a model for social housing of the future.
"The case of Robin Hood Gardens is arresting because it embodied such a bold vision for housing provision, yet less than 50 years after its completion it is being torn down," explained curators Olivia Horsfall Turner and Christopher Turner.
"Out of the ruins of Robin Hood Gardens, we want to look again at the Smithsons' original ideals and ask how they can inform and inspire current thinking about social housing."
The curators were careful not to try and avoid "fetishising" the concrete structure. So the exhibition also includes a series of photographs and films, offering a look at the building at different stages in its history.

在历史遗迹面前,我们应如何思考当代社会问题?第5张图片

展览还包括一系列照片和电影,展示了历史上的不同阶段的这座建筑/the exhibition also includes a series of photographs and films, offering a look at the building at different stages in its history

电影展示了四套长期居住的公寓,它由韩国艺术家Do Ho Suh制作,该艺术家以复杂的室内空间线网和织物的创造而闻名。

另一部电影是英国广播公司(BBC)在1970年的纪录片“史密森家”,它探讨了设计背后的社会思想。

Turner对Dezeen的记者说:“我们试图描绘史密森一家的愿景、庄园历史的曲折以及它的命运,并对其进行整体评估。”

他继续说:“这是福利国家的黄金时代,是英国建筑师们大规模建造非凡建筑的巅峰时代。像罗宾汉花园,亚歴山大路(Alexandra Road-Neave Brown设计)都是惊人的建筑成就。”

One film shows four apartments occupied by long-term residents, made by Korean artist Do Ho Suh, who is known for his intricate wire-and-fabric recreations of interior spaces.
Another is the BBC's 1970 documentary, The Smithsons on Housing, which explores the social thinking behind the design.
"We've tried to map the whole arch of the Smithsons' vision, the twists and turns of the estate's history and its fate and evaluate that as a whole," Turner told Dezeen.
"This was the golden era of the welfare state. This is when architects in Britain were most empowered to create extraordinary buildings at a massive scale," he continued. "Estates like Robin Hood Gardens, [by Neave Brown] are amazing architectural achievements."

在历史遗迹面前,我们应如何思考当代社会问题?第6张图片

韩国艺术家Do Ho Suh的电影中有四套长期居住的公寓/A film by Korean artist Do Ho Suh offers a look inside four apartments occupied by long-term residents

眼下的伦敦既缺乏负担得起的住房,也缺乏像伦敦格伦费尔大厦(Grenfell Tower)一样让政府投入经济成本的租住房。在这样的住房危机背景下,展览的目的是探讨可从该项目中汲取的经验教训。

Turner说:“我们真的对史密森一家慷慨的建筑和社会愿景感兴趣,希望能把它拆开,并以此作为一个镜头来展望社会住房的未来。”

V&A博物馆位于伦敦肯辛顿区(Kensington)和切尔西区(Chelsea),离格伦费尔大厦不远。Turner解释说,自上世纪80年代前英国首相玛格丽特•撒切尔(Margaret Thatcher)授予议会租购房权以来,该市只建造了10套市政住房。

他说:“我们如何看待阻碍我们在社会上为所有人创造负担得起的住房的原因?这是一个很大的问题。土地价值的增加意味着这种情况正在发生变化。我们在自问现在想建设什么样的城市,而什么样的政策才能让我们在城市创造可供每个人负担得起的住房。”

Turner说:“史密森夫妇在设计该建筑时和现在的最大不同之处是议会有内部的建筑团队,因此他们一直在为议会的项目工作。以前有将近80%的建筑师为市政委员会工作,而现在则不到1%。”

In the context of London's present housing crisis – both the shortage of affordable homes and the neglect of council-owned properties such as Grenfell Tower – the exhibition seeks to explore what lessons can be learnt from the estate.
"We were really interested in the Smithsons' generous architectural and social vision and in unpacking that and using that as a lens to look to the future of social housing," said Turner.
The V&A museum is located in the London borough of Kensington and Chelsea, not far from Grenfell Tower. Just 10 council homes have been built in the borough since former British prime minster Margaret Thatcher gave council tenants the right to buy in the 1980s, explained Turner.
"How can we look at what is preventing us from being able to create affordable housing for all in our society? That's the big question," he said. "Increasing land values means that is changing. We're asking what kind of a city we want to build now, what kind of provision we want to create for housing in the city that is available for everyone."
"One of the big differences between when the Smithsons were building and now is that councils had in-house architectural teams and so they were constantly working on projects that were for the councils," said Turner. "Almost 80 per cent of architects were working for the council and now its less that one per cent."

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罗宾汉花园:倒置的废墟展出到2018年11月25日,作为第16届威尼斯建筑双年展的一部分/Robin Hood Gardens: A Ruin in Reverse is on show until 25 November 2018, as part of the 16th Venice Architecture Biennale

这不是罗宾汉花园第一次在威尼斯展出——史密森夫妇在1976年威尼斯艺术双年展上就展出过项目的海报。

他们在写关于这片地产的文章时说:“这座正在组装的建筑物是一座倒行逆施的废墟。”这便是本次展览标题的灵感来源。

罗宾汉花园:一个倒坍的遗址——该展览将持续展览到2018年11月25日,作为第16届威尼斯建筑双年展的一部分。

今年的主要展览是由Grafton建筑事务所的Yvonne Farrell和Shelley McNamara在自由空间的标题下策划的。

在接受Dezeen记者的采访时,Farrell和McNamara声称,虽然建筑师没有能力应对全球问题,但小型项目同样可以为社会做出巨大贡献。

Turner告诉Dezeen的记者,史密森夫妇在罗宾汉花园项目上为居民提供的创新便利体现了他们慷慨的社会思想理念。

This is not the first time Robin Hood Gardens has been on show in Venice – the Smithsons exhibited an image of it during the Venice Art Biennale of 1976.
Writing about the estate at the time, they said: "A building under assembly is a ruin in reverse". This was the inspiration for the exhibition title.
Robin Hood Gardens: A Ruin in Reverse is on show until 25 November 2018, as part of the 16th Venice Architecture Biennale.
This year, the main exhibition is curated by Yvonne Farrell and Shelley McNamara of Grafton Architects under the title Freespace.
In an interview with Dezeen, Farrell and McNamara claimed that, while architects don't have the power to combat global issues, small projects can make a huge contribute to society.
Turner told Dezeen the generous innovations the Smithsons offered residents at Robin Hood Gardens encapsulates this idea of generosity.


出处:本文译自www.dezeen.com/,转载请注明出处。

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