网站地图关于我们

查看相册 View Gallery
建筑中的颜色对空间有哪些影响呢?第1张图片

Alto de Pinheiros的儿童学校|Escola em Alto de Pinheiros / Base Urbana + Pessoa Arquitetos. Image © Pedro Vanucchi

颜色在建筑中的作用:视觉效果和心理影响
The Role of Color in Architecture: Visual Effects and Psychological Stimuli

由专筑网缕夕,李韧编译

颜色及其感知能力对人们的潜意识和显意识都有一定的刺激与影响,其存在方式多种多样,并且无处不在。你有没有想过它在建筑中的作用?

除了基本的结构要素,建筑的表面色彩也会影响用户对空间的体验。根据Israel Pedrosa的说法,“颜色带给人的感觉由材料折射或反射而产生,因此‘颜色’这个词多用于具有感官刺激的功能之中。”[1]

Colors and their perceptions are responsible for a series of conscious and subconscious stimuli in our psycho-spatial relationship. Despite its presence and its variations, it is present in all places. Have you ever wondered what its role is in architecture?
As well as the constructive elements that make up an architectural object, the application of colors on surfaces also influences the user's experience of the space. According to Israel Pedrosa, "a colorful sensation is produced by the nuances of light refracted or reflected by a material, commonly the word color is designated to those shades that function as stimuli in a chromatic sensation." [1]

建筑中的颜色对空间有哪些影响呢?第2张图片

吉拉迪住宅|Flickr Pov Stele. Licença CC BY-SA 2.0. Image Casa Gilardi / Luis Barragán

当前有大量的研究文献可以表明色彩之间的区别与特征。颜色可以与心理学、象征主义甚至神秘主义联系在一起,并且根据艺术、历史或文化时期,每种颜色都有不同的含义,面对光线时所投射到人们眼中的颜色会有所改变。本文并非针对色彩的技术问题而进行研究,我们主要思考的是色彩和建筑之间的关系。

让我们来看看建筑史上的一些知名人士。例如Luis Barragán,其作品中通过高纯度的色彩来唤起情感要素,而Siza Vieiraadadheres作品的色彩则纯度较低。与此同时,Lina Bo Bardi常在建筑中使用红色,而Legorreta则采用能代表墨西哥文化的丰富色彩。

Describing the relationship of colors and the different features that govern them, or even the multitude of existing studies regarding these theories, is as complex as it is extensive. Color can be associated with psychology, symbolism and even mysticism; colors take on different meanings according to the artistic, historical or the cultural period; colors change when facing light; among many other characteristics. This article is not intended to address technical aspects of color or concepts studied by critics. However, it does seek to ponder the relationship between color and architecture.
Let's take a look at some well-known names from the history of architecture. Regarding the work of Luis Barragán, color demonstrates spatial purity as an element that evokes emotions, while Siza Vieiraadheres to the achromatism of surfaces. Meanwhile, Lina Bo Bardi uses red in some architectural elements, and Legorreta adopts exuberant colors, which are inspired by Mexican culture.

建筑中的颜色对空间有哪些影响呢?第3张图片

Hotel Camino Real de Polanco / Ricardo Legorreta. Image © Flickr kieranmcglone

颜色可以展示一定的建筑体量或细节,以及空间效果。它也可以渲染氛围或带来一些视觉效果。

Color can show a certain volume or constructive detail, or visually mimic certain aspects of space. It can also provide a set of emotions or visual effects.

建筑中的颜色对空间有哪些影响呢?第4张图片

吉拉迪住宅|Flickr Pov Stele. Licença CC BY-SA 2.0. Image Casa Gilardi / Luis Barragán

当人们处在由墙壁、地板和天花板组成的空间环境中,当表面上采用不同颜色时,人们会得到不同的视觉效果。例如,如果天花板的有颜色较暗,则会产生空间低矮的感觉,而如果中心墙面的颜色较暗,在视觉上就会形成“空间缩短”的错觉,可是,当暗色应用于所有的墙壁,则可能会产生比实际更大的空间感受。

如果只有空间的侧壁涂上色彩,那么则会产生明显的狭窄感,因此采用相同的色调绘制中心墙和天花板时,空间似乎会扩大。所以,如果希望降低空间的高度或将焦点放在人视点的高度,只要在上表面运用深色,这就会带来我们所期望的效果。

但没有光线就不存在颜色。正如Israel Pedrosa在他的著作《Da CoràCor Inexistente》中描述的那样,“颜色没有物质存在,它只是在光线作用下而产生的某种感觉,准确来说,是光线作用刺激了行为视觉器官。” [2]色彩与心理活动密切相关,因此可以与每个项目的体量和形状结合使用。

If we create an environment with walls, floors, and neutral ceilings, when we apply certain colors on the different surfaces, we get different visual effects. For example, if we apply a darker shade on the ceiling, the sensation of a lower space is generated; if we apply color to the central wall of space, the idea of a certain "spatial shortening" is created visually; whereas, if it is applied to all walls, the perception of a space longer than it really is, is produced.
If only the lateral walls of the space are painted, there is a noted perception of narrowing; otherwise, when painting the central wall and ceiling in the same hue, the environment seems to expand. If you are looking to lower the height of the space or put the focus at the height of the observer's gaze, then painting all the surfaces at half height, and putting the darker tones on the upper surfaces gives us this desired effect.
But colors do not exist without the presence of light. As Israel Pedrosa says in his book Da Cor à Cor Inexistente, "color has no material existence: it is only the sensation produced by certain nervous organizations under the action of light, with more precision, the action provoked by the action of the light on the organ of vision." [2] Color is intimately linked to psychological stimuli and can be used in conjunction with volume and the shape of each project.

建筑中的颜色对空间有哪些影响呢?第5张图片

英国Prestwood幼儿学校食堂|Prestwood Infant School Dining Hall / De Rosee Sa. Image Cortesia de De Rosee Sa

关于颜色的“心理”状况,常见的特征总结如下:
蓝色:传达积极、自信和安全的感觉。它经常用于商业空间,例如银行机构、办公室和公司。
黄色:表达乐观、好奇、快乐和明亮的气氛。它经常用于商业空间或餐厅,来吸引行人的注意力。
红色:这种颜色显示能量、兴奋、冲动。因此,它也经常用于商业空间,如商店或快餐店,因为它具有一定的强迫性和消费欲望。
绿色:唤起平静、安宁、宁静和幸福。它经常用于与健康相关的空间,例如医院和休闲中心。
橙色:黄色和红色组合的结果,橙色投射出一种强度、创造力、愉悦感和热情。它经常用于创意环境,例如办公室、工作室和学校。如果与蓝色一起使用,它能表达冲动和信任,因此常用于银行机构和办事处。
紫色:表达幸福、冷静和柔软的感觉。

Regarding the "psychology" of the main colors, the following ideas have been developed:
Blue: Transmits the feeling of positivity, confidence, and security. It is often used in commercial and business spaces, such as banking agencies, offices and companies.
Yellow: Portrays optimism, curiosity, joviality and a bright atmosphere. It is frequently used in commercial spaces or restaurants to gain the attention of pedestrians.
Red: This color shows energy, excitement, impulse. Therefore, it is regularly used in commercial spaces, such as stores or fast food outlets, as it portrays a certain compulsivity and consumer desire.
Green: Evokes calm, tranquility, serenity and well-being. It is regularly used in spaces associated with health and well-being, such as hospitals and relaxation centers.
Orange: The result of the combination of yellow and red, orange projects an idea of intensity, creativity, euphoria, and enthusiasm. It is often used in creative environments, such as offices, studios, and schools. If used together with blue, it conveys the idea of impulsivity and trust, and so is adopted by banking agencies and offices.
Violet: It transmits well-being, calmness, and softness.

建筑中的颜色对空间有哪些影响呢?第6张图片

英国Prestwood幼儿学校食堂|Prestwood Infant School Dining Hall / De Rosee Sa. Image Cortesia de De Rosee Sa

在幼儿建筑项目中,颜色通常用来激发孩子的心理和感官发育。在众多的建筑实例中,有如:Base Urbana + Pessoa Arquitetos事务所设计的 Alto de Pinheiros学院,De Rosee Sa的Prestwood小学;,和RCR Arquitectes事务所设计的‘Els Colors'幼儿园。

在医院项目或健康类建筑项目中,颜色能够促进患者的康复,例如由Hans Abaton设计的Esther Koplowitz脑瘫患者基金会和Stanley Beaman & Sears设计的Nemours儿童医院。

In children's projects, colors are used to motivate the child's psychological and sensory development. Among innumerable examples, the following are standouts: the College in Alto de Pinheiros of the architects of Base Urbana + Pessoa Arquitetos; the Prestwood Elementary School of De Rosee Sa; and the 'Els Colors' kindergarten by RCR Arquitectes.
In hospital projects or the field of health, colors are used as a complementary element for the rehabilitation of patients, such as in the Esther Koplowitz Foundation for Patients with Cerebral Palsy, designed by Hans Abaton, and the Nemours Children's Hospital, which is designed by Stanley Beaman & Sears.

建筑中的颜色对空间有哪些影响呢?第7张图片

西班牙马德里儿童脑瘫病患疗养中心|Fundação Esther Koplowitz para Pacientes com Paralisia Cerebral / Hans Abaton. Image © Hans Abaton

在城市项目中,颜色能够激发活力并改善空间状况,例如印尼的Kampung Pelangi村落开发项目,以及丹麦BIG建筑事务所设计的Superkilen公园,建筑师使用大量颜色为空间带来象征性。

In urban projects, colors are sometimes used to restore liveliness and to renovate deteriorated spaces, such as the intervention of the Kampung Pelangi village, in Indonesia, and the Superkilen park of the Danish firm BIG, which uses a significant amount of color to give a "spatial identity."

建筑中的颜色对空间有哪些影响呢?第8张图片

Superkilen 城市公园|Superkilen / BIG. Image © Dragor Luft

颜色是建筑中不可或缺的元素,这不仅与美学相关,也与人们的心理因素密切联系。因此,在你的设计项目中需要巧妙且恰当地使用不同的色彩!

Color is an integral element in architecture; it is not only important aesthetically, but it also has a great psycho-sensory importance. Use it wisely in your projects!


文中引用:
[1](PEDROSA,第98页,2009年)
[2](PEDROSA,第20页,2009年)
参考书目
以色列, Pedrosa。 Da CoràCor Inexistente。 圣保罗:Senac,2009年。

Footnotes:
[1] (PEDROSA, p.98, 2009)
[2] (PEDROSA, p.20, 2009)
Bibliographic References
PEDROSA, Israel. Da Cor à Cor Inexistente. São Paulo: Senac, 2009.

【专筑网版权与免责声明】:本网站注明“来源:专筑网”的所有内容版权属专筑网所有,如需转载,请注明出处

专于设计,筑就未来

无论您身在何方;无论您作品规模大小;无论您是否已在设计等相关领域小有名气;无论您是否已成功求学、步入职业设计师队伍;只要你有想法、有创意、有能力,专筑网都愿为您提供一个展示自己的舞台

投稿邮箱:submit@iarch.cn         如何向专筑投稿?

扫描二维码即可订阅『专筑

微信号:iarch-cn

登录专筑网  |  社交账号登录:

 匿名

没有了...
评论加载中,请稍后!

建筑 (9362 articles)


颜色 (18 articles)


视觉效果 (15 articles)


影响 (7 articles)


BIG事务所 (30 articles)


2018 (350 articles)