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曾经拆除的建筑,却是如今的怀念第1张图片


失落美国:7座重建建筑
Lost America: The Reconstruction of 7 Great US Buildings

由专筑网李韧,吴静雅编译

从原有的宾夕法尼亚车站到米德韦花园,许多“遗失的”建筑表达了人们前进的动力。本文最初发表于“HomeAdvisor”,说明了如果历史发生了巨大转变,那么美国的著名街景的发展趋势。

砖石建筑常常能够唤起怀旧和渴望的感觉,但是为什么人们对于古老的建筑如此着迷?也许是那混合着熟悉与陌生的情感,人们看到了熟悉的街道,但是其中却有着现代的身影。

美国有7座知名建筑进行了原址重建,让我们一起来看一下,从古至今,这些建筑让城市街道带来了哪些变化。

From the original Penn Station to Midway Gardens, our "lost" buildings reflect our (sometimes misguided) desire to move forward. This article, originally published on HomeAdvisor, shows how the some of the US's most recognizable streetscapes might look if history had taken a different turn.
A brick and mortar building can elicit a sense of nostalgia and longing. But why are we so fascinated with the buildings of the past? Perhaps it’s the mix of familiarity and strangeness that draws us in – we see a street we know so well, but with a time-traveling intruder atop it.
In celebration of some of America’s most beautiful and interesting lost buildings, we’ve reconstructed seven in their original location. Discover how these structures from the past painted the skyline compared to how these locations look today.

曾经拆除的建筑,却是如今的怀念第2张图片


宾夕法尼亚车站

他们在想什么?纽约最初的宾夕法尼亚车站是历史保护运动的灵感来源,这座建筑有着Beaux-Arts风格外观,于1910年由McKim, Mead & White建筑事务所设计。其外观在现在看来几乎荒谬,因为建筑运用了大量的罗马柱式。不过遗憾的是,这座建筑于1963年不再使用,因为政府无法承担高昂的后期维护费用。

Penn Station
What were they thinking? New York’s original Penn Station is – quite rightly – the inspiration for the historic preservation movement. The Beaux-Arts beauty was realized in 1910 to a design from the prominent McKim, Mead & White architectural firm. Its classical grandeur looks almost preposterous now, as if all the columns of Ancient Rome had been plundered for the project. To the dismay of many, the building met its end in 1963 when city authorities tired of its Versailles-like maintenance costs.

曾经拆除的建筑,却是如今的怀念第3张图片


胜家大楼

这座建筑曾经建造于1908年,位于美国自由大街和百老汇曼哈顿下城区的胜家大楼曾经是世界上最高的建筑,因此至今仍然保留了“世界最高”的称号,后来这座建筑被拆除了,因为胜家大楼无法满足公司内部的发展需求。《纽约时报》的建筑评论员Christopher Gray认为,在1968年这座建筑被拆除之后,城市便遗失了“天堂般”的大厅。而建筑的场地现在为One Liberty广场所占据。

Singer Building
Built in 1908, this Lower Manhattan titan at Liberty Street and Broadway was, at one time, the tallest building in the world. It still holds one ‘world’s tallest’ record – it’s the tallest building to ever have been purposefully demolished. The Singer Building’s awkward office floor plan was its ultimate demise as it was unable to accommodate the growth of the companies within its walls. Nonetheless, as New York Times architectural critic Christopher Gray noted, the city lost a lobby of “celestial radiance” when the building was demolished in 1968. The site is now occupied by One Liberty Plaza.

曾经拆除的建筑,却是如今的怀念第4张图片


米德韦花园

难以置信的是,建筑大师赖特的作品也被拆除了,但是仍然保留了其他79座建筑。这座娱乐综合体位于芝加哥海德公园附近,于1929年开放使用,整座建筑虽然复杂但是有趣。赖特以往并没有接受过此类规模项目的委托,因此对于该项目的设计他非常用心。遗憾的是,由于项目场地的一系列禁令,这座建筑最终被遗弃。

Midway Gardens
It’s hard to believe that any of Frank Lloyd Wright’s creations have been demolished – but some 79 have. This entertainment complex, which opened 1929 in Chicago’s Hyde Park neighborhood, was as complex and interesting as the mind of its maker. Wright had never been commissioned for a project of this scale before and he threw his whole being into it. Unfortunately, prohibition set the site on a slippery slope and it was eventually bulldozed in 1929.

曾经拆除的建筑,却是如今的怀念第5张图片


马克霍普金斯大厦

铁路巨头Mark Hopkins的住宅位于旧金山Nob山山顶,建筑与1878年完工,它展示了维多利亚时期的豪华景象。但是在建筑刚刚完工之后,此人便去世,他永远没有见到这座建筑。不幸的是,建筑也并没有得以保留下来,在1906年的地震与火灾中建筑被毁灭,并且没有再进行重建。项目场地现在用于旧金山马克霍普金斯洲际酒店。

Mark Hopkins Mansion
Set atop San Francisco’s Nob Hill, railway magnate Mark Hopkins’ mansion was a display of ornate Victorian excess when it was completed in 1878. The man never got to see the finished product for himself because he passed away just before the job was done. Unfortunately, the building itself didn’t go the distance either as it was destroyed in the fire that followed the city’s 1906 earthquake and was never rebuilt. The site is now the location of the InterContinental Mark Hopkins San Francisco.

曾经拆除的建筑,却是如今的怀念第6张图片


伯明翰车站

从1909到1969,阿拉巴马州伯明翰的主要火车站覆盖整个城市的两个主要街区,其有着拜占庭式建筑风格,这在当时引起了诸多争议,因为建筑的东方影响力在当时看来实在是太独特。建筑有着彩色玻璃窗和长排座椅,大众候车室还保留有仪式感氛围。但是随着铁路行业的衰落,有趣的设计方式并不足以拯救整座建筑。如今,这片7英亩的场地仍然有待开发。

Birmingham Terminal Station
From 1909 until 1969, Birmingham, Alabama’s principal railway station covered two full blocks of the city. Its Byzantine-esque profile made serious waves at the time as the architecture’s oriental influence was altogether too exotic for some tastes. With its stained-glass skylight and pew-like seating, the general waiting room had ‘place of worship’ vibes. But with the railways declining, the interesting design wasn’t enough to save the station from the wrecking ball. Today, the 7-acre site awaits repurposing.

曾经拆除的建筑,却是如今的怀念第7张图片


沙滩酒店

Wes Anderson把你的心掏出来!德克萨斯州加尔维斯敦的沙滩酒店达到了布达佩斯大饭店可望而不可即的程度。这座建筑建造于1882年,建筑有着红白相间的木质框架,但是其只保留了16年,因为后来它毁于一场大火。消防队员拼尽全力也只保留了其中的一小部分。

The Beach Hotel
Wes Anderson, eat your heart out! The Beach Hotel in Galveston, Texas took over-the-top to a level that the Grand Budapest Hotel could only dream of. Built in 1882, this wood-framed vision in red and white stripes lasted barely 16 years before a fire claimed its rare beauty forever. Though firefighters were able to save parts of it, it was simply too far gone.

曾经拆除的建筑,却是如今的怀念第8张图片


影剧院

传奇魔术师Harry Houdini、500人合唱团、整个马戏团,有众多知名人士曾经在这座曼哈顿剧院演出。这座影剧院于1905年开放使用,在当时人称“火星上的Yankee Circus”。剧院可容纳5300名观众和1000名表演者,但是建筑的保留时间却不长。电影的愈发流行而最终导致这座建筑于1939年被拆毁,现在场地上新建的办公大楼名为“影剧院中心”,但是相比起原有建筑,它仍然缺失几分味道。

The Hippodrome
The boards of this epically-proportioned, Manhattan theater were visited by everyone from legendary illusionist Harry Houdini to 500-strong choruses to entire circuses. The Hippodrome’s 1905 opening performance was entitled ‘A Yankee Circus on Mars.’ The theater had capacity for 5,300 spectators and up to 1,000 performers, but its fame was short-lived. The popularity of movies played a huge role in the eventual demolition of the building in 1939. The office building that now occupies the site calls itself the Hippodrome Center – but it’s a lot less fun than the original.


来源
Campbell-Dollaghan, K. (2014)我们曾拆毁的9座美丽建筑. gizmodo.com
Finkelstein, E. (2016)14座令人难以置信的已拆除经典建筑. countryliving.com
Waldek, S. (2018)7座令人怀念的赖特建筑. architecturaldigest.com
Hojnicki, C. (2017)宾夕法尼亚车站、影剧院,以及其他10座纽约遗失建筑. architecturaldigest.com

图片来源
纽约Tony Shi摄影. Getty图像
谷歌街景照片
谷歌街景照片
旧金山Ulu_bird. Shutterstock图像
美国Galveston海滩,德克萨斯州Daniel Schwen. 维基共享资源
谷歌街景照片

Sources
Campbell-Dollaghan, K. (2014) 9 of the Most Beautiful Buildings We Ever Tore Down. gizmodo.com
Finkelstein, E. (2016) 14 Spectacular American Buildings We Can’t Believe Were Demolished. countryliving.com
Waldek, S. (2018) 7 Demolished Frank Lloyd Wright Buildings We Wish Were Still Standing. architecturaldigest.com
Hojnicki, C. (2017) Penn Station, the Hippodrome, and 10 Other Lost Buildings of New York City. architecturaldigest.com

Image Sources
New York. Tony Shi Photography. Getty Images
Google Street Images
Google Street Images
San Francisco. Ulu_bird. Shutterstock images
USA Galveston beach, TX. Daniel Schwen. Wikimedia commons
Google Street Images

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