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孕妈妈的待产好去处丨马拉维待产村第1张图片


Maternity Waiting Village / MASS Design Group

由专筑网小R编译

来自建筑事务所的描述:由于分娩并发症而造成的产妇死亡是个全球问题,2010年,在马拉维,每36名产妇就有1名在怀孕或分娩期间而死亡,但是大多数的死亡原因都可预防。因此待产室就起到了这样的作用,让专业孕产人员能够照顾到孕妇的当前状况,待产设施也为怀孕36周之后的孕妇提供了监控场所,在2012年,马拉维总统发起了这样一个项目,即在全国范围内建造130个待产场所。

Text description provided by the architects. Maternal mortality due to complications during childbirth remains a major global problem. In 2010 in Malawi, about one in thirty-six women had a lifetime risk of dying during pregnancy or delivery, largely from preventable causes. Maternal waiting homes have been used to increase access to skilled professionals located adjacent to health centers. These facilities provide a monitored space for expectant mothers starting from their thirty-sixth week until their delivery. The president of Malawi initiated an effort in 2012 to build 130 such facilities across the country.

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北卡罗来纳大学马拉维项目组便一直支持着这个医疗项目,这也是他们的合作内容,该项目是建造两个全新的空间,邀请相关人士使用。现有的原型是一个单独的房间,整体为兵营式结构,并没有充足的采光、通风,以及卫生设施,除此之外,这里无法同时容纳孕妇和服务人员,也缺乏相应的功能,无法提供完整的产前、产后护理措施,因此,许多孕妇只能在家里完成产后休养。

The University of North Carolina Project-Malawi had been supporting a hospital in Kasungu, Malawi. As part of their partnership with the ministry, the initiative committed to building two new homes and invited MASS to partner in the country. The existing prototype was a single-room, barrack-like structure that did not provide adequate daylight, ventilation, or sanitation. Additionally, it could not accommodate patient attendants who traveled with the mothers, and its lack of programming failed to provide prenatal and daily living care. As a result, many women were leaving and going back to their own homes, rather than completing their pregnancy at the facility.

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MASS设计团队和Kasungu设施的医生、忽视、孕妇共同合作,构思了全新的原型,即待产村。全新的设计策略打破了现有空间的单一用房的概念,构成了一系列环绕院落而构成的小型建筑群体,这个设计方案参考了马拉维当地的村落布局,在这里,家庭院落由几座小建筑构成,亲朋好友都可以居住于此。小规模的建筑构成了一个小社区,产妇及相关经验人士都可以在此分享体验。

MASS worked with doctors, nurses, and expectant mothers at the Kasungu facility to propose a new prototype: the Maternity Waiting Village. The new design broke the singular block concept of the existing prototype into a series of smaller compounds clustered around small courtyards. This plan borrowed design cues from the vernacular layout of Malawian villages, where family compounds are composed of several small buildings housing branches of an immediate family. The smaller-sized housing blocks create communities that encourage knowledge sharing between experienced and first-time mothers.

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为了适应雨季和旱季的室外活动,大型悬挑屋面给人们带来了一丝凉爽,新妈妈们可以在这里交流沟通。这些空间还能够容纳孕妇的服务人员,还能举办专业的孕期产后讲座和手工艺培训,让新妈妈们在这个全新的阶段仍然能够有一定的收入,用于减缓自身和家庭的经济支出。因此,共享空间已经成为了活动和学习中心。

To accommodate outdoor activity during both rainy and dry seasons, large roof overhangs provide shade and shelter to the village’s courtyards, where mothers can gather and socialize. These spaces were also designed to accommodate family members and attendants who travel with expectant mothers. Dedicated education areas support workshops around pre- and postnatal care and handicraft trainings to help mothers earn income while away from home, making up for the wage loss that is a significant impediment to widespread use of maternity waiting facilities. The shared spaces have become centers of activity and learning.

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每个睡眠单元都优化了采光和通风,并且降低了传染病传播风险,大大提升了舒适度和隐私性。压缩生土砖石墙体在白天能够吸收阳光,在夜晚散播热量,全新的空间原型来源于当地材料建造而成的模块,这种模块易于复制和适应其他场地。经过研究,这个全新的村落对于孕妇来说更加安全与舒适。

Optimized for daylighting and natural ventilation, each sleeping unit is designed to reduce the risk of infectious diseases spreading and provides privacy and comfort. Compressed stabilized earth block walls absorb solar rays during the day and radiate heat during the colder nights. Designed around replicable modules built of locally sourced materials, the new prototype is more readily scalable and adaptable to other sites. Post-occupancy studies have shown that this new village prototype has been more comfortable and felt safer for expectant mothers.

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建筑设计:MASS Design Group
地点:马拉维
类型:医疗设施
面积:670.0 m2
时间:2015年
摄影:Iwan Baan
制造商:Built Environs Ltd, Nutec Boards Everite Building Products, Plastered CSEB, Plasterwork Skirting, RAIPLY Malawi Ltd, Safintra Roofings and Steel - Malawi
主创建筑师:MASS Design Group
客户:Malawi Ministry of Health, The Presidential Initiative for Safe Motherhood, University of North Carolina - Malawi
主要合作方:Arup, Mazzetti, Builts Environs Ltd., The Malawi Ministry of Health, The Presidential Initiative for Safe Motherhood, The Gates Foundation, The Autodesk Foundation
Mep工程:Aron Chikuse and Mazetti

MEDICAL FACILITIES
KASUNGU, MALAWI
Architects: MASS Design Group
Area: 670.0 m2
Year: 2015
Photographs: Iwan Baan
Manufacturers: Built Environs Ltd, Nutec Boards Everite Building Products, Plastered CSEB, Plasterwork Skirting, RAIPLY Malawi Ltd, Safintra Roofings and Steel - Malawi
Architect In Charge: MASS Design Group
Clients: Malawi Ministry of Health, The Presidential Initiative for Safe Motherhood, University of North Carolina - Malawi
Partners In Charge: Arup, Mazzetti, Builts Environs Ltd., The Malawi Ministry of Health, The Presidential Initiative for Safe Motherhood, The Gates Foundation, The Autodesk Foundation
Mep Engineers: Aron Chikuse and Mazetti

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