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维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第1张图片


Elementary School Baslergasse

由专筑网罗晓茜,杨帆编译

来自事务所的描述:维也纳城市的“露天”学校,通常被称为“Baslerschule”,建于1951年, 由Roland Rainer设计,位于维也纳南部郊区(23区)一个混杂环境的中心。这个细长L型的单层地标建筑,在1970年代三角山墙的屋顶得到了扩展,以四个木制的独立附加教室的形式连接到学校操场的东端。

From the architect. The “Open Air” School of the city of Vienna, often referred to as the "Baslerschule", completed in 1951 and designed by Roland Rainer, is located on the southern outskirts of Vienna (23rd district) in the middle of a heterogeneous environment. This elongated, L-shaped, single-storey, landmarked building with a gabled roof received an extension in the 1970s in the form of four free-standing annexed classrooms constructed in wood adjoining the eastern end of school grounds.

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第2张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

设计任务是以符合现代建设要求的建筑取代现有的处于极度贫困条件的附加教室,并将其连接到主楼。此外,由于维也纳城市的不断发展带来的高密度化,必须牢记并将其纳入规划当中。以这样一种方式,一个单层预制木材建筑的延伸因此形成了,在必要时也可以添加地板。玻璃走廊作为与现有建筑的连接。目前,附加建筑被用作小学和特殊教育的学校。

The task was to replace the existing annexed classrooms—which were in extremely poor condition—with a building corresponding to the modern requirements for the construction of the school and to connect it with the main building. Furthermore, the option of redensification due to the continuous growth of the city of Vienna had to be kept in mind and factored into the planning. It was in this way that a single-storey extension of prefabricated wood construction came into being, to which floors could be added if necessary. A glass-enclosed corridor serves as the connection to the existing structure. Currently, the annex building is being used as an elementary school (2 classes) and a special needs school (SES, 2 classes).

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第3张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

空间概念/视觉通透性和朝向。基于这个房间的布局和时间限制,模块化系统由循环空间元素发展形成:教室、互相连通的衣帽间,同时也可以作为附属的房间(课程小组)和浴室。

Spatial concept / Visual permeability & orientation. Based on this room layout and the time constraints, a modular system was developed from recurring spatial elements: classrooms, interconnected cloakrooms—which could also simultaneously be used as additional rooms (lessons in small groups)—and bathrooms.

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第4张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

这些元素以风车的方式环绕中心公共区域进行分组,可以用作自然照明的公共区域/门厅。玻璃幕墙连接到现有的结构,教室门旁边的固定玻璃分区、衣帽间的视觉通透性到更多私人的户外区域,创造出新的视觉关系,照明氛围,以及在这个中心区域的方向选择。在教室里,设计重点是提供一个促进注意力集中和放松的环境。

These elements are grouped in a windmill-like fashion around the central circulation area, which can be used as a naturally illuminated communal area / foyer. The glass-enclosed connection to the existing structure, fixed glass partitions next to the classroom doors, and the visual permeability of the cloakrooms to the more private outer areas, create new visual relationships, lighting atmospheres, and orientation options in this central area. In the classrooms, the design is focused on providing an environment that promotes concentration and relaxation.

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第5张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

两边的可访问性使得建筑分裂成两个独立的功能单元。现有的主楼和原始的“露天”学校通过直接从教室穿过衣帽间(污垢屏障)到露天空间(户外课)而开展。

The accessibility from both sides also allows for a division into two separate functional units. The spirit of the existing main building and original “open air” school is carried on through the ability to exit directly from the classrooms through the cloakrooms (dirt barriers) into the open air (outdoor lessons).

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第6张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

建筑和设计/可持续性

建筑完全用木头预制组件建造,并设计成一个原型,可以快速组装和拆卸,每个组件都有着可重复使用性。系统化的类型还为场地提供了额外的空间组合。

Construction and design / sustainability
The building is built entirely out of wood prefabricated components and has been designed as a prototype that allows for quick assembly and disassembly with maximum reusability of the individual components. The systematized typology also offers additional spatial combinations for further sites.

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第7张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

组件的大小基于可移植性。地板和天花板组件是胶合构造,墙是建于梁和柱结构的平板,并于两边绝缘。建筑建于周围的条形地基上,具有等距的通风口,以确保建筑有足够的空气对流。走廊与现有建筑的连接通过钢铁和玻璃结构实现。木材作为建筑材料的一致选择,代表了对可持续发展的贡献和资源效率的前瞻性考虑。

The size of the components is based on the transportability. The floor and ceiling components are constructed out of glulam, the walls are constructed from a beam and post construction planked and insulated on both sides. The building rests on a surrounding strip foundation, which has equally spaced vents to ensure that there is sufficient cross-ventilation beneath the building. The connecting corridor to the existing building is a steel/glass construction. The consistent choice of wood as the building material represents a forward-looking contribution to sustainability and resource efficiency.

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第8张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

物质/触觉自然

门厅/流动区由中性白色石膏板铺装。在教室的墙则露出白色釉面的木材表面。屋顶的长板条由未经处理的银杉木材组成,在所有公共区域的橡胶地板协调了各种功能空间,提供了一个不间断的利于学习的氛围。通风立面是垂直的木制板条结构(落叶松)。通过一些长短、粗细不同的交错的板条与新的配色方案(突出的板条不同深浅的绿色),形成了不同的颜色感知,这取决于照明和观众通过的位置。

Materiality / tactile naturalness
The foyer / circulation zone is planked with neutral white plasterboard. In the classrooms, the walls have been left as exposed white glazed wood surfaces. A full-length slat ceiling made from untreated silver fir and rubber flooring in all the common areas harmonizes the various uses of the space and provides an uninterrupted friendly learning and atmosphere. The ventilated façade is a vertical wooden slat structure (larch). Through the interplay of the various lengths and thicknesses of the slats in conjunction with a fresh color scheme (the protruding slats are in various shades of green), different color perceptions arise, depending on the lighting and the position of the viewer in passing.

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第9张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

技术/保持简单

该建筑是低能耗建筑。技术设备保持简单,按照建筑物的大小而变化。主要的电力供应是通过主楼进行。“低技术”的目标(没有自动通风系统)是为了确保建筑的简单和让用户能够直接控制选择。

Technology / keep it simple
The building was erected as a low-energy construction. The technical equipment was deliberately kept simple in accordance with the size of the building. The main power supply is carried out through the main building. The aim of the "low-tech" approach (with no automated ventilation system) is for the user to identify with the building through the simplicity and immediacy of the control options.

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第10张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

由于木结构缺乏保温特性,所需的冷却需要通过隔夜通风来确保交叉通风。窗口上方安装了手动的遮阳棚(同时用作遮雨和防盗)。在晚上最后一个离开的人向内打开教室门和窗户,早上第一个到达的人则将它们向外打开。

Due to the lack of thermal mass in the wood construction, the required cooling by means of overnight ventilation is ensured by cross ventilation. Above the windows, manually operated awnings (rain- and burglar-proof) were constructed. The last occupant in the evening opens the classroom doors and flaps, and the first to arrive in the morning opens them back up.

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第11张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第12张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第13张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第14张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第15张图片
© Hertha Hurnaus

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第16张图片
Floor Plan/楼层平面图

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第17张图片
Section/剖面图

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第18张图片
Elevation/立面图

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第19张图片
Elevation/立面图

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第20张图片
Elevation/立面图

维也纳露天小学/KIRSCH 设计第21张图片
Elevation/立面图

•        建筑设计:KIRSCH Architecture
•        位置:奥地利,维也纳
•        项目时间:2014年
•        照片:Hertha Hurnaus •
•        建设:Municipal Department 34, Construction and building management
•        业主:Municipal Department 56, Vienna Schools
•        项目管理:DI Hannah Neumann, DI Herta Frischenschlager
•        建筑物理:Bauklimatik GmbH
•        结构工程:Werkraum Wien ZT GmbH
•        机械工程/暖通空调:Energiemanagement GmbH
•        电气工程:Wannbacher Elektro Consult GmbH
•        景观设计:kirsch ZT gmbh
•        图形:sensomatic
•        总承包商:Schmid Bau GmbH, Frankenmarkt
•        客户:Municipal Department 19 Architecture and urban design
•        总建筑面积:558 m2
•        可用建筑面积:500 m2
•        场地面积:980 m2

•        Architects:KIRSCH Architecture
•        Location:Basler G. 43, 1230 Wien, Austria
•        Project Year:2014
•        Photographs:Hertha Hurnaus •
•        Construction:Municipal Department 34, Construction and building management
•        Occupant:Municipal Department 56, Vienna Schools
•        Project Management :DI Hannah Neumann, DI Herta Frischenschlager
•        Building physics :Bauklimatik GmbH
•        Structural engineering: Werkraum Wien ZT GmbH
•        Mechanical engineering / HVAC :Energiemanagement GmbH
•        Electrical engineering:Wannbacher Elektro Consult GmbH
•        Landscape design:kirsch ZT gmbh
•        Graphics: sensomatic
•        General contractor:Schmid Bau GmbH, Frankenmarkt
•        Client:Municipal Department 19 Architecture and urban design
•        Gross floor area:558 m2
•        Usable floor area:500 m2
•        Construction site area:980 m2

出处:本文译自www.archdaily.com/,转载请注明出处。


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